Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Front Line Demonstrations on Extent of Adoption and Horizontal Spread of Trellis Method of Cultivation in Tomato (Solanum lycopercicum Mill.) in Khammam District of Telangana

V. Chaitanya, J. Hemantha Kumar, B. R. Madhushekar, P. Jagan Mohan Rao, P. Sri Ranjitha, K. Ravi Kumar, Y. G. Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3931098

The present study was conducted in Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Wyra adopted villages in Khammam District of Telangana. Tomato is an important vegetable crop in the district but the yields are not up to expectations due to poor quality, early decay, pests and disease incidence. An effort was made by KVK, Wyra to address the problem of reducing pests and disease incidence and improving the fruit quality by introduction of technology Trellis method of cultivation in tomato. This was tested on small scale for 3years with the help of On-farm trials with limited number of farmers. It was proved to be profitable hence this technology was up-scaled and disseminated on large scale with the help of front line demonstrations as the main thrust areas of KVKs are refinement and demonstration of novel technologies, training of farmers and extension functionaries. The front line demonstrations on trellising in tomato crop were conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Wyra, Khammam in its adopted villages from 2016-17 to 2018-19 with an objective of improving the yield and quality of tomato by adopting the technology trellising on tomato along with drip and mulching, use of indeterminate hybrid varieties, balanced use of fertilizers and integrated pest and disease management. Though trellising has been developed long back the knowledge and adoption rate was low with the tomato farmers of the district. The data from the study like cost of cultivation, production, productivity, gross returns and net returns were collected as per schedule and analyzed. The results from the study revealed that average highest yield recorded was 622.58 q/ha in demonstration plot compared to control plot yield 431.55 q/ha, an additional yield of 191.03 q/ha was recorded, 44.33 percent of average yield increase was recorded over control plot. The extension gap and technology gap enumerated from the study ranged from 183.45 q/ha to 201.80 q/ha and 11.40 to 41.25 q/ha respectively, with the technology index of 4.21 percent during the demonstration years. Besides this, the demonstrated plots gave higher gross return, net return with higher benefit cost ratio when compared to farmer’s practice. In present study efforts were also made to study the impact of FLD on horizontal spread which has increased by 160.36 percent. Further the study was undertaken to do a formative and summative (outcome and impact) evaluation of the frontline demonstrations on trellising in Tomato.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fusing Convolutional Neural Networks to Improve the Accuracy of Plant Leaf Disease Classification

Bhavana Nerkar, Sanjay Talbar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3931099

Aims: This text aims to improve the accuracy of plant leaf disease detection using a fused convolutional neural network architecture

Study Design:  In this study, propose a hybrid CNN architecture, that adds a bio-inspired layer to the existing CNN architecture in order to improve the accuracy and reduce the delay needed for leaf disease classification.

Place and Duration of Study: National institute of electronics and information technology Aurangabad, between June 2018 and September 2020.

Methodology: Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have become a de-facto technique for classification of multi-dimensional data. Activation functions like rectified linear unit (ReLU), softmax, sigmoid, etc. have proven to be highly effective when doing so. Moreover, standard CNN architectures like AlexNet, VGGNet, Google net, etc. further assist this process by providing standard and highly effective network layer arrangements. But these architectures are limited by the speed due to high number of calculations needed to train and test the network. Moreover, as the number of classes increase, there is a reduction in validation and testing accuracy for the networks. In order to remove these drawbacks, hybrid CNN architecture, that adds a bio-inspired layer to the existing CNN architecture in order to improve the accuracy and speed of leaf classification.

Results: The developed system was tested on different kinds of leaf diseases, and it was observed that the proposed system obtains more than 98% accuracy for both testing and validation sets.

