Open Access Short Communication

Analysis of Versions of the RX Algorithm for Anomaly Detection in Hyperspectral Images

Chinmayee Dora, Jharna Majumdar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 25-31
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2131468

Anomaly Detection with Hyper Spectral Image (HSI) refers to finding a significant difference between the background and the anomalous pixels present in the image.  This paper offers a study on the Reed Xiaoli Anomaly (RXA) detection algorithm performance investigated for increasing number of spectral bands from 30, 50, 100 to all the spectral bands present in the HSI. The original RXA algorithm is formulated with Mahalanobis distance. In this study the RXA al is re-implemented with other different distance algorithms like Bhattacharya distance, Kullback-Leibler divergence, and Jeffery divergence and evaluated for any change in the performance. For the first part of investigation, the obtained results showed that the decreased number of spectral bands shows better performance in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) obtained for cumulative probability values and false alarm rate. In the next part of study it is found that, the RXA algorithm with Jeffrey divergence has a comparable performance in ROC to that of the RX algorithm with Mahalanobis distance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Agricultural Production Diversification among Marginal and Small Farmers of Kanyakumari and Perambalur

Y. Melba, K. R. Ashok, A. Vidhyavathi, S. Kalaivani, P. Vennila

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2131466

Aims: To assess the influence of agricultural production diversity of marginal and small farmers

Study Design: Purposive Random Sampling

Place and Duration of Study: Kanyakumari and Perambalur districts in Tamil Nadu were purposefully chosen for the survey, which was conducted through primary data collection from July to August 2020.

Methodology: According to the Tamil Nadu state planning commission report 2017, Kanyakumari and Perambalur districts were chosen at random from the top five and bottom five districts of the food security index to analyze dietary diversity. The crop diversification index was calculated using the entropy index. The Tobit model is used to investigate the impact of diverse agriculture production among marginal and small farming households.

Results: The findings clearly show that, of the two districts, Perambalur has diversified more than Kanyakumari. Farmers in Perambalur district cultivate agricultural crops, whereas farmers in Kanyakumari district selected block cultivate horticultural crops, particularly plantation crops. According to the Tobit results, the number of cattle, farm size, credit available, and distance from the market all had a positive and significant influence on crop diversification. Improving female-headed household decision-making, promoting household investment and infrastructure facilities, and suggesting crop development as crop diversification measures.

Conclusion: The results conclude that farmers in Perambalur district have highly diversified cropping than Kanyakumari district.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Diversity among Soybean Genotypes via Yield Attributing Traits and SSR Molecular Markers

Nishi Mishra, Manoj Kumar Tripathi, Sushma Tiwari, Niraj Tripathi, Neha Gupta, Akash Sharma, Ravindra Singh Solanki

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 9-24
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2131467

Introduction: As an important source of nutrients to humans and animals, soybean is considered to be a major crop.

Objective: The present study has been executed to identify diverse soybean genotypes on account of different morpho-physiological and microsatellite molecular markers.

Study Design: Data for Morpho-physiological traits were recorded from experiment conducted under field conditions in RBD design whereas molecular work was conducted in Laboratory.

Place and Duration of the Study: The present study was conducted at College of Agriculture, Gwalior, Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior, M.P., India during Kharif 2018-19.

Methodology: The study was conducted to document different morphological and physiological traits related to the yield and its attributing traits in soybean. Total 32 microsatellite markers were also used in laboratory to analyze the variability among soybean genotypes.

Results: Morpho-physiological analysis among 53 genotypes revealed the presence of considerable level of variability. Phylogenetic tree based on morpho-physiological traits grouped the genotypes into major and minor cluster. Major cluster had fifty genotypes while minor cluster had only three genotypes. Among polymorphic 32 microsatellite markers, the highest genetic diversity (0.66) was recorded in Satt520 whilst lowest (0.037) was in Satt557 with an average of 0.35. The highest PIC value was 0.59 prearranged by Satt520 and lowest 0.036 by Satt557. An average major allele frequency was 0.69 while, an average PIC value was 0.32. Microsatellite markers-based data also grouped the genotypes into one major and one minor cluster.

