Open Access Original Research Article

Cooling and Qualitative Study of Evaporative Cool Hydroponically Grown Maize Crop

Sanjay Kumar Singh, Amit Kumar Patil, Sheshrao Kautkar, P. N. Dwivedi, A. K. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2231474

A study of evaporative cool hydroponic chamber was made with respect to its cooling and qualitative evaluation for growth of maize. The daily average temperature and RH range of 35.5 to 36.1 0C and 37–77% respectively were observed under Evaporative Cool Hydroponic Chamber (ECHC). The cooling efficiency of ECHC varied from 57.61% to 83.33% with an average value of 74.06%. Fresh biomass yield of fodder maize was observed as 1.2kg/ft2 of tray area. Crude protein and crude fibre on dry matter basis of hydroponic maize fodder ranged from 13.1-13.08% and 15.30-15.31% respectively. The ECHC can be used as an alternative of high cost hydroponic fodder machines which can be locally fabricated and operated by semi-skilled manpower.

Open Access Original Research Article

Similarity Measure Algorithm for Text Document Clustering, Using Singular Value Decomposition

Valentina Adu, Michael Donkor Adane, Kwadwo Asante

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 8-25
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2231475

We examined a similarity measure between text documents clustering. Data mining is a challenging field with more research and application areas. Text document clustering, which is a subset of data mining helps groups and organizes a large quantity of unstructured text documents into a small number of meaningful clusters. An algorithm which works better by calculating the degree of closeness of documents using their document matrix was used to query the terms/words in each document. We also determined whether a given set of text documents are similar/different to the other when these terms are queried. We found that, the ability to rank and approximate documents using matrix allows the use of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) as an enhanced text data mining algorithm. Also, applying SVD to a matrix of a high dimension results in matrix of a lower dimension, to expose the relationships in the original matrix by ordering it from the most variant to the lowest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Ash Yield from Bicomposite Biomass (Terminalia catappa and Chrysophyllum albidium) Seed Barks with Additive upon Combustion

Ebenezer Olujimi, Dada, Uriel Olamilekan, Awe-Obe, Kamoru Olufemi, Oladosu, Abass Olanrewaju, Alade, Tinuade Jolaade, Afolabi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 26-38
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2231476

The ash yield from the combustion of a mixture of Africa star apple and tropical almond seeds shells (biocomposite biomass) with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as an additive in a furnace was optimized using I-Optimal Design under the Combined Methodology of the Design Expert Software. The data obtained were analysed statistically using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for the prediction of ash yield and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine the coefficient of determination (R²) between variables. Proximate analysis was used to evaluate Moisture Content (MC), Fixed Carbon Content (FCC), and Volatile Matter (VM) values while the Higher Heating Value (HHV) of the mixtures that gave the highest and lowest ash yields was evaluated numerically. The optimum conditions of process variables for the compositions of tropical almond, African star apple, and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, as well as the temperature, were 30%, 60%, 10% and 704 oC, respectively leading to a minimum ash yield of 24.8%. The mathematical models for the ash using the I-optimal design indicate a good fit to the Quadratic model with a R² of 0.9999. The ANN model agreed significantly with the experimental results with an R² of 0.9939.  The VM, FCC, MC, AC and HHV of the highest ash yield were 11.00%, 2.34%, 3.20%, 33.80% and 4487.747 , respectively. The study established the suitability of optimisation tool to develop solid fuel mixtures for possible use in grate furnaces and its efficiencies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Web Module for Automatic Farm Management

EVINA Nkolo Williams Mathias, Julius Kewir Tangka, Djousse K. Boris Merlain, John Ngansi Nga, Tedongmo Gouana Jospin

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 60-79
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2231478

Frequent visits to livestock farms for cleaning, feed and water distribution are possible ways of spreading viruses and bacteria. An automatic feed distribution and water management system can significantly reduce the workload by helping to control transmissible animal diseases. To this end, an automatic solar-powered module for feed and water distribution, sanitation management, and communication via the global mobile communications system and the internet through a web application has been developed for livestock farms. This module consists of an Arduino Mega board, water and feed level sensors, a "Reel Time Clock", relay modules, an LCD screen, a "Global System for Mobile Communications" module and a web application.  Initial testing of the prototype revealed a minimum efficiency of 83.33% for all units. Field and laboratory tests indicated that the module is capable of communicating with the farmer 1 to 3 seconds after completion of each task. It was concluded that the use of this module can seriously limit the visits to the farms, thus reducing the drudgery of the work and the possibility of spreading diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Genotypes against Major Sucking Insect- Pests of Mothbean [Vigna aconitifolia] in Arid Region

K. L. Naga, A. R. Naqvi, B. L. Naga, H. L. Deshwal, L. Jhumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 80-88
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2231479

Aim: Some genotypes of mothbean were screened for their comparative preference against jassids, whiteflies and thrips.

Materials and Methods: The experiment was laid out during Kharif season in Randomized Block Design with three Replications. Ten genotypes (viz., RMO-225, RMO-40, RMO-423, RMO-435, RMO-257, RMO-25, RMO-141, RMO-20-36, RMO-04-01-28 and RMO-28-80) were screened against major sucking insect pests which were replicated thrice.