Conclusion: It is observed that the delay is reduced, while the accuracy is improved by the most effective classifiers. This encourage us to use the proposed system for real-time leaf image disease detection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transaction Costs in Borrowing Agricultural Credit by Farm Households across Rural-Urban Interface of Bengaluru

M. S. Udaykumar, K. B. Umesh, P. S. Srikantha Murthy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3931100

The study was undertaken in North of Bengaluru to analyze transaction cost involved in borrowing agricultural credit from formal and informal sources and to identify the factors influencing the borrowers’ transaction cost across rural-urban interface. The data was collected from randomly selected 50 farmers each from rural, peri-urban and urban transacts. The results revealed that the transaction cost in availing credit was more in formal sources in all the three gradients compared to informal sources. Among the formal sources, the total transaction cost incurred by farmers was highest in commercial banks followed by Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) and Co-operative banks in all the three gradients. In rural gradient total transaction cost incurred by farmers was highest in commercial banks (Rs. 5395.26) followed by Co-operative banks (Rs. 3112.33) and RRBs (Rs. 1811.20) and it was lowest in case of informal sources of credit (Rs. 1140.27). Rent seeking cost was the major cost in transaction cost followed by cost of documents and opportunity cost of time spent in all the gradients. Results of multiple regression analysis revealed that education, number of visits, total land holding and amount borrowed were the major factors significantly influencing the borrower’s transaction cost. From the study it was evident that transaction cost was high in formal sources, and this needs special attention by the government and the institutions like Registration and Revenue authorities to curb rent seeking behavior of officials involved which contribute towards higher transaction cost. Collateral security norms are hindering the marginal and small farmers in obtaining credit from formal sources and hence, there is a need to redesign these norms especially for small and marginal farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Characterization of Leaf Tip Necrosis and its Effect on Quantitative traits in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Naveen Kumar Dubey, Sameer Upadhyay, . Ashutosh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 72-81
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3931105

The study aimed to estimate the phenotypic variability for LTN as well as yield traits, genotypic variability for Lr34, Lr46 and Lr67 and to investigate the association between genotypic and phenotypic variability for LTN and yield traits. Two hundred fifty wheat genotypes were screened for the presence of Leaf Tip Necrosis (LTN), a phenotypic marker of wheat resistance to leaf rust infection following Randomized Block Design. Of which 77 genotypes showed variable expression of LTN. Twelve yield traits were analyzed that showed highly significant differences. All these 77 genotypes were validated for the presence of three genes using respective markers viz., csLV34 for Lr34; Xwmc44 for Lr46, and Xcfd71 for Lr67. Out of 77 genotypes, 19 genotypes showed the presence of a single gene (7 with Lr34, 5 with Lr46, and 7 with Lr67), 13 genotypes had all the 3 genes, 14 with a combination of 2 genes and 31 had not shown the presence of any gene. Wheat genotypes within the individual presence of three genes increased the LTN area but their combination, reduced the thousand grain weight, LTNA, and the plot yield. All three genes individually or in combination increased the leaf area. Lr67 alone and in combination with Lr46 reduced the plot yield of wheat genotypes. Interestingly, LTNA had no significant correlation with any of the traits analyzed in this study. Leaf area showed a negative correlation with days to heading, glaucousness index, and thousand grain weight (TGW). NDVI-3 (at dough stage) showed a positive correlation with plot yield and TGW but had a negative association with the leaf area. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for leaf area (99.70%, 29.52%), LTNA (99.35%), 1000- grain weight (95.37%), grains per spike (93.65%, 17%), and days to headings (88.04%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on the Influencing Factors of Farmers' Purchase Behavior of Organic Fertilizers Based on Logistic Model

Luo Lin, Shi Yu Ming

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 29-43
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3931101

