Open Access Short Communication

Development and Study of Plant Based Mosquito Repellent Cakes in Combination with Natural Binders

Satish D. Patil, Smita T. Morbale

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 88-93
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1831446

Background and Objective: Plants are perceived as a safe and trusted means of mosquito bite prevention. Many plant extracts and oils repel mosquitoes, with their effect lasting from several minutes to several hours. The present investigation is aimed to evaluate the mosquito repellent activity of Calendula officinalis (Marigold leaves), Citrus madurensis (Calamondin leaves), Carica papaya (Papaya leaves), Origanum vulgare (Oregano leaves), in combination with natural binders.

Materials and Methods: In present work we have produced an effective and purely natural mosquito repellent cakes using marigold leaves, calamondin leaves, papaya leaves, oregano leaves, and to determine if the component present on them are suitable as mosquito  repellent. To recognize this new combination and in addition use of natural binder in making these mosquito cakes is innovation of method. Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm×30 cm×25 cm) containing 100 blood starved mosquitoes.

Results: Study provides an herbal repellent with long lasting protection, safe for human life, and human with no side effect. The combination Paste of leaves + charcoal + 20% cow dung was found to be more repellency against mosquitoes under study.

Conclusion: Discovery of natural products, with potent phyto-constituents that have insecticidal properties, may help overcome problems of chemical insecticide resistance. Nature is the best combinatorial chemist to offer numerous natural products compounds from medicinal plants which can be effective as medicines, antibacterial, antifungal, insect repellent, cosmetics etc.

Open Access Original Research Article

Advancements in Food Technology Using Artificial Intelligence- Deep Learning

Viola A. Nwachukwu Nicholas-Okpara, Adaeze Joy Ubaka, Maryam Olanshile Adegboyega, Ifesinachi Anastacia Utazi, C. E. Chibudike, H. O. Chibudike

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1831439

The food industry has continued to evolve in terms of technologies employed in food processing. These advancements are because of increasing demand of food. Many industries are beginning to explore new technologies to enhance maximum efficiency and productivity across the food value chain. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is one of the emerging technologies that have found great relevance in the food sector. AI is simply the creation of smart machines capable of exhibiting human intelligence. This technology uses algorithms like machine learning and deep learning to mimic human behavior. AI has continued to find relevance in food processing and has proven to be an added advantage to the industry. In this article, we considered the relevance of AI to the food industry, its various applications in food processing, benefits, and setbacks to its adoption in the food industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Incidence and Effect of Abiotic Factors on Population Dynamics of Sucking Insect Pest Complex of Groundnut

K. Shamili Dhatri, M. S. V. Chalam, A. Rajesh, B. Ramana Murthy, N. C. Venkateswartlu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1831440

Studies on seasonal incidence of sucking insect pests carried out with three dates of sowing viz., early (July 15th), normal (July 30th) and late (August 15th) revealed that the incidence of leafhoppers, aphids and thrips started from 5 to 14 DAS (days after sowing) and continued till harvesting. In early sown crop, the incidence of leafhoppers started from 31 SW and incidence of aphids and thrips started from 30 SW and continued up to 42 and 43 SW for leafhoppers and aphids, respectively and 41 SW for thrips. In normal sown crop, incidence of leafhoppers and aphids started from 32 SW and incidence of thrips started from 31 SW and continued till the end of 45 SW for all the three pests. In late sown crop, the incidence of leafhoppers started from 35 SW and incidence of aphids and thrips started from 34 SW and continued up to 46 and 47 SW for leafhoppers and aphids, respectively and 46 SW for thrips. Correlation studies revealed that incidence of leafhoppers exhibited significant negative correlation with maximum temperature (r = -0.467, -0.442 and -0.464) and rainfall (r = -0.518, -0.529 and -0.742) during all the three dates of sowing (early, normal and late, respectively) and significant negative correlation with minimum temperature in late sown crop (r = -0.448). Aphids exhibited significant negative correlation with maximum temperature (r = -0.469, -0.521 and -0.472) and rainfall (r = -0.443, -0.450 and  -0.721) in all the three dates of sowing (early, normal and late, respectively) while significant negative correlation with minimum temperature in early and late sown crop with r values -0.519 and -0.324.  Thrips exhibited significant positive correlation with maximum temperature (r = 0.522, 0.459 and 0.447), significant negative correlation with rainfall (r = -0.458, -0.465 and -0.451) during three dates of sowing (early, normal and late, respectively) while significant negative correlation with relative humidity in early sown crop (r = -0.616) and significant positive correlation with minimum temperature in early sown crop (r = 0.463).

