Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Inclined Plate Metering Mechanism for the Sowing of Maize (Zea mays L) Seed

Inderpal Singh, Anand Gautam, Anoop Kumar Dixit, Gursahib Singh Manes, Arshdeep Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 118-128
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330689

Maize (Zea mays L) is the third most imperative food cash crop after wheat and rice in India. Inclined plate seed metering mechanism was developed and evaluated in the laboratory for singulation and uniform placement of maize seeds with three varieties (PMH-1, PIONEER-3396, PMH-10). Metering device was tested at three inclinations of 45°, 50° and 55° using three types of metering plates (P1, P2, P3) having 24 groove number cells. The average spacing between seeds at 3 km/h forward speed with metering plate P1, with angle of inclination 50° was 18.35 cm, 17.67 cm and 17.98 cm for PMH-1, PIONEER-3396 and PMH-10 seeds, respectively. The overall quality of feed index obtained with the parameters are 83.38%, 87.20% and 85.40% for PMH-1, PIONEER-3396 and PMH-10 seeds, respectively, which was higher than other parameters and seed rate of (6.70, 6.75 and 6.70) kg/acre for PMH-1, PIONEER-3396 and PMH-10 seeds, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Resource Use Efficiency of Groundnut in Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh

I. Shakuntala Devi, K. Suhasini, G. P. Sunandini

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330673

Groundnut is an important oilseed and Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh occupies a prominent position both in acreage and production. Data was obtained from forty farmers using structured questionnaire and the input-output relation of groundnut production via Cobb-Douglas production function was examined in this study. It was found that the sum of elasticities was 0.73. The result of the t’ test proved that in groundnut farms S bwas less than one, it indicates decreasing returns to scale, which indicates some of the inputs are excessively used. The production elasticities for human labour, bullock labour, machine labour charges, seed cost and pesticides were positive and significant where as farm yard manure and fertilizers cost was negative which showed that increase in these costs result in decrease in output. The MVP of selected input variables were estimated to be 25.08, 4.21, 6.74, 1.87, 17.34, -19.46 and -7.67 showing that FYM and fertilizers are over utilized and the rest of the variables are underutilized. The groundnut production in the study area would be profitable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Packaging and Storage on Quality Characteristics of Dried Wild Pomegranate Arils (Anardana) Prepared in Solar Tunnel Drier

Abhimanyu Thakur, N. S. Thakur, Hamid ., Pradeep Kumar, Kanchan Bhatt

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 8-23
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330674

Wild pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits were procured from Karsog area of Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India (1265 m above mean sea level). The arils extracted from the fruits were dehydrated in a solar tunnel (30-45°C) drier to prepare value added product Anardana. The developed product was packed in three different packaging materials viz. gunny bags, aluminium laminated pouches (ALP) and aluminium laminated pouches with vacuum (ALPV) and stored under ambient and refrigerated temperature for a period of 12 months so as to evaluate overall effect of storage period, storage condition and packaging material. After 12 months of storage period, higher retention of various quality characteristics like TSS, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugars, anthocyanins content, sensory characteristic scores with less increase in moisture content, NEB (non-enzymatic browning),HMF (hydroxymethyl furfural) and furfural content was observed in Anardana packed in ALPV followed by ALP and gunny bags. The changes in the quality characteristics of the Anardana were slower in refrigerated storage conditions as compared to ambient conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Response of Capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) to Varying Levels of Phosphorus, Zinc and Arbuscular Mycorrhizae

Gitika Bhardwaj, Uday Sharma, Perminder Singh Brar, Rajesh Kaushal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 24-31
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330675

The present study was conducted to evaluate the growth response of Capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) to varying levels of Phosphorus (P), Zinc (Zn) and Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (AM). A pot experiment with twenty-four treatment combinations was setup in the net house. The treatment combination consisted of 4 levels of P: P0- 0, P50 - 237.5 kg ha-1 SSP, P75 - 355.5 kg ha-1 SSP and P100- 475 kg ha-1 SSP, 3 levels of Zn: Zn50- 5 Kg ha-1 ZnSO4, Zn75-7.5 Kg ha-1 ZnSO4, Zn100- 10 Kg ha-1 ZnSO4 and 2 levels of AM: I0- 0 and I15- 15 g per pot. The main objective of the study was to reduce the antagonistic interaction between P and Zn by using AM fungi. The results of combined effects of application of P, Zn and AM revealed that P, Zn addition along with AM fungi improved plant growth parameters, plant nutrient content and total nutrient uptake (both above ground and underground portion) of the plant. The results indicated increase in plant height, root length and total nutrient uptake by increasing the level of P, Zn and Arbuscular Mycorrhizae. Also, Arbuscular Mycorrhizae enhanced plant growth by reducing Phosphorus or Zinc deficiency. Antagonistic effects of P and Zn addition on plant nutrient content and total nutrient uptake were absent due to application of AM fungi. Our results indicated that by using appropriate levels of AM fungi along with P and Zn, antagonistic interactions can be reduced for maximizing the plant nutrient content and nutrient uptake which may lead to improvement in plant growth and nutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relative Abundance and Foraging Behaviour of Pollinator Fauna on Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) and its Influence on Yield

