Open Access Systematic Review Article

Colostrum as a Therapeutic: A Meta Review

Bharat Kwatra, Anusha Chaudhary, Lubdha Patil, Priti Yadav, Rituparna Saha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-29
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3531570

This meta-review is an examination of the therapeutic properties of colostrum. The scientific development and subsequent implementation of new therapeutics continues to influence researchers all over the globe today. Therefore, this review examines previously published research on colostrum and its effects on physiological functioning to determine its role as a potential therapeutic. Additionally, this review explores options for the potential therapeutic use of colostrum in immunology, IBS, diabetes and thyroid. There is abundant research supporting the immunomodulatory properties of colostrum, while also implicating its roles in alleviating IBS which is presented in this review. There is also evidence for the presence of IGF-1, T4, T3 and iodine in colostrum. Therefore, this review will also examine the current research examining the detection and respective physiological relevance for diabetes and thyroid functioning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Machine Learning Techniques to Estimate Unsoaked California Bearing Ratio in Ekiti Central Senatorial District

Akinwamide Joshua Tunbosun, Jacob Odeh Ehiorobo, Osuji Sylvester Obinna, Ebuka Nwankwo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 30-37
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3531571

This paper investigates the relationship between soil physical properties and the Un-soaked California Bearing Ratio (USCBR) of soil found in Ekiti State Central Senatorial District (ESCSD), which includes Natural Moisture Content (NMC%) Percentage Fines, Specific Gravity (SG) and Consistency Limits (LL%, PL%, & PI %). The database was prepared in the laboratory by conducting tests on ninety-nine (99) soil samples which were obtained in a burrowed pit found in the Central Senatorial District of Ekiti State. An R version 4.0.5 and R studio version 1.2.5033 was used to analyze the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Least Square Regression (LSR) in order to develop a simplified CBR model. In both models, independent layer containing six nodes (soil physical properties) and the dependent layer containing a single node (i.e. CBR) were taken. The descriptive analysis for training and testing was performed; boxplots of the variables were plotted and; sensitivity analysis was carried out. The capacity of the developed equation was evaluated in terms of error metrics MSE and RMSE. The analysis showed that both ANN and MLR models predicted CBR close to the laboratory value. However, the model without the percentage passing sieve 200 (MIC) is the best, having Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion values of 614.1707 and 627.5754 respectively, from the error metrics analysis, the results showed that PL and LL are the most influential variable that affects the developed CBR model's output. From the foregoing its concluded that the study has shown a relationship between the CBR value of Ekiti Central Senatorial District soil and its basic soils properties using machine learning techniques, also the developed CBR model will be useful tool to Civil engineers, geotechnical engineers and construction industry within the study area particularly in their preliminary stage of their project.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Trial of the Canary System for Proximal Caries Detection: A Comparative Study

Janja Jan, Wan Zaripah Wan Bakar, Sapna M. Mathews, E. Uzamere, Linda O. Okoye, Bennett T. Amaechi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 38-50
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3531572

Background: Detecting initial caries on the proximal surfaces of teeth in an intact dentition is a problem in dental practice since radiograph has been shown to have poor sensitivity with this stage of caries lesions. Hence there is need for an alternative technology.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the Canary System (CS) to detect proximal caries in a clinical setting, comparing it with bitewing radiography (BWR). 

Methodology: 33 subjects, age 18 years and above, were recruited from a mixed population of low, moderate, and high caries risk patients. BWR and the CS were used to detect proximal caries lesions in these subjects. Teeth were separated by 48 hours insertion of rubber rings, and the proximal surfaces were examined by direct visual examination using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS-II) scoring system. The Sensitivity (se), specificity (sp), positive (ppv) and negative predictive (npv) values of the CS and BWR in detecting caries on proximal surfaces were calculated by evaluating each method alone against ICDAS-II system (used as bronze standard). The two methods were compared statistically using their Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC). The sensitivities and specificities were compared using a test of proportions and AUC values were compared using DeLong’s method of nonparametric testing of AUC values. 

Results: The se, sp, ppv and npv for the CS are 0.92, 0.78, 0.89, 0.84 respectively, and for BWR are 0.67, 0.54, 0.78, and 0.40 respectively. The AUC of the Canary System (0.77) was statistically significantly higher than the AUC of the radiography (0.53, P < .001). 

Conclusions: This study demonstrated the efficacy of the Canary System in detecting proximal caries lesions to be greater than that of bitewing radiography. 

Clinical Significance: The Canary System can be a valuable clinical device for detecting and monitoring proximal caries lesions in clinical practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Analysis of Some Genotypes of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) for Yield and Yield Attributing Traits

A. M. Pradhan, M. Roy Choudhury, A. Sawarkar, S. Das

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 51-60
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3531573

The current investigation was carried out to examine the selection criteria for yield improvement in selected genotypes of Indian mustard. Twenty-four genotypes of Indian mustard were evaluated for seed yield and yield attributing characters with randomized block design with three replications. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among all the 24 genotypes against all the characters. The phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation were higher for most of the traits like seed yield per plant, number of secondary branches per plant and number of siliquae per plant. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance in percent of mean was registered for number of siliquae per plant, number of primary and secondary branches per plant, plant height, 1000 seed weight, siliqua length per plant and seed yield per plant suggesting predominant role of additive gene action for expression of these traits. The correlation study revealed that seed yield per plant was positively and significantly correlated with number of primary and secondary branches per plant, number of siliquae per plant, siliqua length per plant and 1000 seed weight at both phenotypic and genotypic level. The traits namely, number of secondary branches per plant recorded as highest positive direct effect followed by number of seeds per siliqua, number of siliquae per plant and plant height. Therefore, they may be carried out further evaluation in multilocational trials, biotic and abiotic stress like environmental conditions to check their stability and adaptability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Two Kinds of Vacuum in Casimir Effect

Huang Zhi-Xun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 61-77
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3531574

The Casimir effect is one observable of the existence of the vacuum energy, i.e. the existence of vacuum electromagnetic field. The meaning of this word "vacuum" is physical vacuum, not technology vacuum. Then, we say that the change in the vacuum structure enforced by the plates. There are two kinds of vacuum, one is usual vacua or free vacua (outside the plates). Another is the negative energy vacua (inside the plates), and the refraction index less than 1(n<1). That cause a change in the light speed for electromagnetic waves propagating perpendicular to the plates: △c/c1.6×10-60d-4, and d is the plate distance. When d=10-9m(1nm), △c=10-24c. Then, a two-loop QED effect cause the phase and group velocities of an electromagnetic wave to slightly exceed c. Though the difference are very small, that raise interesting matters of principle. The focus of this paper is to improve the understanding of the nature of quantum vacuum. In the past, to say that "vacuum is not empty" was already a criticism and subversion of classical physics. Now it seems doubly strange to say that there is a negative energy vacuum that is "empty"than the normal physical vacuum. But these theories are rigorously justified; Casimir effect can create an environment with refractive index less than 1(n<1) and lead to the appearance of superluminality, which is one of the representations of "quantum superluminality". These advances in basic science will certainly open up new fields of application, In short, it is not the Casimir structure that creates the quantum vacuum, but the structure that makes the quantum vacuum "emerge"in a clever way as a perceptible physical reality. This is truly a scientific achievement.