Open Access Original Research Article

Public Health Problems associated with Informal Settlements around Waterfront Communities in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

D. N. Ogbonna, J. O. Ogbuku, S. A. Ngah, A. Ayotamuno

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3231552

Port Harcourt municipality, southern Nigeria, is faced with environmental problems with slums and informal settlements communities, ranging from use of poor and overstressed facilities and inadequate water and electricity supplies and lack appropriate garbage disposal facilities and good drainage systems resulting in perennial flooding due to blocked drainage systems resulting in a number of diseases, such as malaria, diarrhea, cold and cough. Communities are densely populated, with more than five people living in a room. Therefore this study was carried out to assess the public health status of slums/ informal settlements in Port Harcourt Municipality in Rivers state. The study utilized a mixed-method approach. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire and in-depth interview were used to collect data. A total of 180 Questionnaires were distributed across the  five (5) selected waterfronts communities in the survey and key informants were interviewed to obtain detailed information about the status of the various communities in the Informal settlements studied. The results of the study revealed that the most prevalent illnesses in all Slums/Informal Settlements were malaria, typhoid, dysentery, diarrhea, coughing, worm infestation, and skin infection. The prevalence rate of infectious disease recorded for all slums/Informal settlements show that Malaria had 15-17%; Typhoid fever14-16%, Diarrhea 11-13%, Dysentery 12-14%, Cough 5-10%, Worm infestation 8-11% and Skin infections 2-4%.  However, Malaria remains the foremost killer disease in Nigeria. It accounts for over 25% of under 5 mortality, 30% childhood mortality and 11% maternal mortality. These results suggest that people living in slums are predisposed to severe outbreak of epidemics, therefore requires an urgent attention for comprehensive interventions from the government and other organizations to strengthen existing programs to improve the public health and quality of life of this vulnerable population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sovereign Wealth Fund Model: A Tool for Economic Stability and Public Financial Management: Evidence from a Developing Country

Osirim Monday, Wadike Chile George, Davies Stanley Diepiriye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 10-20
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3231553

Nations create Sovereign Wealth Funds to accumulate, save and invest excess liquidity that arise from natural resources and other excess funds in infrastructural developments and in achieving other policy objectives. The paper thus investigated sovereign wealth fund as an effective tool for public financial management and economic sustainability with a particular focus on Nigeria. The exploratory and descriptive research design approach was adopted in evaluating the sovereign fund model as an alternative to public resources management. The paper reveals that sovereign wealth funds can be helpful to a nation especially in the time of economic crisis as it could be used to minimize government revenues volatility rate as well as to build up the level of savings for future generation ( r = 0.689 and 0.763 for volatility rate and saving for future generation respectively and p-values < 0.05). However, it is discovered that to produce the intended results, the fund must form part of the home country policy document and must be prudently invested. Based on these findings, it is recommended that regulatory body must strengthen the accountability framework around the fund. To this end, there should be fiscal discipline, probity and transparency in the investment, management and reporting of the fund. Nigeria is thus encouraged to sign up and uphold the Santiago principles and guidelines proposed in 2008 for the promotion of global best practices in National Sovereign Wealth Funds operations and management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Applied TRL Calibration Technique Using ABCD Matrices for Bended Access Ports

O. B. Arafat, A. Abderahim, A. Ouzer Nabil, D. Vincent

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3231555

Calibrating network analyzer is still an issue for bended access port devices (devices with accesslines at an angle to conventional transmission lines). Bended accesses can give additional errors which are taken into account by using a new design standards of Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) calibration. This Thru-Reflect-Line calibration technique is computed from ABCD parameters that easily allow to remove the bended port effects. This approach is based on the assumption that the Vector Network Analyzer error boxes can be considered as passive system. Furthermore, the method can be applied for de-embedding devices with bended accesses. This calibration and de-embedding technique could be applied, for example, to a coplanar circulator or a power divider measurement which have access lines at 120° from each other.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioengineered Approach for Ex situ Vermiextraction of Acenaphthylene, Benzo (E)Pyrene and Benzo (Ghi) Perylene Soil Contamination

C. Fawole, S. J. Salami, D. A. Dashak, H. A. Chimezie-Nwosu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3231556

The ex situ study of vermiextraction of Acenaphthylene (AcPY), Benzo(e)pyrene (BeP) and Benzo(ghi)perylene (BP) form constructed vermiculture containing petroleum contaminated soil (8.00±0.01, 9.80±0.00 and 5.02±0.00 mg/kg respectively) and vermiaccumulation (AcPY, 1.05±0.00, BeP, 2.01±0.00 and BP, 1.73±0.00 mg/kg) by Esenia fetida squirms with mean vermiremoval efficiency of 100% while vermiconversions were AcPY, 86.88, BeP, 79.49 and BP, 65.54%. The identification and quantification of the 3 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3PAHs) were performed by GS/MD in accordance with analytical procedure of US. EPA 8270; 625. The bioengineered approach by E. fetida squirms in the vermiculture proved effective to detoxify and remove the persistent organic pollutants of the 3PAHs.

The ex situ study of vermiextraction of Acenaphthylene (AcPY), Benzo(e)pyrene (BeP) and Benzo(ghi)perylene (BP) form constructed vermiculture containing petroleum contaminated soil (8.00±0.01, 9.80±0.00 and 5.02±0.00 mg/kg respectively) and vermiaccumulation (AcPY, 1.05±0.00, BeP, 2.01±0.00 and BP, 1.73±0.00 mg/kg) by Esenia fetida squirms with mean vermiremoval efficiency of 100% while vermiconversions were AcPY, 86.88, BeP, 79.49 and BP, 65.54%. The identification and quantification of the 3 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3PAHs) were performed by GS/MD in accordance with analytical procedure of US. EPA 8270; 625. The bioengineered approach by E. fetida squirms in the vermiculture proved effective to detoxify and remove the persistent organic pollutants of the 3PAHs.

Open Access Review Article

The Relationship between Mourning and Society in their Diversity of Concepts My Love to Tricky Mourning

Valdecir de Godoy Borges

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 37-42
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3231557

The mourning in its instances, references, connections and ties among individuals, the title of this song indicates lack of our foundations, who loves us also rejects and abandon us (Nirvana - Jesus Doesn't Want Me For Sunbeam [1], with these customs we acquire the notion of love and mourning, and it is where the mirror of illusions and reality collide, where human omnipotence, omniscience, and omnivision meet death; It's long been known that in general the brain in its psychic processes does not recognize death, with the psychic structure not to recognize death, and how to understand how these external factors affect our psyche, our psychic structure and the ways one can possibly deal with such feeling within a Freudian psychoanalytic approach, that is, in simple words, the mourning in this intense period, as initially we do not recognize it as reality and have to accept and recognize it in the face of real impotence. Through a psychoanalytic approach this work seeks to face mourning to reduce suffering and remove the patient from possible stationary states within the state of mourning. "We need to love not to get sick.” Sigmund Freud.