Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Computer Vision System for Fruits

Y. Dileep Sean, D.D. Smith, V.S.P. Bitra, Vimala Bera, Sk. Nafeez Umar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3631576

Automated defect detection of fruits using computer vision and machine learning concepts has ‎become a significant area of research. In ‎this work, working prototype hardware model of conveyor with PC is designed, constructed and implemented to analyze the fruit quality. The prototype consists of low-cost microcontrollers, USB camera and MATLAB user interface. The automated classification model rejects or accepts the fruit based on the quality i.e., good (ripe, unripe) and bad. For the classification of fruit quality, machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine, KNN, Random Forest classifier, Decision Tree classifier and ANN are used. The dataset used in this work consists of the following fruit varieties i.e., apple, orange, tomato, guava, lemon, and pomegranate. We trained, tested and ‎compared the performance of these five machine learning approaches and found out that the ANN based fruit detection performs better. The overall accuracy obtained by the ANN model for the dataset is 95.6%. In addition, the response time of the system is 50 seconds per fruit which is very low. Therefore, it will be very suitable and useful for small-scale industries and farmers to grow up their business.

Open Access Original Research Article

Municipal Solid Waste Analysis: Case Study on Gorakhpur City, Uttar Pradesh, India

Yeshi Choden, Shailesh Kumar Gupta, Najwa Abdalla

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 12-20
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3631577

City sanitation plans are strategic planning processes for city wise sanitation sector development. Exponential increase in population and rapid economic development led to an increase in generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) which impacts the sanitation of a city. Also, emission of toxic gases from MSW dumpsites are the main threat to the environment and public health. In the present study, data regarding solid waste management has been collected and studied the current scenario of the municipal solid waste system of Gorakhpur city, Uttar Pradesh, India. MSW composition, physical and chemical analysis has been performed and Methane gases (CH4) generated from MSW of the city is quantified using LandGEM 3.02. Waste composition shows that city generates paper (6.33%), organic matter (56.1%), wood (1.36%), textile (3.73%), plastic (1.11%), Rubber (0.56%), glass (1.6%) and inert material (29.17%).  With the same rate of MSW generation, CH4 emission will amount to 6.6X103 Mg/yr, 1.9x104 Mg/yr of COand 4.33x101 Non methanic organic carbon (NMOC) by 2050.  MSW analysis resulted in high moisture content of 35 -40% and organic matter of 56.1%. Based on the physio chemical analysis, suitable waste to energy option that could be adopted are biogas generation and vermi composting from the biodegradable component of MSW. Rest 36% of non-biodegradable part of MSW could be converted to Reduced Derived Fuel (RDF).

Open Access Original Research Article

Crop Residues Management under Changing Climate Scenario

May Zar Myint, Raihana Habib Kanth, F. A. Bahar, S. S. Mehdi, A. A. Saad, Tanveer Ahmad Ahngar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3631578

Soil is the fundamental and necessary natural resource for the agricultural production system. Due to the increasing global population and the impact of climate changes, natural resources are the major limiting factor to use widely for food production. The major factors responsible for the deterioration of natural resources are extreme events caused by man-made activities and unexpected and unpredictable adverse natural forces of nature. Among the different degradation processes, soil erosion is one of the serious threatens to the deterioration of soil for the agricultural sector and healthy ecosystem conservation. Intensive agricultural practices are particularly caused by the acceleration of the soil erosion process. Therefore, the good and systematic management of soil resources is indispensable not only for sustainable agriculture or conservation agriculture but also for the protection and reduction of the natural ecosystem. Covering crop residues on soil enhances organic matter, protects the soil surfaces, maintains water and nutrients, improves soil biological activity and chemical composition, and contributes to pest management. Therefore, crop residue management is one of the conservation practices and is designed to leave sufficient residue on the soil surface to reduce wind and water erosion. It includes all field operations that affect the amount of residue, its an orientation to the soil surface and prevailing wind and rainfall patterns and the residue distribution throughout the period requiring protection. This paper especially highlights the status of soil erosion, crop residues, and management in crop residues in sustainable agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Molecular Docking Analysis of Imatinib to Target the Marker Proteins of Breast Cancer

V. Senthil Kumar, T. V. Ajay Kumar, V. Parthasarathy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 29-38
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3631579

Cancer is an uncontrolled over growth of abnormal cells elsewhere in the body. It is the second leading cause of death globally due to non communicable disease. Among the various types of cancers, the incidence of breast cancer is next to lung cancer. The most commonly used drugs to treat breast cancer are namely, Anastrozole, Arimidex, Letrozol, Imatinib, Tamoxifen, Raloxifene, Toremifene and so on. The hope is to establish the specificity of the drug Imatinib towards the selective potential breast cancers such as mammalian target of rapamycin, (mTOR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), estrogen receptor (ER), poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphoprotein 53 (p53). To identify the promising target, the Schrodinger software was utilized for the study. The study helped to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties and binding efficiency of Imatinib towards the breast cancer proteins. The results of study showed that the Imatinib exhibited better binding affinities to mTOR and HER2 as compared to ER, PARP and P53 proteins. The present study will be more useful to rationalize the anticancer therapy based on the expression levels of the target protein in the cancer microenvironment.   

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Bio-Pesticides on Mortality of Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella L.

S. Balpande, A. S. Yadav

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 39-47
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3631580

Galleria mellonella larvae feed on wax, pollen, honey and damage the combs with in active bee colonies and storage condition. Galleria mellonella larvae can bore tunnel and feed around the midrib base of the wax comb. Larvae produce silk fibers that can trap bee brood cells. Comb is completely covered with webbing and extracted matter of the larvae condition described as “Galleriasis”.  The study was carried out at Apiculture Lab of RVSKVV-ZARS-Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Morena (M.P.) during 2019-20. Different three concentration of bio-pesticides viz., Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki  (1, 1.5 and 2%), custard apple seed extract (2, 4and 6%) and Neem Oil (1, 2 and 3%) were used against the Galleria mellonella to assess the effect of larval mortality at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after treatment. There was no significant effect showed in all the treatments after 24 hours. The maximum mortality of Galleria mellonella larvae was recorded in Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki 2.0 percent concentration (46.67, 87.08 and 96.67%) after 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively and it was at par with custard apple seed extract 6.0 percent concentration (45.83, 85.0 and 93.75%). Neem oil 3.0 percent concentration expressed 38.33, 75.42 and 87.50 percent larval mortality after 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively. Whereas minimum mortality was noticed in Neem oil 1.0 percent at 48 hours (22.08%), at 72 hours (37.08%) and at 96 hours (56.25%) among the treatments. The higher concentration of all the three bio-pesticides was proved effectiveness against Galleria mellonella during investigation.