Open Access Original Research Article

The Erosive Potential of Acidic Candies: An Ex Vivo Study

Andressa Feitosa Bezerra Oliveira, Aida Ghazvini, Renzo Alberto Ccahuana Vásquez, Ingrid Andrade Meira, Juliellen Luiz Da Cunha, Nayanna Lana Soares Fernandes, Bennett Tochukwu Amaechi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 15-25
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1931452

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the erosive potential of saliva on dental enamel sucking the acidic candies, and their effects on the pH, titratable acidity (TA) and buffering capacity (β) of saliva.

Methodology: Human enamel specimens (n = 216) were randomly in 17 acidic candy groups and one negative control (paraffin wax) group. Three human volunteers sucked each candy for 5 min while spitting into a covered and chilled vial. The pH, TA and β were measured immediately after the saliva collection. For erosive challenge, each specimen was immersed in saliva at room temperature for 120 min without agitation. The erosion was measured by surface microhardness (SMH) tester and with 3D non-contact optical profilometer for depth of surface loos (DSL). Percentage of SMH change (%SMHC) was calculated. ANOVA followed by Tukey test and Pearson correlation were performed (α=0.05).

Results: All candies lowered saliva pH below 5.5, and produced significant DSL (P<0.05) and %SMHC (P<0.01) on enamel, when compared to negative control. The Baby bottle Pop candy presented the lowest erosive potential. No significant differences were observed in DSL between all candies and the negative control, except for the PicoSitos candy. However, for the %SMHC almost all the candies were significantly different from negative control. Correlations were observed between the pH and TA and β, between TA and β, and between the %SMHC and DSL variables (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Acidic candies can lower the saliva pH, hindering its buffering effect. The DSL and %SMHC analysis showed enamel dissolution with all candies investigated.

Open Access Mini Review Papers

Review on Deep Learning Based Automatic Detection of COVID-19 from Chest-X Ray Images

Debaraj Rana, Swarna Prabha Jena, Subrat Kumar Pradhan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 10-14
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1931451

The Global pandemic declared Corona Virus Disease (COVID 19) has affected severely tothe health of human being over the globe. More than 15 crore around worldwide have been affected by the Novel Corona virus and it is progressing rapidly. Mainly in the health sector, the hospitals are not properly equipped with proper diagnosis system which can detect the disease accurately with less time consumption. The Chest X Ray image are taking less time and cost effective which can be used for detection of COVID 19 even the severity can also be determine form the CXR images. In the current research many researchers are focusing on implementation of Deep learning method for accurate and quick detection of COVID 19 which can help the radiologist for evaluation of the disease. In this review, proposed Deep learning methodology from the literature have been discussed with their experimental data set. This review could help to develop modified architecture which gives more improvement in the diagnosis in term of computational complexity and time consumption

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Analeptic Properties of Vitamin D

Bharat Kwatra, Angarika Balakrishnan, Garima Kaushik, Hrucha Mayekar, Saijal Vats, Sohini Chattopadhyay

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 48-71
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1931455

This article is an examination of the Analeptic Properties of Vitamin D. The scientific development and subsequent need to develop new strategies to tackle problems related to joints, dermatitis, cancer, respiratory disorders, dysfunctional immune system and COVID-19, continues to influence researchers all over the globe today. This article examines the research done and published by researchers and scientists. Consideration of current trends and data in scientific queries and demonstrates further aspects of Analeptic Properties of Vitamin D. Additionally, this article explores options for using Vitamin D to treat problems related to joints such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis, its applications in atopic dermatitis and eczema, its potential in treating Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBS), cancer, immune disorders and common respiratory diseases and additionally its use as a prophylaxis for COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Evaluation of Thermals Performances of The Solar Dryer with Parabolic Trough Collector

B. Magloire Pakouzou, N. Landry M'Bouana, M. S. Thierry Ky, Jean M'Boliguipa, D. Joseph Bathiébo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1931450

A cylindrical-parabolic solar-thermal converter, with 0.5m2 of capture surface, was manufactured and attached to a furnace, constituting an indirect solar dryer. Thermal balances of the elements of the receiver, housed in the focal point of this collector, are settled. A campaign of vacuum tests of this dryer indicated temperatures of the heat-bearing air in natural convection, along the absorber tube (70°C) and inside the drying cage (almost 60°C,on average). The average thermal efficiency of said converter has been evaluated at 50%.The higher the efficiency, the less the converter's capture surface is required and, therefore, less investment is required. These promising results testify to the effective performance of this new dryer compared to dryers with flat collectors, whose efficiencies could not exceed 40% despite the large surface area of these collectors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Female Same-Sex Legal Status and Its Implications to Women Who have Sex with Women’s Health and Well-being in Tanzania: A Public Health Lens

Switbert R. Kamazima, Jackline V. Mbishi, Happiness P. Saronga, Saidah S. Bakar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1931453