Open Access Original Research Article

The Exergy Analysis for the Air Gasification in a Hybrid Fixed Bed Gasifier

Robert Eliraison Moshi, Thomas Thomas Kivevele, Yusufu Abeid Chande Jande

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 18-30
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1831441

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is becoming a concern as population in urban area is increasing. Several disposal methods (landfill and biochemical) have been used. However, waste to energy (WTE) particularly gasification technology is a potential technology for energy recovery. The system is used to convert biodegradable material into syngas under limited gasifying media. This study presents numerical analysis of producer gas for the two air paths in the hybrid fixed bed gasifier (HFBG). It was revealed that the optimum operating condition was achieved when the air ratio at the first air flow path (AIR1) was 0.3. Furthermore, the exergy efficiency of about 81.51% was   achieved.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Test to Measure the Knowledge Level of Growers on Recommended Cultivation Practices of Major Vegetables

Kangkana Borah, Pabitra Kumar Das, Indrajit Barman, Suman Parasar, Sobnam Sultana

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 59-65
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1831443

The present study was conducted to construct and standardize a test to measure the knowledge level growers on recommended cultivation practices of major vegetable crops. The major steps followed for developing the test were construction of items, primary and final selection of items through difficulty index, discrimination index and biserial correlation. The final test comprised of 25 objective questions, referred to as items. The procedure adopted in the study can also be followed for developing knowledge test on any other aspect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Food Coloring Additives on the Color Stability of Microabraded, at-Home Bleached and Resin Infiltrated Tooth

B. Nilopher Sherin, Thendral Began, I. Anand Sherwood, Bennett T. Amaechi, A. Andamuthu Sivakumar, Omar Farooq

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 66-76
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1831444

Objective: Color stability of at-home bleaching and resin infiltration is one of the main goals of these procedures. The primary aim of present study was to evaluate color stability of at-home bleaching and resin infiltration to four common colorants present in Indian foods (turmeric, beetroot, coffee and artificial food colorants).

Materials and Methods: 128 human maxillary central incisors were used in this study. Teeth were randomly divided into groups as (i) subjected and (ii) not-subjected to microabrasion. Further, the teeth in each group (abraded/non-abraded) were randomly distributed to four subgroups (16 teeth/subgroup). Subgroups were control, bleached, combined treatment with at-home bleaching followed by resin infiltration and infiltrated. After treatment procedures the teeth were immersed in the four different food colorants. Objective photographic color change evaluation from pre-/ post staining was done using the CIEDE2000 formula.

Statistical Analyses: Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests (α =0.05).

Results: Turmeric solution caused significantly (P < 0.05) highest post-staining values b*and ΔE values in Combine-Rx group and Infiltration groups.

Conclusions: Subsequent discoloration of esthetically treated teeth does not necessarily depend on the type of treatment but on the coloring additives present in the diet, of which turmeric has the highest discoloration potential.

Clinical Significance: Turmeric is one of the essential ingredients in Indian foods therefore, both patients and operator must be aware that resin infiltrated teeth can discolored from regular diets that contains turmeric as coloring additives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Concentration of Surface Water, Sediment and Fishes Impacted by Crude Oil Pollution in Bodo/Bonny River, Nigeria

David N. Ogbonna, Matthew E. Origbe

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 77-87
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1831445

Heavy metals can be released into the aquatic environment through storm-water run-off and wastewater discharges and reprocessing from various industrial and anthropogenic activities. They have the potential to be toxic to biota above certain threshold concentrations while sediments in the marine ecosystems act as long-term sinks for many anthropogenic contaminants such as these organic pollutants. This study was therefore aimed at determining the heavy metal contents in the surface water, sediments and fishes from the Bodo/Bonny river. Sampling was done according to standard protocols. Surface water, sediment and fish samples were collected from 5 stations (BBW1, BBW2, BBW3, BBW4 and LFPW5) with LFPW5 serving as control.  Sediment was collected from 0-15 and 15-30 cm. The fish gills, liver, kidney etc. were excised from the rib for heavy metals (Pb, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cd etc) analysis using sterile scalpel. The results of heavy metal in surface water samples show that Zinc had a range of 173.1±10.21 to 179.3±11.01 mg/kg in all sampling locations above the permissible limit of DPR limit of 5 mg/kg for Brackish/ Saline water.  The sediment samples were loamy. The concentrations of trace metals in sediments revealed that Pb had the highest concentration of 48.61mg/kg at 0-15cm depth while Chromium had highest concentration of 41.54mg/kg at 15-30cm depth. Chromium, Cadmium and Copper increased with increase in depth at 15-30cm while Lead, Zinc and Iron took the reverse trend at 0-15cm depth. Heavy metal content of fish samples from the  river water show that the mean concentration values in the fresh fish was in the increasing order of Copper < Cadmium < Nickel < Lead <Iron< Zinc. The data generated from this study showed that there were actually heavy metals accumulations in fish tissues that were above the WHO permissible limits. The increased heavy metals concentration from all sites suggest that fishes that inhabit polluted areas risk bioaccumulation, which go on to affect the overall health of the human population that depend on such rivers for fishing, drinking or irrigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eating Disorders and Nutritional Status of College Girls in Ludhiana City, Punjab (India)

