Open Access Original Research Article

Genome Size Survey of the Japanese Pine Sawyer Beetle, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

Bo Fan, Fang Hong, Wen-Jin Su, Guo-Fang Jiang, Jing-Hui Zhong

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i343951

Monochamus alternatus is a longicorn beetle, an important stem borer of pine trees in China. In this study, we determined the first accurate genomic survey of M. alternatus by the next-generation sequencing (NGS), which is a relatively new methodology that can ensure the identification of large numbers of simple sequences repeat (SSR) markers, in order to increases the abundance of the Cerambycidae genome information and assist in phylogenetic, molecular systematics and evolutionary studies for Coleoptera. The result showed that the genome size was 871.09 Mb, the GC content of the genome was within normal limits (34.45%), the proportion of repetitive sequences was high (59.40%), and the heterozygosity rate was low (1.04%). The heterozygosity of M. alternatus is higher than 0.5% and the repeat rate is more than 50%. Based on this we inferred the use of Illumina+PacBio in sequencing assembly strategy is highly recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparing the Accuracy of Sonoelastographic Ultrasound with Biopsy in the Assessment of Breast Masses among Nigerian Women in the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

Akujuobi, Obianuju Mirian, Ogbonna, Adaobi Nneamaka, Ayonote, Uzoramaka Angela

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 12-24
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i343952

Background: Breast cancer is the commonest cause of cancer related deaths globally, particularly in Africa where late presentation is prevalent. Early diagnosis demands the evolution of non-invasive, highly sensitive and specific screening and diagnostic investigation. This study assessed the diagnostic properties of Sonoelastography ultrasonography, in classifying breast masses compared to biopsy among women receiving care at the Lagos University Teaching hospital (LUTH), Lagos.

Methods: Using a cross-sectional, analytical study design, 100 women with breast masses were recruited consecutively as they presented to a multidisciplinary breast clinic in LUTH. They were assessed by history taking, clinical examination, and sonoelastography ultrasound was done to classify the breast masses. Breast masses were also biopsied to get a histological diagnosis. The outcomes were compared in a cross tabulation and the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were calculated for sonoelastography USS to assess its diagnostic properties. These indicators were also calculated for the 3 parameters (Elastography score, Strain and Lesion ratio) of sonoelastography USS.

Results: The mean age of the women with breast mass was 39.4 years with a standard deviation of 13.4 years. Above half of the women were overweight (53.0%) with tertiary education (58.0%), Mean weight of breast mass was 368.7±627.6mg. Histology report and sonoelastography USS classified 46.0% and 47.0% of breast masses respectively, as malignant breast masses. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of sonoelastography USS in relation to histology report was 87.0% in the study. The diagnostic performance of each parameter was good but Elastogram score was best with 69.6% sensitivity, 87.0% specificity and 79.0% accuracy.

Conclusion: This study concluded that sonoelastography is useful in characterizing breast masses as either benign or malignant which can be compared to the use of histologic diagnosis in characterizing breast masses. The Elastography score was the elastography parameter that yielded the highest diagnostic accuracy, and the lesion ratio yielded the least diagnostic accuracy. More research may be needed for better standardization of the cut-off values to be applied for the elastography parameters (Elastography score, strain ratio and lesion ratio)to improve their diagnostic performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Radiological Hazards Associated with Some Selected Mining Sites in Niger State, Nigeria

I. K. Suleiman, M. Bashir, A. Muhammad, M. K. Kadiri

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 25-36
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i343953

