##### Validation of Drought Tolerance Gene-linked Microsatellite Markers and Their Efficiency for Diversity Assessment in a Set of Soybean Genotypes

Nishi Mishra, M. K. Tripathi, Niraj Tripathi, Sushma Tiwari, Neha Gupta, Akash Sharma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 48-57
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2531515

Aim: Soybean is well-thought-out to be a major crop owing to its significant involvement as vegetable oil and protein in human diet. However, inopportunely, its production has been melodramatically declined attributable to the commonness of drought related stress.

Study Design: During the present study a total of 53 soybean genotypes were selected. For molecular diversity analysis as well as validation total 12 SSR markers were used. Molecular screening of soybean genotypes was done to determine the efficiency of available markers in genetic diversity analysis as well as their validation on the basis of their association with drought tolerance gene.

Place and Duration of the Study: The present study was conducted at Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Gwalior, Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior, M.P., India during the year 2018 - 2019.

Methodology: Template DNA of all 53 selected soybean genotypes extracted for molecular screening. The current investigation has been accomplished to validate the available SSR markers with their efficiency in genetic diversity analysis in a set of soybean genotypes.

Results: Among applied drought tolerance gene-linked 12 SSR molecular markers, the highest genetic diversity (0.6629) was noticed in Satt520 while lowest (0.0370) was in Satt557 with an average of 0. 3746.While, the highest PIC value was 0.5887 prearranged by Satt520 and lowest 0.0363 by Satt557 with the mean worth of 0.3063.

Conclusion: Dendrogram constructed on the basis of banding profile of employed markers was able to discriminate some putative drought tolerant genotypes i.e., JS97-52, JS95-60 from rest of the genotypes. The results of the present examination may donate towards enhancement of soybean genotypes to bread drought tolerant varieties.

##### Distance Education in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences: Part of the Solution to the Professional Labor Shortage

Reed Brooks, Jodi Olmsted

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2531507

The purpose of this paper is introducing research conducted about issues related to influences and barriers to the potential use of distance education for mitigating the clinical laboratory sciences labor shortage. Diagnostic careers such as those in the clinical laboratory sciences remain a mystery to many people because they do not have the same prominence or visibility associated with therapeutic careers. Clinical laboratory science courses often have both didactic and laboratory components. Coursework with laboratory components require additional faculty time for preparation. When health care education is offered in traditional university or college settings not affiliated with a teaching hospital or clinical setting, laboratory costs are higher due to purchasing supplies, reagents and media. Issues are further explored in a brief series of papers addressing them.  Using DE for delivering diagnostic clinical educational is a potential viable solution for addressing national diagnostic labor shortages.

##### Assessment of Patients’ Satisfaction Level with Radio-Diagnostic Services in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

M. P. Efeoghene, J. C. Eze, F. U. Idigo, C. C. Ohagwu, M. S. Okpalaeke, U. N. Ezechukwu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2531508

Patient satisfaction may be regarded as a subjective idea which helps patient assess and rate the quality of care they obtain from healthcare providers. This study was aimed to assessing patients’ satisfaction level with radio-diagnostic services in National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi Lagos (NOHIL), Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 194 patients that visited the General Outpatient Department (GOPD) clinic twice or more from July 2019 to August 2019. Convenience sampling technique was used for sample collection. Ethical approval was obtained from the Human Research and Ethics Committee of NOHIL and participants’ consent was also obtained.  Data were collected by the use of questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Findings were significant at P < 0.05. The findings from the study showed that majority of the patients (92.3%) were satisfied with the quality of the x rays produced and the friendly nature of the radiographers (77.8%).The patients’ satisfaction with radio diagnostic services in this center could be said to be very low as patients opined that they were dissatisfied with most of the services rendered. There is a need for the radiographers to be punctual to duty as this will help reduce the long waiting time experienced by the respondents.

##### Assessment of Risks Associated with Activities in Filling Stations using Kinney Method: A case Study of Communal District 5 of Niamey (ACN5) Niger Republic

Zakari Mahamadou Mounir, Paul Nguema Fabrice, Keita Souleymane, Esly Emmanuel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 16-27
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2531509

Filling Stations are Facilities developed for provision of Goods – Automobile Fuel, Other Petroleum Products and Services – Servicing of Automobiles, Filling Stations are vital and key to the Transport and Logistics Management Industry. Despite playing a vital developmental/Economic roles Filling Stations can unfortunately be      Sources of Risks/Hazardous and Accidents to Human and the Environment.

In Niger Republic, Filling Stations is a "fashionable" Phenomenon, that is essential to have a general establishment Master Plan, and Risk Prevention as well as Mitigation Plans.

