Open Access Short Communication

Importance and Opportunities of Telemedicine in Resource-Poor Countries during Epidemic Situation

Mohammed Alshakka, Wafa F. S. Badulla, Nazeh Al-Abd, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3331559

This review article aims to present a general picture of what telemedicine entails and the importance of providing quality health care in various medical aspects. The field of telemedicine has noticeably grown-up, with a growing number of applications and a diversity of technologies in different medical specialties and clinical situations by using electronic signals to transfer the medical data from one place to another. At present, health authorities have high anticipation for telemedicine. It addresses several significant challenges to advancing healthcare access to overwhelm the scarcity of specialists tackling epidemic diseases. The article starts with a brief introduction to the evolution of telemedicine and its importance in the health care system. Then, we provide a conceptual context for the proliferation of related concepts, such as telehealth, e-health, and m-health. Our primary concern is to focus on telemedicine's role in epidemic situations, emphasizing the current pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (covid-19 ) and demonstrating how it can be used to provide definitive information about the actual effects of telemedicine in terms of cost, quality, and access. However, there is an emergent interest among government authorities, health care providers and medical professionals to enhance the efficiency of providing a wide range of medical services in terms of cost and time. Thus, the effective use of telemedicine and related technologies will be able to assist with it. We conclude that telemedicine should be considered as a potential tool to react to an emergency. Therefore, further research should be conducted to understand better how telemedicine could be applied wisely in epidemic situations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Research Status and Development Trend of Magnetic Fluid Micro-differential Pressure Sensor

Yang Shaojie, Kong Xiangdong, Mu Xueyu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3331560

As a nano-scale composite functional material, the basic structure of the new magnetic fluid is to uniformly disperse the magnetic solid particles adsorbed with surfactants into the base liquid, thus forming a stable colloid system with high dispersion. Magnetic fluid can exist stably for a long time even under the action of gravity field, magnetic field and electric field without precipitation and separation. This kind of magnetic fluid has both magnetic and liquid fluidity under the action of magnetic field, so it has great potential for the application of magnetic fluid in the field of sensors. This paper mainly analyzes the research achievements of magnetic fluid in the neighborhood of micro-differential pressure sensor at home and abroad in recent years, and introduces the working principle and latest research progress of magnetic fluid sensor. Thus, making use of the special properties of magnetic fluid, it is applied to some problems in the field of micro-pressure difference sensor and the research direction of magnetic fluid micro-pressure difference sensor in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Online Grammatical Error Check on the Improvement of L2 Writing

Dalal Bahanshal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 18-31
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3331561

One of the most challenging language skills is the mastery of the target language's academic writing. To perfect academic writings, many English learners have sought help from different online error checkers websites. Yet, little is known about their benefits on improving grammatical errors, in particular and academic writing, in general. This quantitative study was designed to investigate preparatory Saudi English learners' standpoints about their reasons and attitudes towards the use of the different online websites such as Google Translate, Grammarly, Grammar Check, and others to improve English academic writings, in general and the most frequent errors, in particular. The data was collected through an online survey (N=115) composed of 23 items. Results show that students' main aim of using those programs is to get high marks and improve their writing style. It is also found that many students have benefited from online error checkers websites and the most frequent writing errors have been minimized. It is aimed that the finding may equip students with some learning strategies to enhance the quality of their writing efficiency through the use of online error checkers programs. Additionally, the result may set grounds for pedagogues to harness innovative teaching techniques that effectively utilize online error checkers to maximize students' language writing performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytoremediation of Crude Oil Polluted Microbial Augmented Soil Using Cyperus esculentus and Phyllanthus amarus

J. O. Dasetima-Altraide, D. N. Ogbonna

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 32-49
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3331562

Aim: To assess the phytoremediation potential of Cyperus esculentus and Phyllanthus amarus in crude oil polluted soil and ascertain the enhancement of augmented microbes (fungi).

Study Design: The study employs experimental design, statistical analysis of the data and interpretation. 

Place and Duration of Study: Rivers State University demonstration farmland in Nkpolu- Oroworukwo, Mile 3 Diobu area of Port Harcourt, was used for this study. The piece of land is situated at Longitude 4°48’18.50” N and Latitude 6ᵒ58’39.12” E measuring 5.4864 m x 5.1816 m with a total area of 28.4283 square meter. Phytoremediation process monitoring lasted for 240 days, analyses were carried out weekly at 30 days’ interval. 