Evaluation of Radiological Hazards associated with some selected mining sites (ie Gadaeragi (GR), Maiwayo (MW) and Kataeragi (KR)) in Niger State, Nigeria was carried out using Nal (TI) Gamma ray spectroscopy. The results shows average activity concentration for 238U, 232Th, and 40K in Gadaeragi mining site are 8.05 ± 0.14 Bq/kg, 14.60 ± 0.30 Bq/kg and 20.62 ± 14.62 Bq/kg respectively. The result shows average activity concentration for 238U, 232Th and 40K in Maiwayo mining site to be 12.03 ± 0.17 Bq/kg, 17.89 ± 0.32 Bq/kg and 151.11 ± 10.04 Bq/kg respectively. Furthermore, the results shows average activity concentration for 238U, 232Th and 40K in Kataeragi mining site are 6.39 ± 0.13 Bq/kg, 13.25 ± 0.29 Bq/kg and 154.87 ± 10.77 Bq/kg respectively. The average activities concentration of 238U, 232Th, and 40K for the three mining sites shows MW>GR>KR, MW>GR>KR and GR>KR> MW respectively. The activity concentrations was  found to be below worldwide accepted average values of 33 Bq/kg, 45 Bq/kg and 420 Bq/kg for 238U, 232Th, and 40K  respectively. The Annual Effective Dose Equivalent for GR, MW and KR mining sites was found to be 0.16, 0.17 and 0.13 mSv/y respectively, which were below the 1.00 mSv/y threshold stipulated by UNSCEAR [1]. Therefore, the mining sites are safe in terms of radiological hazard. The entire environment is within the permissible dose limit for the workers of the mining sites and also for agriculture and construction buildings. Therefore, the mining sites are safe in terms of radiological hazard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Factors Hindering Evangelism in the Western District of Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania - Iringa Diocese

Tadei Lusungu Kihwaga

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 37-46
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i343954

The study aimed to find out the factors hindering evangelism in the Western District of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania-Iringa Diocese. Specifically, the study aimed to examine the economic factors hindering evangelism in the study area. The study was done at Kanani, Kinyika and Pawaga Congregations. The study adopted a case study research design in which a qualitative research approach was used. Interviews were used to collect qualitative data from 90 key informants. The data from the field was prepared, organized, transcribed and reviewed. The results achieved from the study are  evangelism is hindered by economic factors such as  insufficient funds dedicated for evangelism programmes and activities, absence of reliable transport for evangelism work, inadequate and poor church buildings, meagre salaries for ministers and other church workers, unwillingness of the pastors to work at the study area, poor giving of Christians, lack of musical instruments for evangelism work, absence of houses for evangelists, and lack of enough trained ministers caused by insufficient funds. The study recommends that, despite the evangelism which is done in the study area, the Church needs to engage in building better Church buildings, increase payment for church ministers, buy musical instruments and to provide transport facilities to the church ministers to improve worship conditions in the study area. The study also recommends that the Church need to increase the financial capacity by teaching Christians the education of giving tithe to the Church to increase the economy of the Church. Not only that, but the Church needs to engage in projects like tree planting and other productive projects to increase the economy of the Church.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy Evaluation of a Novel Topical Herbal Spray Foam in the Management of Pocketed Wounds in Livestock

Ashish Kumar Singh, Pratima Singh, Bharti Negi, Bhaskar Ganguly

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 47-50
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2022/v41i343955

Income from livestock plays an important role in the socio-economic lives of the people globally. Wounds are a common problem that reduces productivity, increase mortality, impair host immune system, and depreciate hide quality that result in severe economic losses to livestock owners. Various studies have been conducted to develop effective herbal preparations for wound management. A clinical trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a novel topical herbal spray foam viz. AV/MSF/19 (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India) in the management of pocketed wounds in livestock. Twenty cattle having different types of pocketed wounds were assigned to one of two groups: Group T1, receiving treatment with AV/MSF/19, or Group T2, treated with a popular wound-healing spray (Brand X). The response to treatment was assessed based on clinical improvement and time required for wound healing. Results show that the mean time to 100% healing was 8 and 13.75 days in groups T1 and T2, respectively. In group T1, wound healed completely in lesser time and efficacy index was also higher than group T2. Based on the findings of the study, AV/MSF/19 was found to be efficacious in the management of wound in cattle.