Conclusion: Molecular analysis based on microsatellite markers confirms the presence of genetic variability among genotypes under the investigation. Data obtained in the present investigation may contribute towards improvement of soybean genotypes to develop high yielding varieties by considering diverse genotypes with good agronomical traits in hybridization programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance-Based Optimization of Reinforced Ductile Concrete Frames with Asymmetric Reinforcement in Columns Using the ISR Analogy

Luis Fernando Verduzco Mart´ınez, Jaime Moises Horta ´ Rangel, Miguel Angel P ´ erez Lara y Hern ´ ande, Juan Bosco Hernandez Zaragoza

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 32-60
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2131469

Aims/ Objectives: The present work exposes the design of optimization procedures both with the “Particle Swarm Optimization” (PSO) algorithm and the “Genetic Algorithm” (GA) for the design of reinforced concrete frames, making comparisons in cost, weight of the structure and predicted damage. The optimization procedures are built up using the “Idealized Smeared Reinforcement” (ISR) analogy for each element of the structural model frames considered for this work.

Study Design: Descriptive Cross-sectional study. 

Place and Duration of Study: Graduate Engineering Department, Autonomous University of Queretaro, Santiago de Quertaro, Quertaro, Mxico, August 2021.

Methodology: Two different numerical structural plane-frame models were created for the application and comparison of the performance of the optimization design procedures hereby proposed. The optimization procedures were mono-objective with a cost-objective function, taking on account steel reinforcement and concrete for the cost computation. Two different design approaches were carried on for this work, one proposing asymmetrical reinforcement for columns and the other with symmetrical reinforcement. In order to compute the damage indices considered for this study a non-linear Pushover structural analysis is performed.

Results: Results show that asymmetrical reinforcement in columns may reduce concrete volumes, although such reduction in material might not be quite proportional with construction cost, given that asymmetric reinforcement in columns is more expensive than symmetrical, per unit-cost. The bigger the structure, the more likely is to obtain lighter structures by using asymmetrical reinforcement. Regarding damage of the structure, results show that when using asymmetrical reinforcement in columns, it is more likely to obtain smaller values for the expected damage with no great difference on the estimated collapse Safety Factors for the seismic loads. In general, the proposed methodology hereby proposed enhances quite good optima results, requiring only a few adjustments of clash-free and slap reinforcement after the optimization procedure terminates.

Conclusion: When designing reinforced concrete frames with asymmetric reinforcement in columns, an increase in construction costs of as much as 25% as that obtained for symmetric reinforcement could be enhanced. In general, with the proposed methodology to optimally design reinforced concrete frames, savings of as much as 20% in construction costs from an initial structural proposal can be reached.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics from “Wagashi” Production Whey in Abomey-Calavi (Benin)

Oumarou Djobo, Abdou Hamidou Soule, Haziz Sina, Souriatou B. Tagba, Farid Baba-Moussa, Adolphe Adjanohoun, Lamine Baba-Moussa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 61-69
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2131470

Aims: The production of “wagashi”, induce the production of whey which is often directly drop in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological and physicochemical qualities of wagashi’s whey samples collected in Abomey-Calavi (Benin).

Methodology: Whey samples were collected from Abomey-Calavi (Parana and Akassato) in Southern Benin. The physicochemical analyses targeted the pH, titratable acidity, dry matter contents, protein and lactose. The microbiological analyzes carried out consisted in enumeration of total mesophilic flora (TMF), fecal coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, staphylococci, yeasts and molds, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli and salmonella by cultures on specific synthetic nutrient media.

Results: This study revealed characteristics such as dry matter (5.30-5.66 g / l), pH (3.91-5.21), titratable acidity, protein (5.94-0.128 g / l), lactose; and microbial quality of the whey. Parana’s whey was more acidic (pH = 3.91 ± 0.014) than Akassato’s whey analyzed with higher titratable acidity (pH = 0.92 ± 0.01). The presence of total mesophilic aerobic flora, Escherichia coli, staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds reveals fecal, human and environmental contamination during cheese production or during whey storage. Thus, Parana's whey was more contaminated with TMF (3.45.108 CFU/ml), lactic acid bacteria (4.82.108 CFU/ml) and fecal coliforms (> 3.108 CFU/ml) while Akassato's whey was more contaminated by staphylococci (4.70.108 CFU/ml) and Escherichia coli (> 3.108 CFU/ml). Salmonella was not identified.