. Manisha, . Zameeroddin, H. Khader Khan, Srinivas Reddy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 32-37
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330677

Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) is one of the important oilseed crop of Southern and Central India. Niger is a completely cross pollinated crop brought about by insects, referring to the importance of pollination, the study was undertaken to know the role of pollinators in Niger ecosystem and its influence on yield parameters. The present investigation was carried out during 2016-2017 at the Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra (GKVK), University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India. In this study, fourteen species of flower visitors were observed during the flowering period belonged to orders Hymenoptera (9 species), Lepidoptera (4 species) and Diptera (1 species). The overall diversity of pollinators was more during morning hours (8.00 AM to 11.00 AM) and gradually decreased after 12.00 PM to 5.00 PM. Among different pollinator species Apis florea was more abundant with 41.46% followed by Apis dorsata and Apis cerana. The peak activity of A. florea was observed at 11.00 AM followed by A. cerana at 10.00-11.00 AM and A. dorsata was at 11.00 AM. The highest number of probing was observed in A. florea (7.52) followed by A cerena and A. dorsata. The time (sec) taken for one probing was highest in A. florea followed by A cerena and A. dorsata. The number of filled seeds observed 37.66% less in caged condition when compare with open pollination and there was significant decrease in the yield in caged condition when compare with open pollination indicating importance of pollinators specifically honey bees for successful production of Niger.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Combining Ability in Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) for Yield and Its Component

. Pramila, M. L. Kushwaha, Udit Kumar, Ramesh Kumar Gupta, Bishwa Mitra Sinha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330678

Present investigation was carried out during autumn winter season 2013-14 and 2014-15 at the Vegetable Research Centre of GBPUA&T, Pantnagar with 43 genotypes including 10 lines, 3 testers and 30 F1’s of brinjal. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The observations were recorded for 11 characters. Variances due to testers were greater than variances due to lines for most of the characters. The estimates of General Combining Ability (GCA) effect indicated that PB71, BB85, PB66, Swarn Syamli and DBL02 were best general combiner for earliness (days to 50% flowering), whereas the best specific cross was BRLVAR6 × DBL02. For weight of marketable fruits per plant PB66, SMB115, LC7, BRLVAR6 were best general combiners and SMB115 × DBL02, PB66 × Pant Samrat and IBWL 2001-1 × Pant Rituraj were best specific combiners. Pant Rituraj was found best general combining effect for plant height, fruit diameter, weight of marketable fruits per plant, number of unmarketable fruits per plant, total yield per plant and total yield per hectare. Pant Samrat showed good General Combining Ability (GCA) effects for number of primary branches per plant, number of marketable fruits per plant, weight of unmarketable fruits per plant and total number of fruits per plant. DBL02 was recorded best general combiner for earliness and fruit length. SMB115 and PB 66 were best general combiners for most of the yield characters. SMB115 × DBL02, PB66 × Pant Samrat and IBWL2001-1 × Pant Rituraj were showed highest Specific Combining Ability (SCA) effect for most of the characters. Therefore, these cross combinations could be commercially exploited for higher yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption Level of Good Dairy Management Practices among Dairy Farmers in Central Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh, India

Jagdeep Gupta, S. Subash, M. C. A. Devi, Kalyan Mandi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 47-53
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330679

Good dairy management practices are a widely important tool for facilitating and promoting farmers' production and marketing of healthy, high quality milk and milk products to meet food and consumer expectations. In this context, the present research study was designed to make an attempt to find out the extent of adoption of animal welfare practices by the dairy farmers at field level. The study was conducted in the Central plain zone of Uttar Pradesh State. Four districts (Hardoi, Auraiya, Allahabad and Kaushambi) were selected purposively. One block from each district and from each block two villages and from each village 15 farmer-respondents were selected randomly. A total of 120 respondents were finally approached for the primary data collection. The salient findings with regard to adoption of good dairy management practices revealed that, more than half of the respondents (55.83%) belonged to medium level of adoption category, followed by 27.56 and 16.67% in low and high level of adoption category, respectively. The study further suggests sensitizing and training the extension personnel’s /veterinarians about the good dairy management practices and strengthening the dairy extension services among dairy farmers in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Rice Genotypes for Salinity Tolerance at Reproductive Stage Using Phenotypic and Molecular Markers

