Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Chemical Quality of Milk Powder Sold in Open Markets in Aba, Abia Atate, Nigeria

O. E. Elekwachi, C. O. Asinobi, O. C. Afam-Anene

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3431565

Background: Cow's milk is frequently recognized as the most nearly perfect nourishment for humans [1]. On the one hand, its tremendous nutritional value could affect human health [2]. Milk, on the other hand, is an ideal microbial culture medium [3] and is easily contaminated [1]. Milk quality and safety are commonly causes of anxiety because milk quality can be compromised during processing, shipping, storage, and marketing [4], particularly in underdeveloped nations with ineffective quality monitoring. Furthermore, uniformed traders expose milk to adverse environmental conditions due to ignorance.

Objective: This study investigated some chemical parameters of milk powder sold in Aba market.

Materials and Methods: A total of six (6) brands of milk powder, namely: Peak, Three Crown, Loyal, Cow Bell, Jago, and Dano milk, packaged in affordable sachets, were purchased from the new market (Abia Ohuru) in Aba town, Abia State. The samples were emptied from the sachet into sterile plastic containers, coded, sealed and transported to the laboratory immediately for analysis. Proximate, mineral, and vitamin compositions were determined using standard methods. ANOVA was used to separate the means and a significant difference was judged at p<0.05.

Results: The obtained values for almost all parameters were not significantly different (p) among the samples examined. However, the obtained values were slightly lower than the values written on the labels. The obtained values and the values on the labels were not significantly different from the CODEX Alimentarius and NFDAC set standards for milk powder, except for vitamin A values for almost all the samples.

Conclusion:  The quality of milk powder sold in the Aba market can be considered to be good enough for human consumption, although slight quality degradation was found in protein, carbohydrates, fat, and especially in the vitamin A and B content of the samples. Exposure to harsh conditions during storage and retailing processes could be a possible reason.

Recommendations:  Strict and legal measures should be adopted to ensure that the quality and safety of milk in the open markets is preserved.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Three Traditional Smoking Methods on the Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS) in Smoked Fishes

Aderinola Oluwatoyin Joseph, A. A. Adu, O. O. Babalola, V. Kusemiju, G. O. Mekuleyi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3431566

The effects of three traditional smoking methods on the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fishes were studied to determine the concentration of PAHs in locally available and commonly consumed smoked fish species. Samples of two highly traded species of fish, Scomber scombrus and Horse markerel, among the low income people for immediate consumption were purchased from the market and processed using sawdust smoke, firewood smoke and charcoal smoke respectively. Some of the fresh fishes were also analyzed as control. The PAHs content were extracted with standard dichloromethane using solid-liquid extraction, and analyzed using Gas chromatography – Mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) method. The results showed that fish samples processed with sawdust smoke recorded the highest concentrations of total PAHs, having 1.295 mg/kg in Horse markerel and 2.020 mg/kg in Scomber scombrus, followed by firewood smoked samples with total PAHs content of 0.910mg/kg in Horse markrel and 1.175 g/kg in Scomber scombrus while charcoal smoked samples recorded the least total PAHs levels of 0.590 mg/kg in Horse markerel and 0.960 mg/kg in Scomber scombrus. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations which is usually used to estimate the carcinogenicity of other PAHs was below detection level in both species of fish. PAH4 was proposed by European food safety authority, recommendation level of 30 mg/kg was concluded by the EU regulation. Any PAHs have been associated with intense carcinogenicity in humans, and thus have implication for the quality and safety of these fish products. Therefore, it is imperative that regulatory bodies conduct awareness campaigns to educate the smoked fish processors, traders and consumers on the need to discourage the use of sawdust in smoking fish and adopt safer and improved methods of smoking fishes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of the Hydro Anisotropy and the Magnetic Field on the Dynamic Thermo-Bi-Diffusive Flow in a Horizontal Cavity Confining a Porous Medium Saturated by a Binary Fluid