Conclusion: It thus important raising the awareness of cow's milk processors and / or whey producers in Benin. We therefore project to use this whey as a substrate for bioproduction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Attitude towards Custom Hiring Centers: An Exploratory Study in Punjab

Kuldeep Kumar, H. R. Meena, K. S. Kadian, B. S. Meena, Gunjan Bhandari, Jasvinder Kaur

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 70-78
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2131471

Stubble burning is a major threat to environment in trans- gangetic plain region, where there exists bright prospect to reap the benefits of custom hiring centers by leveraging the suitable farm machinery helpful in overcoming the stubble burning issue. Present study was conducted in Punjab state and three districts namely, Ludhiana, Sangrur, Moga were selected purposively due to highest stubble burning cases in last five years. From each district two block were selected randomly. Subsequently, three villages from each block were randomly selected. Finally, from each village 20 respondents were selected randomly constituting of total 360 farmers. Two scales were constructed exclusively for the study in order to measure the attitude of farmers towards custom hiring centres (CHCs) and elicitation of perception regarding stubble burning.  Results indicated that majority of the respondents had favorable attitude towards CHCs, followed by 22.78 per cent of respondents having neutral attitude towards CHCs and only 8.89 per cent of respondents has unfavorable attitude towards CHCs. CHCs were not sufficient in number to cater the high demand during the peak seasons. Those machines which are of least demand should be replaced by machines with high demand. Majority of the respondents agreed that crop residue burning has a negative effect on plant health, air, human health, animal health, biodiversity, vehicular traffic and soil health. It was found that less than half (47.23%) of the respondent had high level of perception.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity Management and Performance of Ministries in Edo State, Nigeria

Onyeizugbe Chinedu Uzochukwu, Ndubuisi-Okolo Purity Uzoamaka, I. Odia Robert

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 89-99
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2131473

The increasing rate of tribalism, regional identities and discrimination among employers and employees in Nigerian organizations most especially public ministries has remained a recurring spike in Nigeria. The study selected ministry of agriculture, health and education in Edo State to examine the level of diversity practiced in terms of gender diversity of ministries in Edo state. The general objective of this study is to examine the relationship between diversity management and employee performance in Edo State ministries. The study specifically aims to identify the extent of relationship that exists between gender diversity and employee commitment of selected Ministries in Edo State. Descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The target population was 275 employees of ministries of agriculture, health and education in Edo State. A total of 275 copies of questionnaire were disseminated to the respondents of the study and only 262 were filled and returned which served as the sample size. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Percentages and frequency tables were used for the descriptive aspects. To test the hypothesis formulated, Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient Analysis was adopted. The study revealed that diversity management such as gender diversity affects employee commitment. The study concludes that gender diversity is a critical workforce diversity management that determines employee commitment in an organization. The study recommends that there is need for creating awareness and conducting trainings bordering on management diversity since most of the staff did not think the organization has invested enough in sensitizing employee.

Open Access Review Article

Current Status and Future Outlook on Occupational Health and Safety Research in Sudan: A Concise Review

Rasha A. Abdelrahim, Faris Omer, Victor O. Otitolaiye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 79-88
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i2131472

The concept of occupational health and safety (OHS) describes the strategies, guidelines, and actions typically adopted and implemented to prevent, minimize or manage the risks associated with the health and safety of people and property. Over the years, the rapid growth, development and operation of various industries in developing countries have resulted in numerous accidents, injuries and illnesses. Given the short- and long-term effects of such issues, it is imperative to identify, examine and highlight the potential areas where workplace-related incidences could occur in the industry. Therefore, this paper presents an overview of the current status and future outlook on occupational health and safety (OHS) research in Sudan. The review of the literature indicates that although OHS research is still in its infancy in Sudan, various researchers have examined the nature, sources, and impacts of accidents, injuries, and illnesses that severely comprise workers’ health and safety. Furthermore, workers in Sudan are routinely exposed to toxic chemicals, medical wastes, noxious gases, noise pollution and other workplace-related risks that severely affect human health, safety and the environment. However, many employers, workers and government agencies have ample knowledge of OHS and its importance in the workplace. The studies also highlighted the crucial role played by OHS not only on health and safety but also the overall organisational performance and operational management in workplaces. Therefore, the design, development, and integration of OHS programmes into the workplace could greatly minimize and eliminate work-related accidents, illness, injuries or death.