Methodology: Seven (7) experimental plots (two Control (Unpolluted and polluted soil) and five polluted amended/treated plots) employing Randomized Block Design (each having dimensions: 100 x 50 x 30 cm LxBxH) were formed and mapped out on agricultural soil and left fallow for 6 days before contamination on the seventh day; after which it was allowed for 21 days for proper contamination and exposure to natural environmental factors (to mimic soil crude oil spill site); thereafter bioaugmenting organisms were applied. Baseline studies were carried out on the top soil  before and after contamination, major parameters monitored and assessed were Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) uptake by plant roots and stem, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) and TPH reduction in soil.  Other physicochemical analyzed in the soil of different plots were pH, Electrical Conductivity, Moisture Content, Total Nitrogen, Available Phosphorus, Potassium, Total Organic Carbon, Plant Height, Iron, Lead at regular intervals; days 1, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 & 240. Application of augmenting organisms was to enhance phytoremediation by test plant Cyperus esculentus (Cyp) and Phyllanthus amarus (Phy). The rate of phytoremediation was estimated from percentage (%) uptake of Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in plant roots and stem from day 1 -240; while percentage (%) reduction of TPH and PAHs in soil was estimated from day 1 to the residual at day 240.

Results: The test plants decreased significant amount of crude oil as revealed in TPH uptake in their roots and Stem.  Mean amount and percentage Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) uptake by Cyperus esculentus roots and stem were; 152.33±50.34mg/kg, 12.57±4.16% and 201.13±8.80mg/kg, 13.27±0.58% respectively; while that of Phyllanthus amarus roots and stem were 141.50±35.62mg/kg, 11.68±2.94% and 174.44±19.98mg/kg, 11.51±1.32% respectively. Similar trend was observed in the control plots were TPH uptake by Cyperus esculentus roots and stem were; 24.2mg/kg, 2.00% and 20.01mg/kg, 1.32% respectively while in control plot of Phyllanthus amarus TPH uptake by roots and stem were 23.19mg/kg, 1.91% and 19.80mg/kg, 1.31% respectively. Comparatively, uptake of TPH was higher in plant stem than roots. From the initial TPH contamination value of  5503.00mg/kg , Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Reduction and % Hydrocarbon Reduction in soil at 240 days in the different treatment plots in a decreasing order were as follows: PS+AN+MR+SMS+Phy (5470.9mg/kg; 99.43%) >PS+MR+SMS+Phy (5460.60mg/kg; 99.23%) >PS+AN+MR+Phy (5451.30mg/kg; 99.06%) >PS+MR+Cyp (5448.30mg/kg; 99.01%) >PS+AN+MR+Cyp (5440.00mg/kg; 98.86%) >PS+AN+Phy (5422.905mg/kg; 98.54%) >PS+Cyp (no amendment) (5380.90mg/kg; 97.78%). Comparative evaluation revealed higher reduction of PAHs in soil (plot) planted with Phyllanthus amarus. Highest PAHs reduction in soil was seen in PS+AN+MR+SMS+Phy (31.3mg/kg; 65.89%) while least was recorded in PS+ Cyp (no amendment) (23.4mg/kg, 49.26%).

Conclusion: it was observed that plots planted with Cyperus esculentus (TPH 5492.75±76.36mg/kg) showed higher reduction of TPH from soil than those planted with Phyllanthus amarus (TPH 5449.72±18.27mg/kg); while PAHs degradation/reduction in plots planted with Phyllantus amarus (PAHs 28.72±2.74mg/kg; 60.46±5.77%) was higher than plots planted with Cyperus esculentus (PAHs 25.77±2.12mg/kg, 54.24±4.47%).  More so, plots amended with augmentating microbes showed significant higher percentage reduction in hydrocarbon in the polluted soil than unamended polluted soil. It is therefore recommended that Cyperus esculentus is a suitable plant species for phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil with high TPH value while Phyllanthus amarus is the best option for phytoremediation of polluted soil with high PAHs value, in combination with augmenting microbes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Synthesis and Biological Activities of Some phthalimides Derivatives

F. O. Taiwo, C. A. Obafemi, E. M. Obuotor, I. J. Olawuni

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 50-56
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3331563

Aims: To synthesize some phthalimides derivatives and evaluate the compounds for their possible biological properties.

Methods: The substituted phenylisoindoline-1,3-dione were synthesized from the reactions of N-phenyl phthalimide with different substituted aromatic aldehyde. The synthesized compounds were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis. The Nitric oxide and Ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP) were determined by spectrophochemical method.

Results: The IC50 values for all the synthesized compounds were lower than standard, eserine (IC50 = 15 ± 2 µg/mL) against Nitric oxide inhibition. Compounds 3 (FRAP = 205±8 µg/ML) and 6 (FRAP = 118±1 µg/ML) were found to exhibit higher FRAP analysis results which were comparable to the results obtained for serine. (FRAP = 202±7 µg/ML).

Conclusion: The considerable activity of the compounds shown by its Nitric oxide and Ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP) makes them good candidates for the development of selective acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase inhibitors.