The widespread use of chemical fertilizers has played an important role in China's agricultural development, but with the increasing input of chemical fertilizers, it has caused serious impact on the ecological environment, leading to agricultural non-point source pollution, food safety and many other problems. In order to promote the sustainable development of agriculture, China has issued a series of policies to popularize organic fertilizer in agriculture, which can not only improve the quality of agricultural products, promote agricultural production and increase income, but also make resource utilization of urban and rural organic wastes and protect the environment. Farmers are the main force of agricultural production and also the main body of rural environmental protection. It is of great significance to study farmers' ecological behavior. Through a survey of 407 farmers in the surrounding areas of Chengdu, Sichuan Province in 2019, and the logitstic model constructed based on the survey data, this article analyzed the factors influencing farmers' behavior in purchasing organic fertilizer. The results show that 12 indexes such as farmers' gender, education level, and the number of family farmers are the main factors influencing farmers' purchase of organic fertilizer. At the end, the article puts forward relevant policy recommendations to guide farmers to purchase and apply organic fertilizer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Studies on Revegetating the Mine Spoils of ACC Limited, Madukkarai Cement Works

Priyanka Dakuya, M. P. Sugumaran, G. Vani Priya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 44-48
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3931102

During the last two decades, the number of cement factories has increased hugely due to expanding requirement of cement materials for construction. A study was taken in ACC cement works, Madukkarai, Coimbatore to assess the floristic composition of shrubs, herbs and tree species that are available in both mine out soils and soils nearby the factory vicinity. A pot experiment was conducted to find the effect of different biofertilizers on the growth of tree seedlings with potting mixture of minespoil, garden soil and vermicompost in the ratio 1:1:1 on volume basis. The results revealed that the application of phosphobacteria @ 10 g/seedlings enhanced the growth of seedlings to about 20 percent over the control. Therefore, it was concluded that utilizing biofertilizer with proper potting mixture can help to revegetate the mined out spoils of cement industry.

Open Access Review Article

Status, Trends and Valuation Methodologies of Forestry Sector in India

Subrata Gorain, Ayushman Malakar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 49-56
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3931103

One of the crucial links of ecosystem is forest and its resources. Apart from producing direct use values, it provides several environmental benefits like pollution control, carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, micro climate regulations etc. Forests are still an almost neglected sector and are consistently undervalued in economic and social terms. Though the area under forest cover has increased, India is still far from its target. Due to different peculiar characteristics, we are not able to valuate forest resources by traditional method of valuation. There is a need to proper insight into forest cover and its valuation methodologies. Through this article, we have tried to estimate the growth pattern, status and trends in India’s forest cover along with its method of valuation.

Open Access Review Article

Application of Geospatial Technology in Assessment of Spatial Variability in Soil Properties: A Review

Harneet Kaur, Avneet Kaur, Bikramjeet Singh, Rajan Bhatt

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 57-71
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3931104

Under the changing climatic scenarios, sustaining agricultural production and enhancing input use efficiency is highly crucial to ensure food security in future. As crop productivity is considerably affected by soil characteristics such as soil organic carbon (SOC), nutrient availability, pH, salinity and soil moisture etc., thus their spatial variability needs to be assessed for site-specific and more efficient management. RS, GIS and GPS can be used quite successfully for assessing spatial variability in these properties. Recently with the advent of highly sophisticated sensors, it is possible to assess various soil properties by observing spectral reflectance in different wavelength bands and computing various spectral indices from the data recorded through satellite remote sensing. Spectral reflectance in different wavelength bands viz. visible, thermal and microwave etc. along with different spectral indices computed from spectral reflectance viz. normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), modified soil adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI), ratio vegetation index (RVI), soil moisture index (SMI), normalised difference water index (NDWI) and normalized difference salinity index (NDSI) etc. are used to retrieve different soil properties from satellite data. Similarly, various spatial interpolation techniques viz. inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), radial basis function (RBF) and empirical bayes kriging (EBK) etc. are used for spatial interpolation of various soil characteristics. A critical review concluded that geospatial techniques can be used successfully for retrieval and spatial interpolation of various soil properties, which can be highly beneficial in site specific management leading to improved input use efficiency and sustained agricultural productivity for future food security.