Faras Issiako, Christian Akowanou, Macaire Agbomahena

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3431564

We analyze analytically the effects of anisotropy in permeability and that of a transverse magnetic field on thermal convection in a porous medium saturated with a binary fluid and confined in a horizontal cavity. The porous medium, of great extension, is subjected to various conditions at the thermal and solutal boundaries. The axes of the permeability tensor are oriented obliquely with respect to the gravitational field. Based on a scale analysis, the velocity, temperature, and heat and mass transfer rate fields were determined. These results were validated by the study of borderline cases which are: pure porous media and pure fluid media discussed in the literature. It emerges from this study that the anisotropy parameters influence the convective flow. The application of a transverse magnetic field significantly reduces the speed of the flow and thereby affects the temperature field and the rate of heat and mass transfer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Milk Consumption and Lactose Intolerance among Self Perceived Lactose Intolerant Student of Abia State Polytechnic, Aba, Nigeria

O. E. Elekwachi, O. C. Afam-Anene, C. O. Asinobi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 31-37
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3431567

Objective: The study assessed milk consumption and prevalence of lactose intolerance among self-perceived lactose intolerant students of Abia State Polytechnic, Aba.

Subject and Methods: The study involved 121 self-reported lactose intolerants students from which 76 students with confirmed cases of lactose intolerant were selected from two purposively selected departments namely: Food Science and Technology (F.S.T) and Hospitality Management Technology (H.M.T) Abia State Polytechnic Aba. Questionnaires were used to collect information on dairy consumption and self- perceived intolerance to milk; while milk tolerance test was used to investigate the incidence of lactose tolerance among the student

Results: The result shows that self-perceived lactose intolerance was higher (89%) than the estimated prevalence of (79%) among the students. The majority of the students consumed milk and dairy products, with percentages of 100%, 82%, 72%, and 100% for milk, ice cream, yoghurt, and flavored dairy products, respectively. The frequency and serving portions consumed per day were small. The percentages were 24%, 17%, 16%, and 15% for milk, ice cream, yoghurt, and flavored dairy products, respectively. None of the subjects consumed up to 2 serving of milk per day.

Conclusion: The result shows that a high percentage of the students still consume milk and dairy products, irrespective of their lactose intolerance. This suggests that lactose intolerance could not stop the subjects from consuming milk and dairy products. The low frequency of daily consumers of milk and dairy products coupled with small portion sizes of milk and dairy products indicates that dairy consumption among the subjects was poor and inappropriate. Inappropriate consumption of milk and dairy products would fail to meet the nutritional needs of the consumer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Performance of Non-spiny Brinjal Variety VRM (Br)2 in Northern Zone of Tamil Nadu, India

S. Nanthakumar, B. K. Savitha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 38-42
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3431568

Aim: To identify the yield performance of non-spiny brinjal variety VRM (Br)2.

Study Design: Non-spiny brinjal variety VRM (Br)2 was developed by hybridization between Senur local x spiny brinjal VRM (Br) 1 followed by pedigree method of selection.

Place and Duration of the Study: The present study was carried out at northern districts of Tamil Nadu viz., Vellore, Ranipet, Tirupathur, Thiruvannamalai, Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri during 2015-2016.

Methodology: VRM (Br) 2 was evaluated under different trials during 2017-2020 at various locations along with ruling check variety VRM (Br) 1.The observations were recorded at yield and yield characters.

Results: VRM (Br) 2 recorded highest fruit yield of 46.35 t/ha as compared to check variety VRM (Br) 1 (32.85 t/ha). It was 41.00 % higher fruit yield over check variety VRM (Br) 1 and moderately resistant to major insect pests. viz., epilachna beetle, whiteflies and shoot and fruit borer.

Conclusion: All the plant and fruit characters are similar to spiny brinjal VRM (Br) 1, whereas the spines are absent in the variety VRM (Br) 2. Due to it’s non-spiny nature, intercultural operations viz., harvesting, packing, storage and transport are easy to do.