Open Access Original Research Article

Enhanced Image Compression and Processing Scheme

I. Manga, E. J. Garba, A. S. Ahmadu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3831586

Image compression refers to the process of encoding image using fewer number of bits. The major aim of lossless image compression is to reduce the redundancy and irreverence of image data for better storage and transmission of data in the better form. The lossy compression scheme leads to high compression ratio while the image experiences lost in quality. However, there are many cases where the loss of image quality or information due to compression needs to be avoided, such as medical, artistic and scientific images. Efficient lossless compression become paramount, although the lossy compressed images are usually satisfactory in divers’ cases. This paper titled Enhanced Lossless Image Compression Scheme is aimed at providing an enhanced lossless image compression scheme based on Bose, Chaudhuri Hocquenghem- Lempel Ziv Welch (BCH-LZW) lossless image compression scheme using Gaussian filter for image enhancement and noise reduction. In this paper, an efficient and effective lossless image compression technique based on LZW- BCH lossless image compression to reduce redundancies in the image was presented and image enhancement using Gaussian filter algorithm was demonstrated. Secondary method of data collection was used to collect the data. Standard research images were used to validate the new scheme. To achieve these, an object approach using Java net beans was used to develop the compression scheme. From the findings, it was revealed that the average compression ratio of the enhanced lossless image compression scheme was 1.6489 and the average bit per pixel was 5.416667. Gaussian filter image enhancement was used for noise reduction and the image was enhanced eight times the original.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effective Communication and Linguistic Clarity: A Study of Construction Management Practices in Anambra State

Daniel Oluwatayomi Fadumo, Peter Oyewole Makinde

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 12-28
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3831587

Researches have shown that effective communication is a challenge for project managers and stakeholders at all levels within an organization. Project managers experience the greatest challenge to set up and regulate communications that support a project overall. This, therefore, makes effective communication and linguistic clarity in construction management practices a sine qua non for achieving the expected results. Although a lot of studies have been carried out on effective communication both within construction management practices and beyond, very few studies have looked at effective communication and linguistic clarity among construction managers in Anambra State. Given the foregoing, there are several things we are not aware of. First, we do not know the types of language and methods of communication that are employed on construction sites in Anambra State. Also, our knowledge is limited to how effective communication aid in enhancing the performance of construction organization in Anambra State. In addition, we are not aware of the challenges confronting effective communication and linguistic clarity in construction organization within the state. Likewise, we do not know what identifiable solutions had been proffered towards language barrier and challenges confronting effective communication and linguistic clarity in construction organization in Anambra State. To attempt to answer the questions raised here, this study aimed at evaluating the place of effective communication and linguistic clarity in construction management practices in Anambra State. The study employed survey research and the use of questionnaires to obtain data for the study. The researchers use a five-point scale to elicit information from the respondents. The results highlight that the use of spoken communication on construction sites in Anambra State will breed an improved professional organizational commitment, minimize accident rates and adopt better safety precautions. It further identified that the use of  related words, synonym and antonym as well as easy-to-understand the written form of passing instruction or communications produces high performance, innovation and increase organizational stability and flexibility and improve work quality. The study recommends that hiring a multilingual workforce, getting translated plan or construction documents materials and offering immersive language training programs for the construction workforce will help to eliminate the challenges confronting effective communication and linguistic clarity in the construction organization. It is recognized that, in some ways, this research work would have limitations ranging from geographical and scope coverage limitation as the study focused only on construction management practices in Anambra State, Nigeria which may inevitably introduce limited bias into the survey which could limit the application of the results to geographically dissimilar areas. This study had other limitations such as data limitation in measuring the variables of linguistic methods on construction sites, only seven (7) language methods were identified. Therefore, there may be more variables if the study was extended. Secondly, there was also a methodological limitation due to the sample size as thirty-five (35) questionnaires were administered; also more construction professionals would have been included in the population area but only four (4) respondents group were interviewed due to time and financial constraints.

Open Access Original Research Article

Classification of Cotton Leaf Diseases Using AlexNet and Machine Learning Models

Premkumar Borugadda, R. Lakshmi, Surla Govindu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 29-37
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3831588

Computer vision has been demonstrated as state-of-the-art technology in precision agriculture in recent years. In this paper, an Alex net model was implemented to identify and classify cotton leaf diseases. Cotton Dataset consists of 2275 images, in which 1952 images were used for training and 324 images were used for validation. Five convolutional layers of the AlexNet deep learning technique is applied for features extraction from raw data. They were remaining three fully connected layers of AlexNet and machine learning classification algorithms such as Ada Boost Classifier (ABC), Decision Tree Classifier (DTC), Gradient Boosting Classifier (GBC). K Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest Classifier (RFC), and Support Vector Classifier (SVC) are used for classification. Three fully connected layers of Alex Net provided the best performance model with a 94.92% F1_score at the training time of about 51min.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Quality Attributes of Banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) cv. Willium to Post Shooting Spray and Bunch Covering Material