Same-sex relationships and marriages are increasingly becoming legal in some parts of the globe, in the United States and Europe, in particular. However, opposition is strong and same-sex marriage remains banned in many countries leading to uneven expansion of broader lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning rights globally. Researchers conducted a formative qualitative cross-sectional descriptive and retrospective study with women who have sex with women to, among other objectives, assess and document female same-sex legal status and its implications to these women’s daily lives, health, and wellbeing in Tanzania. Results indicate that female same-sex is illegal in Tanzania and same-sex activities are punishable on conviction by life imprisonment. As a result, female same-sex behaviors and practices are pushed underground due to fear of stigma, rejection, abandonment, discrimination, and violence from the law enforcement machinery and the general public. In turn, this situation restricts these women from utilizing healthcare services available, which endangers women who have sex with women’s health and wellbeing. Recommend for further multidisciplinary, comprehensive, and informative public health research among women who have sex with women to generate data that would facilitate improving healthcare professionals’ ability to diagnose, treat, control, and prevent illnesses among women who have sex with women in Tanzania.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Chitosan and Alginate Based Edible Coating on Shelf Life and Postharvest Quality of Kinnow Mandarin

Himanshu Puri, Arun Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 36-47
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1931454

The Kinnow mandarin (Citrus nobilis x Citrus deliciosa) was highly perishable citrus fruit, after harvest the quality of Kinnow fruits undergoes rapid changes due to the sharpen rate of ripening, respiration and transpiration. Edible coating formulation of chitosan (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%), alginate (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%), composite formulation of chitosan and alginate (0.5% chitosan+0.5% alginate & 1% chitosan+0.5% alginate) were evaluated in relation to enhancing and improving shelf life and postharvest quality of Kinnow respectively. Kinnow fruit shelf life efficiency was evaluated on the basis of postharvest quality parameters like weight loss percent, firmness, pH, total soluble solids, total acidity and ascorbic acid from 6th to 24th day during incubation at ambient room temperature (20-25°C). The results signifies that the Kinnow fruit coated with alginate 1% have higher shelf life efficiency up to 24 days; however chitosan 1% coated fruits shown to have higher ascorbic acid retention as compared to untreated Kinnow fruits. The principal component analysis of different quality parameters for studied treatment shows 65.7 % variation in component 1 and 16.6% variation in component 2. PCA plot elucidate that coated fruit samples were high positive values and completely different from untreated samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition and Mineral Content of Grasshoppermeal as an Alternative to Fishmeal for Fish Feed Production

I. G. Olaleye, P. E. Asuquo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 72-75
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1931456

The purpose of this study is to determine the proximate composition and mineral content of grasshopper meal as an alternative feedstuff of animal source to substitute fishmeal in the production of fish feed. Grasshoppers were gotten from the market irrespective of size, they were de-winged and processed into powder. The biochemical content (proximate composition and mineral content) were analyzed. The proximate composition of edible grasshopper meal was assessed using A.O.A.C standard. The result obtained were 64.51%, 5.1%, 94.9%, 1.0%, 5.49%, 17.0% and 12% for crude protein content, moisture content, dry matter, ash, nitrogen free extract, crude fibre and ether extract respectively. The essential mineral content of grasshopper meal was also assessed and the result obtained were 0.55%, 0.12%, 0.1%, and 0.73% for calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium respective. The quality of nutrients and mineral composition of grasshopper meal makes it a good dietary supplement for fish and could be used in fish feed production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification and Typing of Canine Parvovirus Using Molecular Techniques

Koppu Vasavi, Gurpreet Kaur, Mudit Chandra, P. N. Dwivedi, Navjot Kaur

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 76-82
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1931457

Aim: Canine parvovirus 2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses. It causes a highly contagious and often fatal disease. The disease condition is complicated further due to emergence of a number of variants namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b, CPV-2c, new CPV 2a, new CPV 2b over the years and involvement of domestic and wild canines. The virus is shed in large numbers in the feces of infected dog and upto 7 to 10 days post-infection, therefore, the present study was designed to detect CPV and to identify the prevailing antigenic types of CPV using molecular techniques from rectal swabs of affected dogs.

Methods: The rectal swabs were collected from dogs suspected of Canine Parvovirus and subjected to PCR, Nested PCR and Realtime PCR for identification and typing of CPV in infected dogs.

Results: From the study it was found that the per cent positivity was high in dogs and was found to be 50% and 89% by PCR and nested polymerase reaction respectively when considered in suspected dogs. The most prevailing antigenic type as detected by Real time PCR was found to be CPV 2a.

Conclusions: The study indicated the animals vaccinated for CPV were also found positive for the disease. This study helps to detect percent positivity of CPV in dogs and also is important to identify the prevailing antigenic types of CPV in the region.