Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Vulnerability of the Shallow Aquifer of the City of Sarh in Chad, using the Drastic Approach

Abderamane Hamit, Mahamat Nour Abdallah, Moussa Abderamane, Tan-IM Abdallah Brahim, Bakhit Diki Bakay, Beni Aingar, Djibrine Terab Oumar, Lotodingao Laoukoura Julius

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1731428

The demography (3.4%) and the development of anthropic activities in the city of Sarh, constitute a risk of groundwater pollution. That is why a vulnerability map is determined to contribute to the protection of groundwater resources against possible pollution for future decision and allocation of land and activities. The present study interested the city of Sarh and had the objective to elaborate a vulnerability map to pollution by applying the DRASTIC method. The data required for this study are summarized in seven critical factors specific to the model applied (depth of the water table, net recharge, aquifer lithology, soil type, topography (slope), unsaturated zone lithology and hydraulic conductivity). They were acquired from several sources and converted by the GIS into thematic maps. For each critical parameter, a coefficient and a weight were assigned according to its importance in the DRASTIC model. The resulting map shows three classes of vulnerability; 36% of the Sarh region has very low vulnerability, 35% has low vulnerability and 29% has medium vulnerability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profiling Actors and Risk Management in the Cashew Supply Chain in Kogi State, Nigeria

M. K. Ibrahim

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1731429

This study profiled actors and analysed the risks associated with cashew supply chain in Kogi State, Nigeria. It specifically profiled actors in the cashew supply chain by socioeconomic indicators, identified the risks associated with the cashew supply chain, ascertain the severity of the supply chain risks, and assessed the strategies employed by the actors to mitigate the effects of the risks. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select one hundred cashew nut farmers, twenty each of major buyers, warehouse owners and processors. Primary data used for the study was obtained using questionnaire design and interview schedule. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics.. More males were involved in the cashew supply chain than their female counterpart. The mean age was 37 years, 39 years, 40 years and 37 years for farmers, major buyers, warehouse owners, and processors respectively. Production and climate related risks were more recorded among the cashew nut farmers and processors. Financial related risks is a major source of risk among actors whose activities are marketing related, while government policy or institutional related risks was recorded across all actors in the cashew supply chain. Furthermore, 95% and 65% of farmers and processors respectively, in the cashew supply chain agreed to the severity of production related risks in their activities, while 85%, 80%, 75% and 70% of farmers, major buyers, warehouse owners and processors respectively, agreed to the severity of financial related risks. Climate related risk were more severe among the farmers (75%) while the severity of institutional related risk were more among major buyers (85%) and warehouse owners (75%).  The various strategies employed by actors across the cashew supply chain to mitigate the effects of risks were generally preventive strategies. Based on the findings from the study, the need for cooperative formation, financial literacy training, and awareness on the need for agricultural insurance participation by farmers and other agribusiness actors were recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on the use of Soil - Organic and Inorganic Biostimulants in the Remediation of Oily Waste

Ofonime U. M. John, Senyene I. Umana, Christiana E. Asuquov, Samuel I. Eduok

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 21-33
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1731430

Remediation of oily waste using soil-organic (goat dung, poultry dropping) and inorganic (NPK fertilizer) nutrients was assessed for twelve weeks using culture-dependent microbiological technique and chemical procedures. The results indicate increased counts of Hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes with remediation time for both nutrient types. Bacteria in the remediated waste were members of the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes and Serratia, fungi: Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium, and actinomycetes: Rhodococcus, Nocardia and Streptomyces for all soil-nutrient amendment techniques. pH of the NPK fertilizer ranged between 6.7 ± 0.03 and 7.3±0.06 whereas the goat dung and poultry dropping amendments was 6.5± 0.02 and 7.1 ±0.05. Dehydrogenase activity increased for the biostimulant treatment cells with remediation time. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon reduction was 99.3 and 99.6% in organic and 99.8% for inorganic amendments. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons of the remediated waste for both techniques revealed values below detectable limits (< 0.01) at the end of remediation period. Remediation with soil-goat dung and soil-poultry dropping amendments compared favorably with soil-NPK fertilizer technique because microbial activities were enhanced to produce eco-friendly waste. The use of soil-organic amendments is therefore a low-cost alternative biostimulant for the management of oily waste in the petroleum industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Global Circulation Models (GCMs) Simulate the Current Temperature Only If the Shortwave Radiation Anomaly of the 2000s Has Been Omitted