D. R. Paradva, M. J. Patel, H. L. Kacha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3831589

Aims: To study the post harvest shooting namely; control, humic acid 2%, 2, 4-D 30 mg/l, gibberellic acid (GA3) 100 mg/l, CPPU 4 mg/l and sulphate of potash (SOP) 2% and covering materials viz., non- woven material bag and blue colour polyethylene sleeve (6% perforated) bag on bunch of banana cv. Willium

Study Design: Experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (Factorial) with three repetitions.

Place and Duration of Study: Experiment was carried out at the Horticultural Research Farm,Department of Horticulture, B. A. College of Agriculture,  AAU, Anand during the year 2017-18 and 2018-19

Methodology: The experimental plot was prepared by deep ploughing, harrowing and levelling. The pits of 30 x 30 x 30 cm were dug out at a spacing of 1.8 x 1.8 m2 and well decomposed fine textured Farm Yard Manure (FYM) at the rate of 10 kg per pit was applied at planting. Well hardened, healthy, uniform tissue cultured tissue culture plants of willium banana having 5-6 leaves were used for planting. Post shooting sprays were given twice i.e. 1st spray after complete opening of inflorescence and 2nd spray after 30 days of first spray with covering the bunch immediately after second spray.The fruits which were used for recording the weight loss during ripening, were used to calculating pulp: peel ratio. Pulp to peel ratio was calculated by dividing respective pulp weight by respective peel weight. The TSS value of the fruit was recorded by using hand refractometer having range of 0-32 ⁰Brix. Acidity (%) was calculated by the method described by Rangana (1977) was adopted for estimation of titrable acidity.

Results: The results revealed that the banana bunches sprayingof CPPU 4 mg/lwith bunch covering with non woven materials were recorded significantly lower physiological loss in weight (12.80, 13.60 and 13.20%) and (13.26, 14.14 and 13.70%), respectively. Whereas, post shooting spray of SOP 2% with non-woven material bag coveringwere recorded significantly maximum TSS (21.42, 21.05 and 21.17 ºBrix; 21.39, 20.93 and 21.16 ºBrix), reducing sugar (12.55, 12.34 and 12.45%; 12.21, 12.16 and 12.18%) and total sugar (21.42, 20.82 and 21.12%; 20.84, 20.50 and 20.67%) as compared to rest of the treatments of post shooting sprays and bunch covering materials on banana quality.

Conclusion: From the two years of field study, it can be concluded that the post shooting spraying of CPPU 4 mg/l and SOP 2% with non woven bunch covering bags were improve fruit quality of banana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Wireless Technique to Regulate Seed Dropping in a Seeder for Intercropping

Korla Harshavardhan, S. S. Sivakumar, J. John Gunasekar, K. Balaji, P. K. Padmanathan, V. Alex Albert

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 46-55
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3831590

Although intercropping gives additional yield per unit area than sole cropping, yield may also decrease as the crops differ in their competitive abilities. To avoid competition and to accompany complimentary action between the base crop and inter crop in intercropping practise, proper crop ratio of two crops should be maintained. When sowing with available seeders crop ratio was not maintained because of non-availability of a seed hopper, handling two different varieties of seeds and the un controlled seed flow from the hopper to the seed tube when ground wheel is rotating. To look after this problem an experiment was conducted at DFMPE, AEC & RI, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Kumulur by fabricating a seed hopper consisting of two compartments and circular shaped outlet for two variety of seeds and developing an RF (radio frequency) wireless technology to control servo motor in order to restrict the seed drop from seed hopper to the seed tube even though ground wheel is in running condition. In this paper considering a seven-row seeder, the performance of a micro controller coded with appropriate programme in embedded C language which can regulate seven servo motors each at seven seed hoppers, functioning of RF transmitter sketch, functioning of RF receiver sketch, header issue & its solution, angle conversion of servo shaft and power consumption was observed and discussed. Total power required for operating RF electronic setup containing seven servomotors was recorded as 5 V 12 A. The angle of rotation of servo motor shaft was from 0º to 165º when pulse width range in micro controller was set from 0 and 2400 micro seconds. The servo did not respond in the hardware interfacing because both the libraries use timer 1 interrupt which created an error issue. In order to overcome that “Servo timer 2.h” header was issued instead of servo.h. Then sketch was compiled and was executed successfully.