The objective of this Study is to assess the Risks associated with the presence and activities of Filling Station in Niamey Communal District 5 (ACN5). The Study considered compliance with Regulations on Location and Activities of Filling Stations and Risk associated with the Filling Station and their Activities using Kinney Method. The Result shows that there is no harmonious integration of these Companies into the Urban Development Plan due to lack of Compliance with certain Regulatory Provisions.

The diagnosis highlights that the Risks of Explosion, Fire, Pollution (Water, Soil) are the most to be feared with high scores (≥300) and 6% of the Filling Stations have must cases of non-Compliance to Regulations are supposed to be suspended/banned. Adoption of best practices in Operational Risk Management, namely Identification, Assessment, Mitigation and Monitoring of Risks is to be strictly adhered to by Filling Stations Studied.

##### Characterization of Sewage Sludge for Quality Assessment and Its Safe Utilization in Agriculture

Surendra Singh Jatav, Satish Kumar Singh, Abhik Patra, Hanuman Singh Jatav, Kiran Kumar Mohapatra, Pavan Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2531511

The current investigation was undertaken to explore the physico-biochemical properties of sewage sludge (SS) and its feasible application in agricultural field as an organic manure as source of nutrients with to solve the environmental concern. Sewage sludge samples were collected from sewage treatment plants (STP), Bhagwanpur, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India and passed through a 2 mm sieve for further analysis of different physical, chemical and biological parameters. The treated sewage sludge consists of both major and micro nutrients along with a good amount of organic matter. Application of this sewage sludge has the ability to enhance the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil which is beneficial for plant growth and development sustainable soil environment. However, it also contains some amount of toxic heavy metals and organic pollutants that can adversely affect soil environment depending on the origin source of sewage sludge, and treatment process of sewage sludge. Furthermore, the toxic elements go through the food chain due to its uptake and accumulation by crops posing a possible threat to human health. Sewage sludge application in soil offers essential nutrients particularly for plant growth, maintains the organic carbon in soil and decreases environmental concern with economic factors that restrict landfill or incineration disposal of sewage sludge. However, a careful assessment of the characteristics of sewage sludge is required prior to its soil application to improve the soil health without causing environmental hazard. The SS analyzed in the present study had heavy metals content but was within permissible limits as resulted its suitable for soil application as source of nutrients.

##### Proximate Analysis and Bioactive Composition of Icecream Incorporated with Spices

Dhanavath Srinu, D. Baskaran, R. Palani Dorai, K. S. Gnanalaksshmi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 42-47
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2531513

The present study was carried out to determine the nutritional composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant properties of ice cream prepared by incorporating selected spices viz., fenugreek, black cumin, coriander, and cinnamon in the form of powders at different equal levels of substitution (1%, 1.5%, and 2%). The spices incorporated in the ice cream were found to have dietary fibre content in the range of 0.81 to 2.02g/100g. The total flavonoid content was found to be in the range of 72.55 to 78.79mg/g of quercetin. The present study results revealed that the ice cream prepared by incorporating different spices showed good antioxidant properties.

##### Documentation of the Major Insect Pest of Cabbage and Their Associated Natural Enemies in Bihar, North-eastern India

Anil Kumar, Md. Monobrullah, Deepak Ranjan Kishor, Ritesh Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 58-66
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2531516

The present investigation was conducted at farm of ICAR-Research Centre for Eastern Region (ICAR-RCER), Patna, Bihar during 2020-21.Geographically, ICAR-RCER, Patna is located at 25o3530 N latitude, 85o0503 E longitude, at an altitude 52m above mean sea level. The climate of the region is warm and temperate which is characterized by extremes of the temperature both during summer and winter. During summer, temperature may rise as high as 390C and in winter it may fall as low as 2-30C.The total annual average rain fall is 1130mm. This region provides a safe long growing season for most of the crops. Diamond back moth was found to be the most serious insect pest of cabbage. The infestation appeared during first week of January (SMW1) at vegetative stage and remained present up to the harvesting of the crop i.e. 11th SMW. Among the natural enemies, two species of coccinellids (Coccinella septempunctata, C. transversalis), one larval parasitoid (Cotesia plutellae) and one Syrphid fly (Toxomerus geminatus) and one unidentified spider was observed during crop period.

##### Energy Homeostasis and the Law of Thermodynamics

Osinachi Akanwa Ekeagwu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 36-41
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2531512

With the increasing prevalence of obesity and associated morbidity, research continues to investigate the associated factors as well as approaches for effective bodyweight management. While there is consensus that obesity is characterised by an energy imbalance, the interactions between the various components of energy components and the implications of the homeostatic determinants remain controversial. This review critiques the existing theories on energy balance in relation to the law of thermodynamics and proposes the inclusion of important determinants in the energy balance equation.