Anuj Kumar, D. K. Dwivedi, Pradeep K. Bharti, Vineeta Singh, Preeti Kumari, N. A. Khan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 54-62
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330680

Rice is the single largest source of food energy for more than half of the world’s population. Salinity may be a serious environmental constraint to crop production. Salinity screening of twenty rice genotypes were performed at the reproductive stages, in the net house of department of PMB&GE. Phenotyping of the genotypes was done at EC 12dS/m at reproductive stage in net house. Most desirable genotypes days to 50% flowering were IR-68144-2B-2-2-3-1-120, CSR-13, FL-478, NDR-359, AYYAR and NUD-2, SAMBHA MANSURI and MTU-1010; for plant height IR-68144-2B-2-2-3-1-127, NUD-3, NUD-2, NDRK-2008, IR-91171-66-3-2-1-3, SAMBHA MANSURI, TARAMON and  MTU-1010; for panicle bearing tillers/plant FL-478, NDR-359 and SWARNA; for panicle length IR-68144-2B-2-2-3-1-127, IR-91167-99-1-1-1-3, IR-29, FL-478, NDRK-2008 and IR-92953-49-1-3; for spikelets/panicle IR-91167-99-1-1-1-3, NDRK-2008, SWARNA , IR-92953-49-1-3, IR-91171-66-3-2-1-3, IR-83668-35-2-2-2 and MTU-1010; for grains/panicle SWARNA, IR-92953-49-1-3, IR-91171-66-3-2-1-3, IR-83668-35-2-2-2, NDRK-2008 and MTU-1010 for spikelet fertility % NUD-3, IR-29, FL-478, NDRK-2008, SWARNA, IR-91171-66-3-2-1-3 and IR-83668-35-2-2-2; for test weight  NUD-3, NDRK-2008, IR-29 and SWARNA for biological yield/plant AYYAR, TARAMON and NUD-3; for harvest index FL-478, IR-68144-2B-2-2-3-1-120, IR-91167-133-1-1-2-3 and NUD-2; for Na+ NUD-3 and FL-478; for K+ IR-91167-133-1-1-2-3, NDR-359 and MTU-1010; for Na+/K+ IR-68144-2B-2-2-3-1-127, IR-91167-99-1-1-1-3, NUD-3, FL-478, IR-64 and SAMBHA MANSURI; for grain yield/ plant (g) AYYAR and FL-478  were reported highly significant in mean performance for yield and its components traits. Analysis of variance, estimates of phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation, estimates of heritability and genetic advance in percent of mean were recorded for all the characters among 20 rice genotypes in saline condition. Molecular analysis with SSR markers differentiates the rice genotypes into tolerant and susceptible based on banding pattern. The tolerant rice genotypes were NUD 3, IR-68144-2B-2-2-3-166, IR68144-2B-2-2-3-1-120, IR68100-2B-2-2-3-1-127, IR-1167-31-3-1-33 and IR-91171-66-3-2-1-3 and susceptible were NDR-359, Taramon, MTU-1010,  Swarna and IR-64. The identified salt tolerant genotypes can be potential germplasm sources for future breeding programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thematic Areas for Training Needs of Cherry Growers- A Study in Baramulla District of Kashmir Valley

Dawood Yousuf, M. A. Dar, Noor Ul Islam Wani, . Habibullah, Uzma Rashid, Shijaatt Hussain Bhat, Khalid Rasool Dar, Showkat Maqbool, K. A. Sahaf

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 63-71
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330681

The study was conducted in horticulture zone Tangmarg of district Baramulla of Jammu and Kashmir. Horticulture Zone Tangmarg comprises of 65 villages out of which 35 villages were under cherry cultivation, from 35 villages 06 villages were selected purposively on the basis of maximum area under cherry cultivation. From the selected 06 villages 120 cherry growers were selected through proportionate allocation method. It has been observed that the skills of cherry growers regarding expert guidance planning, layout planning, soil testing pest and disease management, nutritional management training and pruning etc. were low and as such majority (46.67%) of the cherry growers have high training needs. Integrated disease management receiving highest score was the most prioritized thematic area for training need followed by Soil testing, training and pruning techniques, integrated pest management etc. The training need for marketing technique, processing and value addition packing and grading was given lowest priority by the cherry growers. It was concluded that need based cost effective training programmes and strategies need to be tailored, so that human resource be put to effective use for achieving sustainable cherry production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of GIS Based Morphometric Parameters and Hydrological Changes in Indrawati River Sub-Basin of Godawari Basin, Chhattisgarh, India

