Open Access Short Research Articles

Optimization of Protein Extraction from Arachis hypogaea L. and Cucumeropsis mannii Naud. Seeds for Use as Natural Coagulants in Surface Water Clarification

Hermeline Ntalani, Ravelle Duclérine Ngouanou, Lucien Meril Bassinga Moussounda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2831532

The aim of this study was to improve the quality of protein extracts from Cucumeropsis mannii Naud. and Arachis hypogaea L. The evolution of protein content and microbiological quality of aqueous extracts of A. hypogaea, C. mannii and M. oleifera seed powders were monitored over time during protein extraction. The protein contents of the extracts subjected to decantation and those subjected to centrifugation were determined by the Kjeldahl method. The microbiological quality of the different aqueous extracts was evaluated according to the standards NF EN ISO 7932, NF V 08-059 and NF EN ISO 4833-1. The results obtained show protein contents of 40.6 % for A. hypogaea, 25.4 % for C. mannii and 36.5 % for M. oleifera, after 24 h of decantation. The protein contents of the centrifuged aqueous extracts were higher and 55.9%, 36.7% and 37.6% for A. hypogaea, C. mannii and M. oleifera extracts respectively. The results of the microbiological analysis showed that the aqueous extracts of M. oleifera contain little microbial load. Significant growth of aerobic flora and Bacillus cereus was observed in the decanted extracts of C. mannii and A. hypogaea from 4 h to 24 h of decantation. Extracts obtained by centrifugation have a lower microbial load, because the treatment time was shorter. The aqueous protein extracts of A. hypogaea and C. mannii seed powders obtained by centrifugation were of better quality than those obtained by decantation, because they have higher protein contents and lower microbial loads. The water solubility of A. hypogaea and C. mannii seed proteins was also studied on protein suspensions at 2% at pH 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. The results obtained showed that adjusting the pH to 7 and 8 could improve the degree of protein extraction for A. hypogaea and C. mannii seeds.

Open Access Short Research Article

Serological and Molecular Screening of Camels for Brucellosis in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

Neharika Saxena, Rajni Joshi, Salauddin Qureshi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2831529

Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease affecting domestic animals and humans worldwide. The present study was undertaken on camels in and around Bikaner city of Rajasthan state of India to assess the extent of prevalence of Brucellosis in camels in this region. Since Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) is a serological screening method for diagnosis of Brucellosis approved by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), RBPT was employed for detecting antibodies against Brucella organisms in camels. Polymerase Chain Reaction is widely followed for molecular diagnosis of several infectious diseases. DNA from whole blood of camels was analyzed by PCR for detection of Brucella organisms in the blood of camels. Blood samples from 177 camels (108 males and 69 females) from Bikaner and nearby villages were analyzed for Brucellosis by RBPT. Fifteen camels [7 (46.66%) males and 8 (53.33%) females] were found positive. However, none of the DNA samples from whole blood (RBPT positive or negative) from 25 camels tested was Brucella positive by PCR. The serological results indicate that Brucellosis is prevalent in camels and is of public health significance in Bikaner and nearby villages in Rajasthan state of India. However, detection of DNA of Brucella organisms in blood by PCR may not be advised for regular screening for Brucellosis since there is intermittent bacteremia in Brucellosis and Brucella DNA may not be detectable in blood continuously throughout the course of the disease. This reminds us that the OIE has approved RBPT, but not PCR for screening of Brucellosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmer Producer Companies in India: An Overview

T. S. Senthil Nathan, N. Venkatesa Palanichamy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2831528

Farmer Producer Companies (FPCs) have emerged as a solution to the problems that small and marginal farmers confront with. This study probed into the reasons for the farmer-producer companies’ establishment, as stated in different policy documents and past literature. Performance of Farmers Producer Companies has improved significantly; however, the emergence of FPCs in India has not been consistent across the states. This paper examines the current status, geographical spread and functions of Farmer's Producer Companies (FPCs) across India, as well as suggests suitable measure to their performance. The study indicated that a total of 6471 FPCs were formed, in which around 80 per cent i.e. 5145 FPCs were promoted by Small Farmers Agri-business Consortium (SFAC) and National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), 1263 FPCs were promoted by various state government and other agencies, and 63 of them were self-promoted. More than 50 per cent of the FPCs are set up in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Karnataka, Odisha and Telangana.  SFAC promoted large number of FPCs in Madhya Pradesh (149 FPCs) and NABARD has promoted large number of FPCs in Uttarakhand (362). The number of farmers mobilised through FPCs by SFAC and NABARD were highest in the state of Madhya Pradesh with 183517 farmer members, followed by Karnataka with 176732 farmer members. There were a number of factors that influenced state performance, and this study suggested some strategies to overcome them in order to promote the growth of FPCs in India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Extrusion Conditions on Physical Properties of Sorghum Based Extruded Products

Byreddy Naveena, Mohan Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 18-26
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2831530

Extrusion cooking is a high temperature short time multivariable unit operation. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of feed parameters i.e., feed moisture (8-16%), blend ratio of sorghum:barley:bengal gram, (70:15:15 to 50:35:15) and machine parameters of twin screw extruder i.e., barrel temperature (120-200oC) and screw speed (120-200 rpm) on physical properties of extrudates i.e., mass flow rate, bulk density and moisture content. The results showed that maximum mass flow rate (0.974 g/s) was observed with the blend ratio 60:25:15, having 8 percent moisture (w.b) extruded at 160oC barrel temperature and a screw speed of 160 rpm. The bulk density of extrudates was found minimum (0.08 g/cc) at 10% moisture content, 65:20:15 blend ratio, 180oC barrel temperature and 180 rpm screw speed and the moisture content of extrudates was found minimum (4.74%) at 10% moisture content, 55:30:15 blend ratio, 180oC barrel temperature and 140 rpm screw speed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Techno-Economic Analysis of a Refractance Window Dryer Prototype Developed by Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute

Winstone Asugo Nyaguti, George Wafula Wanjala, Joseph Kamau, Samuel Warui

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 27-37
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2831531

The Refractance window dryer (RWD) is a fourth generation dehydration technology. RWD is used to dry heat-sensitive materials because it retains high nutrient content, colour, flavour, aroma and bioactive compounds. The dehydrated products have a high sensory quality. There were no RWD in East Africa despite their excellent performance hence need for local fabrication of RWD Prototypes that can meet the technical, economical and socio-economical requirements. This paper describes the performance evaluation and economic analysis of the RWD prototype developed at the Kenya Industrial and Development Institute (KIRDI), Kenya. Indicators such as drying rate and drying time were used to assess its technical performance. The economic performance of the dryer was appraised using Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), and Payback Period (PBP). Mango pulp and African leafy vegetables were dried using the RWD prototype at KIRDI between May-July, 2021. During drying process, moisture content of mango pulp was reduced from 88% to 15% in one hour while African leafy vegetable from 88% to 5% in 40 minutes. The economic evaluation of the dryer revealed an IRR of 31%, NPV of 808223.515 @ 24% and PBP of 3.6 years. KIRDI RWD prototype is a versatile technology that can be deployed in remote settings resulting to reduction of post-harvest losses as well as carbon emission. Currently, sun drying, solar drying, cabinet drying, spray drying, drum drying, fluidized bed drying and freeze drying are available in Kenya. They possess various advantages and equally significant drawbacks. Therefore the adoption of KIRDI’s Refractance window dryer would be beneficial to Micro Small and Medium enterprises in providing timely drying services and improve their socio-economic status.