Development of a Sustainable Composite Material Based on Rice Husk and Polystyrene

Valéry K. Doko

Laboratory of Applied Energy and Mechanics (LEMA), Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin.

Edem Chabi *

Laboratory of Rural Engineering, School of Rural Engineering, National University of Agriculture, Benin.

Paul Damien Amadji

Laboratory of Applied Energy and Mechanics (LEMA), Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin.

Hamed Tidjani Tabe Gbian

Laboratory of Applied Energy and Mechanics (LEMA), Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin.

Bilali Binjo

Laboratory of Applied Energy and Mechanics (LEMA), Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin.

Emmanuel Olodo

Laboratory of Applied Energy and Mechanics (LEMA), Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

The combination of rice husk and expanded polystyrene for the fabrication of sustainable composites is a direction that is not well-explored in scientific literature. In this context, this research focuses on the feasibility and physical properties of composites developed from these materials. The methodology encompasses a mechanical grinding process of rice husks, dissolution of polystyrene in an organic solvent to form a binder, and the fabrication of composites through cold compaction. The fabricated composites were analyzed for their physical properties, particularly density, mass loss after compaction and air storage, and their swelling upon immersion. Fine-grained composites record a higher mass loss (13.17% for MF1 and 12.48% for MF2) compared to coarse-grained ones (8.43% for MG1 and 7.34% for MG2). This difference is attributed to a larger specific surface area of the fine particles, facilitating the evaporation of volatile compounds. Swelling after immersion is also influenced by granularity, with a maximum swelling of 15.53% for MG2 versus only 0.72% for MF2. These observations highlight the key role of the rice husk particle size and binder dosage in determining the properties of the composites. This work highlights the potential of these composites as both an ecological and practical solution for waste valorization while paving the way for future investigations, notably regarding their mechanical properties.

Keywords: Bio-based materials, rice husk, expanded polystyrene, waste valorization, eco-material


How to Cite

Doko , Valéry K., Edem Chabi, Paul Damien Amadji, Hamed Tidjani Tabe Gbian, Bilali Binjo, and Emmanuel Olodo. 2023. “Development of a Sustainable Composite Material Based on Rice Husk and Polystyrene”. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology 42 (42):67-75. https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2023/v42i424272.

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