Adikant Pradhan, T. Chandrakar, A. Kerketta, S. K. Nag, S. C. Mukherjee

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 72-81
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330682

Basin is main carrying surface of rainwater collected from basin area and moves to main drain as river system. The basin surface characteristic governs the movement, storage and drainage in basin due to rainwater. Morphometric analysis is a quantitative description of a basin with important aspect of the basin character. Godawari basin divided into five sub-basins. Indrawati is main tributary river of Godawari originated from Mardiguda, Dandakarnya range of Kalahandi district, Odisha. The basin includes BastarCraton covering a large area (>2105 km2) in Central India, bounded by two Mesoproterozoic mobile belts, the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) to the east, Satpura Mobile Belt to the northwest, and two major Palaeozoic tectonic features the Godavari Graben to the southwest and the Mahanadi Graben in the northeast. The basin has been extracted using Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTERGDEM)30 m (USGS, 2012) images by giving pour points and it has been projected on WGS 1984 UTM zone 45 for the morphometric analysis was used. Morphometric analysis expresses various aspects of basin characters which are 8 stream order (u), 85636 stream number, 42259.27 Stream length (Lu) (km), 0.493 Mean Stream length (Lsm), 3.144 Bifurcation ratio (Rb), 0.002 Length of overland flow (Lg), 0.110 drainage density (Dd), 3.088 Stream frequency (Fs), 1.220 Form factor (Ff), 2.634 Circulatory ratio (Rc), 0.0040 Elongation ratio (Re), 6.348 Leminscate method (k) and 1.758Reliefratio of Indrawati basin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Illicit Tramadol Tablets Traded in Kuwait during 2016 – 2017; Their Analysis by GC/MS and Classification

N. A. Al-Abkal, Metwally E. Kh, S. R. Alezzbawy, Y. OrabiKh, Sh. H. Alshammari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 82-88
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330683

Aim: To determine the quality and quantity of tramadol traded in the State of Kuwait and its classification.

Study Design: Collected samples of tramadol tablets seized in Kuwait during 2016 & 2017 and a pure tramadol standard, all have been analyzed in the Forensic Laboratories.

Place and Duration of Study: All analyses were conducted during 2016–2017 in the Forensic Laboratories of the General Department of Criminal Evidences – Ministry of Interior – State of Kuwait.

Methodology: A total of fifty samples of non-pure tramadol tablets seized in Kuwait during the year 2016 & 2017 and one pure standard, all have been analyzed by using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

Results: The fifty collected samples of tramadol could be classified into three groups: The first (Red) group is recorded in 42 samples (84 % of samples) with concentration range between 0.1 mg/ml and 1.1 mg/ml; it has a red color known as (strawberry) which is a street name; it is mixed with carboxylic and silicic acids, the second (White)group is detected in 3 samples, with two different concentrations: One sample has 0.3 mg/ml and the other two samples have 0.4 mg/ml; it is mixed with acidic substances and newly identified venlafaxine and the third (Medical) group is recorded in 5 samples as a pharmaceutical drug with different colors and shapes, one of them was detected as acetaminophen, and hence deleted, while the concentrations recorded for all four tablets are 0.2 mg/ml; it is mixed with acidic substances and venlafaxine.

Conclusion: The main types of tramadol frequently traded in the State of Kuwait, can be divided into the following three groups: First Red Group includes red tablets which represent the most common type traded from Egypt, India and China according to the statistics of United Nations 2013(18), with purity range from 60% to 201%. The Second White Group includes all white tablets which are much less traded than the red tablets, with purity range from 58% to 123% and the Third Medical Group includes adulterated medical tablets which have purity range as 26%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic and Environmental Implications of Trawl Fishing: An Analysis in Munambam Fishing Harbour on the South West Coast of India

N. Aswathy, R. Narayanakumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 89-93
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330684

Kerala state in the Southwest coast of India is an important maritime state and mechanized trawlers are the principal fishing units in the state. Since 2007, high speed engines were introduced in the trawl fishing sector which yielded higher hauling speed compared to the indigenous engines. Munambam fishing harbour is one of the biggest fishing harbours in Kerala where more than 90% of the mechanized trawlers operate with high speed engines. The high-speed trawlers were criticized for their environmental impacts to marine resources in terms of overexploitation and high fuel consumption. The fuel consumption of fishing units has economic, social and environmental implications with regard to sustainable fish harvests and livelihood security of fishermen. The objective of the study was to assess the economic and environmental implications of high speed trawl fishing units in Munambam fishing harbour on the South west coast of India. The data were collected from 90 boat operators from Munambam fishing harbour during the 2017-2018 fishing season. The samples were drawn randomly from the boat owners or boat operators. The results of the multiple regression analysis used to assess the factors affecting fish catches by high speed trawlers indicated that skipper’s experience and fuel consumption had positive and significant influence on fish catch and 1% increase in quantity of fuel used led to an increase of 0.363% in gross income. The carbon dioxide emissions from the trawlers were also estimated to assess the environmental implications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Assessment of Serum Copper Status in Children with Thalassemia Major

