Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Facilitative Factors in Farmer Field School (FFS) and Conventional Extension Method of Trainings among Women Groundnut Producers

J. Krishnan, T. T. Ranganathan, K. C. Siva Balan, P. Ravichamy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2931535

There has been a paradigm shift in extension purview all over the world to factor upon participation of farming fraternity in all possible ways of extension services. In spite of several efforts over three-four decades the technology transfer process and methodology still remains the same and unchanged. While the world bank introduced (in 1970s) Training and Visit (T&V) system of top down extension approach focusing on dissemination of Green Revolution technologies, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) introduced Farmer Field School (FFS) (in 1980s) that emphasized mainly the bottom up-participatory-facilitative approaches in technology transfer process. The objective of this paper is to study the facilitative factors followed in both conventional and FFS way of training, this was assessed through 10 training topics covered in both the method of trainings. Three hundred (300) farm women who had involved in groundnut cultivation in Pennagaram villages, Dharmapuri, India who got trained under FFS and T&V ways separately were surveyed for this study. From 90 to 95% of the survey respondents indicated that they found the facilitative factors followed in FFS way of training was better effective than T&V way of conventional extension training. The mean scores of FFS ranged from 0.82 to 0.94 and significantly differed with the T&V way of conventional extension training score ranged from 0.03 to 0.16.

Open Access Original Research Article

Endophytic Fungi as Potential Bio-Control Agents against Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in Banana

K. Ganeshan, P. Vetrivelkalai, B. Bhagawati, Nibha Gupta, K. Devrajan, M. Raveendran, D. Balachandar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 7-18
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2931536

A Survey was conducted in 12 districts of Assam to collect 92 healthy banana root samples. A total of 55 fungal isolates were successfully isolated from commercial banana cultivars. The culture filtrates were extracted from 55 endophytic fungal isolates and screened against root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in vitro and pot culture studies. Among them, five fungal isolates viz., EF4, BF7, BF27, BF28 and BF35 showed 100% inhibition of egg hatching and 96.33 to 81.33% juvenile mortality of M. incognita with an exposure period of 72h when compared to other isolates and control. On paddy seed treatment with endophytic fungi of five promising isolates, two isolates viz., BF7 and BF28 significantly enhanced germination percentage (82.67%, 73.33%) and vigour index (62.91, 47.24%), respectively. The selected five endophytic fungal isolates were evaluated for their efficacy against M. incognita in banana under pot culture conditions. The study revealed that culture filtrates of BF7 and BF28 significantly reduced the soil and root nematode population, number of adult females, egg masses and root gall index of M.incognita compared to untreated control. The isolates BF7 and BF28 also significantly increased the growth parameters viz., pseudostem height, root length and pseudostem girth. These promising endophytic fungal isolates viz., BF7 and BF28 were identified as non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains (Accession no. MN567668) and (Accession no. MN567710), respectively by PCR -18S rRNA of ITS region of gene sequence and phylogenetic tree construction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantification of Seasonal Rainfall Variability Effect on Pearl Millet Yield Over Madurai District of Tamil Nadu

M. Ramanjineyulu, V. K. Paulpandi, V. Geethalakshmi, C. Vanniarajan, N. S. Venkataraman, J. Prabhaharan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 19-23
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2931538

Dryland agriculture is entirely reliant on the monsoonal rainfall for its crop sensation. Pearl millet crop cultivation in a rainfed region like Madurai district Tamil Nadu became remunerative task, where the major rainfall contribution is from North-East monsoon. The influence of seasonal rainfall variability on pearl millet was quantified through correlating the inter-seasonal rainfall deviation with pearl millet productivity using the 30 years (1990-2019) rainfall and simulated pearl millet productivity data. Results indicated that pearl millet productivity had the relationship with seasonal rainfall by 46 percent. The research revealed that pearl millet crop yield dropped in nine out of 12 dry rainfall years and excess rainfall years also reduced the yield of pearl millet crop. It may well be implicit from the results that low and high rainfall years adversely affect the yield of pearl millet crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Testing the Assumptions with Teachers of Bhutan

Sangay Chophel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 24-36
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2931539

There has been an increased and rejuvenated interest in integrating technology in the day to day lives of the teachers, either due to forced circumstances or to catch up to the global education trend. Teachers’ knowledge and skills in using technology in the classroom is governed by Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). While there is a plentiful of assumptions regarding the use of technology in the classrooms, this research investigated the technological components of the TPACK framework. Data was collected from 271 teachers in the various parts of the country. Using descriptive and inferential statistics, the scales in the TPACK was analyzed based on participants’ demographic information, such as age, gender, location of the school they are placed at, and teacher certification. Results suggests that there is a gender gap in the scales of TPACK, age and teacher certification are major variables on teachers’ competency and knowledge. Recommendations are discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Theoretical Model of Electric Arc in Circuit Breaker and the Role of Parallel Resistance – The Shunt

S. Bjelić, N. Marković, U. Jakšić, F. Marković

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 37-50
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2931540

Aims: The paper presents a new theoretical model of an electric arc in a circuit breaker with reference to the role of shunt resistance parallel to the electric arc in a circuit breaker switch. One of the goals of the paper is to show the efficiency of using the software package MATLAB Simulink in which the previously derived system of equations is easily implemented in the blocks of the mentioned software package.

Methodology: The discharges in the electric arc determine the potential between the metal contacts of the switch and the structure and shape of the electric arc make it difficult to solve the transient process. The main step in solving the problem is the formation of a theoretical model of the electric circuit from which the current and voltage can be determined, which depend on the parameters of the electric field in the arc. The use of shunts in oil and air switches, due to a number of shortcomings, was not possible, but the disadvantages are overcome if thyristors are used to interrupt the current. The equations and the algorithm for solving the problem are obtained from the parameters of the electric field potential that shape the electric arc and its path. The accuracy of the theoretical model is confirmed by voltage and current diagrams in the adapted MATLAB Simulink software package.

Conclusion: The presented theoretical model and algorithm are universal and can be used for different states in which an electric line can be found. Problems that occur in the analysis of transient processes in an electric circuit where an electric arc occurs can be minimized using different types of simulations. Changing any parameter in the electrical circuit requires a new calculation of the state of the circuit from the very beginning due to the new initial conditions. Analytical methods combined with the simulation method were used in the research of overvoltages, asymmetries and harmonics during the appearance of an electric arc. The MATLAB simulation program had a threefold purpose: to serve the calculation and simulation of quantities that can be obtained by testing or measurement, to establish the original algorithm and to verify the proposed method. Also, this type of simulation can replace the type tests of the electric arc on the switch.