Observations: The observations were recorded after two weeks of sowing at weekly intervals after two weeks of sowing. The pest populations were recorded on five randomly selected and tagged plants per plot in early hours when insect have minimum activity.

Results: The data revealed that none of the genotypes ware found free from sucking insect pest attack. On the basis of peak population, the genotypes RMO-25 and RMO-141 were categorized as least preferred to jassids, whiteflies and thrips, whereas, RMO-435, RMO-225 and RMO-04-01-28 as highly preferred to jassids and whiteflies and RMO-435, RMO-225 and RMO-257 as highly resistant to thrips.

Conclusion: It is well known that certain genotypes of crops are less attacked by a specific insect-pest than others because of natural resistance. In the integrated pest management programme, growing of varieties (RMO-25 and RMO-141) with less preference to sucking insect-pests is one of the most important tools without additional cost.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Management Factors and Development of Universities in Nigeria

Modupe Olayinka Ajayi, Hameed Olusegun Adebambo, Oladayo Oladimeji Olusunmbola

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 89-96
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2231481

The study examined the factors affecting knowledge management and assessed the effect of its factors on the development of Universities in Ondo State, Nigeria. Sample consists of 359 respondents selected from three of the four universities in the study area using stratified random sampling. The study was conducted Ondo State. The study used both descriptive and regression analysis to arrive at its outcomes. Descriptive analysis revealed that job security (4.67), allocation of sufficient financial resources (4.51), senior management support and commitment (4.47), technological infrastructure (4.42), employee involvement (4.34), employee motivation (4.32) and friendly organizational culture (4.28) are the factors affecting knowledge management of the universities. In addition, regression analysis revealed that the factors examined in the study have positive link with the development of Universities in the study area.  The study recommends that University management should ensure that staff are guaranteed of the safety of their jobs as this will encourage them to feel comfortable in sharing their knowledge for the prospects of the university. Also, university management should ensure that staff have a safe, comfortable and friendly working environment and introduce means for motivating them such as giving incentives and additional payments for overtime.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of Nutrient Values and Heavy Metals Content of Talinum triangulare Collected from Farm Land (Post Service) and Dumpsite (Oko Fili) in Lagos, Nigeria

A. A. Adu, O. J. Aderinola, O. B. Adeyeye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 97-106
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2231482

Introduction: Talinum triangulare is a nutritious vegetable whose consumption is popular in Nigeria. Therefore, the necessity to consume a very quality and hygienic T. triangulare cannot be over emphasized.

Aims: To investigate the nutrient contents and level of heavy metals in T. triangulare collected from dumpsite and farmland.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Botany, Lagos State University, (Oko fili in Alimosho Local Government Area) and farmland (Post Service in Ojo Local Government Area) between January to March, 2021.

Methodology: The data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20 and a standard procedure was used for t-test analysis.

Results: All the amino acids detected in T. triangulare from both dumpsite and farmland had no significant differences (p>0.05). There are no significant difference (p>0.05) between lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and selenium (Se) in samples examined across the two sampling sites, while arsenic (except in the soil from dumpsite) and nickel (except in plant from both sites) were not detected. However, the concentrations of heavy metals such as calcium(Ca), iron(Fe), potassium(K), magnesium(Mg), sodium(Na), phosphorus(P), and zinc (Zn) in both the soil and T. triangulare  samples from the dumpsite are significantly(p<0.05) higher than that from the farmland. The respective values of these metals (mg/100g) in the plant at dumpsite and farmland are: Ca (343.400±206.475), Fe (82.000±29.839), K(90.900±10.748), Mg(1595.250±149.553), Na(2217.050), P(502.250±140.077) and Zn(60.620±8.739) respectively.

Conclusion: Therefore, T. triangulare examined in this study is safe for consumption, however its excess K, Na, and Mg content can be recommended for people with deficiency in those nutrients.

Open Access Review Article

The Application of Nanosensors in Illicit Drugs Determination: A Review

Lawal Shuaibu, AbduRahman Abdul Audu, Kingsley John Igenepo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 39-59
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2231477

The utilization of nanomaterials (NMs) to produce nanosensors for detecting drugs in a wide range of materials has attracted global attention. Various categories of NMs have been synthesized and applied for the qualitative determination of some additives, contaminants, and illicit materials owing to their unique physicochemical properties at the nanoscale to impact desired effects. Rapid and facile detection techniques employed for on-site analysis of illicit drugs using NMs are reviewed. It is noted that NMs are good candidates in the fabrication of nanosensors for the sensitive detections and determinations of illicit drugs. Thus, this review is focused on the application of these sensors for illicit drug detection. Hence, the application of plasmonic/optical properties of NMs to enhance illicit drug detection in biological samples has been discussed. The fabricated sensors have been shown to possess enhanced selectivity, sensitivity, cost-effectiveness as well as improved automation. As highlighted in the in-depth review, the sensors are designed to utilize biological receptors with a transducer component to detect the analyte-biorecognition element interaction which resulted in producing an optimum signal.