Subir Nandy, A. K. M. Amirul Morshed, Tanzina Iveen Chowdhury, Shahnoor Islam, Bijoy K. Paul, Snahasish Bhowmik, Tasrina Rabia Choudhury

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 94-100
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330685

Objective: Support of ordinary degrees of copper, has a significant influence in reducing the morbidities related with thalassemia major. Levels of this component has been seen as modified in this incessant transfusion subordinate infection from everywhere throughout the world, however with broadly factor results. Other than rehashed blood transfusions and utilization of chelating operators, the level of copper in thalassemia patients are influenced by hereditary and dietary factors likewise, convincing us to embrace this investigation in our population. The Objectives of this study was to appraise of serum levels of copper in children with beta-thalassemia major.

Methods: In this observational comparative research design, all children between 5 to 15 years affected by beta thalassemia major (30 patients) and 30 normal children were evaluated for serum copper levels in the Department of Pediatrics, DMCH and attended at Thalassemia Center, DSH (Dhaka Shishu Hospital). Serum measurements for copper were performed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Varian, AA 240 FS, USA) in Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Results: The minimum, maximum, and the mean concentration of serum copper in patients were 103.50, 239.94, and 147.55 ± 35.17 µg/dl and in control group, those were 58.75, 192.43, and 123.85± 33.19 µg/dl respectively. There was no significant difference in serum copper level in the β thalassemia group and the control group (p=0.54) (P=0.3).

Conclusion: This investigation revealed that there is no copper inadequacy. Further assessment in such manner is suggested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Angiospermic Biodiversity of Lucknow Areas of Uttar Pradesh, India

B. P. Singh, Ajay Krishna, S. C. Singh, Sujit Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 101-109
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330686

The total angiospermic floral biodiversity of Lucknow district including indigenous, naturalised and cultigens comprises over 1263 plant species covering 705 genera and 140 families of which 989 species are dicotyledons and 274 species are monocotyledons. The monocotyledons are poorly represented except Poaceae and Cyperaceae. Of the 274 species of monocotyledons, 176 species belong to these two families while 98 species represent 23 different families. Poaceae is the largest family followed by Leguminosae (s.l.), Asteraceae, etc. and Euphorbia is the largest genus followed by Cassia, Cyperus, etc.

Open Access Original Research Article

Residential Population Structure and Abundance of Nilgai, Boselaphus tragocamelus, (Pallas) in Bihar, India

Suday Prasad, D. K. Singh, S. K. Choudhary

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 110-117
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1330687

Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) is one of the most discussed animals after cow in agrarian society of India. However, conflict between farmers and Nilgai due to its habitat loss and the increased damage to the crops by this wild species in the agricultural lands. Present paper deals with the study conducted on the population structure, size group and abundance of Nilgai inhabiting Shahabad region in Dumraon (Buxar) Bihar, India from January, 2014 to December, 2015. Survey was performed in the morning to evening time on the specific days by motorcycle and walking, where, there was no local footpath due to difficult, undulated study area. The direct methods utilized sighting of animals carefully from a close distance and behavior of the animal were observed. During the course of study 07 herds with total 407 numbers of Nilgai were counted through direct sighting with from closed distance. The density of Nilgai was found under 431.10 acre are as covered in Haryana Cattle Breeding Farm (HCBF) and its surrounding in Dumraon. The sex ratio of Nilgai with age group structure of the population was represented in percentage. Female biased adult male, ratio was found 1:3. While overall sex ratio was found 14.25% male, 38.57% female, 9.58% semi adult male, 20.15% semi adult female, and 18.46% calves respectively. Female Nilgai has been observed social like behavior and grazing with juveniles in a group but males were found in scattered form. Nilgai migrate for food towards agricultural land during dusk and return to HCBF with less human activity during dawn. This shows mark migration behavior during summer and rainy season. Some Nilgai migrations were observed for searching food and water during summer from south upward plain region of Dumraon to low-lying north plain area near Bhagar oxbow lake Simri, Chakki and Brahampur.