Manpreet Kaur, Kiran Grover

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 112-119
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1831448

Eating disorders and overweight are notable health issues, which are increasing day by day among young adults. Therefore, the study was conducted to evaluate the extent and type of eating disorders among college girls. A sample of 500 college girls in the age group of 18-25 years was randomly selected from five colleges of Ludhiana city, Punjab. Eating disorders were assessed by using Eating Attitude Test (EAT) questionnaire and subjects were categorized into two groups - With Eating Disorders (WED) and Without Eating Disorders (WOED). Prevalence of eating disorders among college girls on basis of EAT scale was 46 percent with higher mean scores of oral control (15.86±6.29) followed by dieting (13.17±8.47), bulimia, and food preoccupation (3.86±1.98). The correlation coefficient showed positive associations of eating disorders with body mass index. This study suggested formulating nutrition and health fitness clubs in colleges to create awareness and practices regarding diet, exercise, and yoga.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview of the Applications of Periwinkle (Tympanotonus fuscatus) Shells

V. J. Aimikhe, G. B. Lekia

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 31-58
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1831442

The waste generated by the periwinkle (Tympanotonus fuscatus) shell cannot be undermined. In coastal communities worldwide, periwinkle is a major source of proteins and other vital minerals in most delicacies. The shells of these aquatic species, notable for their nutrient provision, contribute to environmental degradation because of the indiscriminate disposal. The absence of a proper waste management program leads to the blockage of drainages, resulting in flooding. This study reviews the various avenues by which the Tympanotonus fuscatus shell can be processed and utilized. The review was conducted to synthesize the current body of knowledge in the research area to help present a proper perspective to periwinkle shell utilization. The study showed that periwinkle shell could effectively be utilized directly as a partial replacement for coarse aggregates and cement in concrete, and in the adsorption of heavy metals from wastewater. The shell was also a suitable replacement for asbestos in brakepad production. Perspectives for future research in periwinkle shell utilization as raw materials for the production of synthetic stones and ceramic mugs, calcium supplements, fluid loss control additive for drilling mud, adsorbents for poisonous and odorous gas capture were identified. Other areas of future research include the use of periwinkle shells as gravel pack and fluid proppants alternatives in oil and gas wells and as replacements for molecular sieves in natural gas conditioning and biogas upgrading.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of the Use Cases and Possible Technologies for 5G and Beyond Communications

Ali Mahamoud Ali, Bakhit Amine Adoum, Idriss Saleh Bachar, Nasrullah Armi, Mahamat Saleh Idriss, Mahamoud Youssouf Khayal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 94-111
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1831447

5G communication system is rapidly taking shape and for many organizations, including administrations, it is important to be aware of developments in this regard. At this stage, it is essential to know about 5G use cases and possible key technologies. This paper describes several anticipated 5G use cases across a handful of different sectors. It is important to remember that these comprise only a subset of possible use cases and these are all still new. As-yet more new use cases are expected to emerge and the need to prepare their adaption in 5G and beyond. From wireless transmission, wireless access and network perspectives, the possible key technologies of 5G, including Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), Beam-forming, Device-to-Device communication system (D2D), non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), Full duplex, Small cells, cognitive radio(CR), etc. and their latest progress are presented comprehensively and thoroughly. Each has enormous advantages but also limitations. The Full duplex which will help to double the capacity of the channel compared to the Half-duplex technology of 4G and Small cells combined with millimeter waves to have a wide bandwidth. These Small-Cells are essential for energy reduction and also for improving latency. But these Small-Cells require the use of intelligent antennas, that is to say, the diagrams of which are directive and reconfigurable at the request of the user Future research challenges regarding 5G and beyond wireless communication are also discussed.