Antero Ollila

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1731433

The research article of Gillett et al. was published in Nature Climate Change (NCC) in March 2021. The objective of the NCC study was to simulate human-induced forcings to warming by applying 13 CMIP6 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6) climate models. NCC did not accept the author’s remarks as a “Matters arising” article. The purpose of this article is to detail the original three remarks and one additional remark: 1) the discrepancy between the graphs and reported numerical values, 2) the forcings of aerosols and clouds, 3) the positive water feedback, and 4) the calculation basis of the Paris agreement. The most important finding is that General Circulation Models (GCMs) used in simulations omit the significant shortwave anomaly from 2001 to 2019, which causes a temperature error of 0.3°C according to climate change physics of Gillett et al. For the year 2019, this error is 0.8°C showing the magnitude of shortwave anomaly impact. The main reason for this error turns out to be the positive water feedback generally applied in climate models. The scientific basis of the Paris climate agreement is faulty for the same reason.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variations in Biochemical Constituents for Tolerance to Nematode and Fusarium wilt Complex in Select Banana Hybrids

P. R. Pavan, C. Kavitha, P. Paramaguru, S. K. Manoranjitham, P. Vetrivelkalai

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 61-67
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1731435

Banana is one of the most important fruit crops cultivated worldwide and its cultivation is hampered by infestation by nematode and Fusarium wilt complex. A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the change in biochemical constituents due to the inoculation of nematodes followed by Fusarium pathogen in select banana hybrids. The results indicated that the increase in production of defense-related compounds and enzymes such as total phenols, lignin, PO, PPO and PAL in the root tissues of inoculated plants. Among the four select banana hybrids, NPH-02-01 recorded high total phenol content (586.92 µg-1) and H 531 recorded high lignin content (1.58 %). Similarly the hybrid NPH-02-01 registered the higher activity of PO (3.5 abs.min-1.g-1), PPO (0.23 abs.min-1.g-1) and PAL (14.83 abs.min-1.g-1) when compared to other hybrids. The percentage increase of all the constituents in the hybrid NPH-02-01 was found to be comparatively higher with uninoculated plants and check cultivars.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Rate and Pattern of the Spatio-Temporal Expansion of Rangpur City Corporation, Rangpur, Bangladesh

. Hasnahena, Subaran Chandra Sarker, Md. Sahidul Islam, Md. Zakiur Rahman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 74-83
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1731437

Analyzing the spatio-temporal growth of the built-up areas of any urban place is incredibly much vital for the proper planning and development of the urban areas. The present study emphasizes determining the rate and pattern of spatio-temporal growth of Rangpur City Corporation (RpCC) for the year of 1989, 2000, 2010, and 2017 through Shannon's Entropy with the help of GIS and remote sensing techniques. Shannon's Entropy technique was adopted in order to determine the dispersion or compactness in the pattern of the built-up areas in the study area. In the present study, Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI), Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite images on the year of 1989, 2000, 2010, and 2017 were analyzed for certain interpretations. The changes of the built-up areas in RpCC were identified and determined through supervised classification using ArcMap10.5 software. The study indicated that spatio-temporal growth of the built-up areas in RpCC existed during 1989-2017. The built-up areas increased by 5.89 sq.km. during 1989-2000, 32.23 sq.km. during 2000- 2010 and 18.85 sq.km. during 2010-2017 and the expansion rates of the built-up areas were 8.02%, 25.64% and 6.01% during 1989-2000, 2000-2010 and 2010-2017, respectively. The relative entropy value of 1989, 2000, 2010 and 2017 was found 0.17, 0.24, 0.47 and 0.53, respectively, which interprets that the expansion of the built-up areas existed in RpCC and the pattern of expansion was dispersed. However, the outcomes of this study will be very helpful to formulate perfect planning and management system regarding the expansion of the built-up areas of RpCC.

Open Access Review Article

Current Status of Sex Sorted Semen and its Long Term effect on Population Dynamics and Y-Chromosome Degeneration of the Breed Among Dairy Animals in Jharkhand, India: A Review

N. Kumari, S. Prasad, A. K. Pandey, S. Dash, R. Sinha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1731432

Sex Sorted Semen gives the liberty of producing offspring of the desired sex - in farming animals by using it in conjunction with other assisted reproductive technologies such as Artificial Insemination and In-Vitro Fertilization after selecting the healthy sperm and separating into X-Female and Y-male Chromosome bearing populations based on their DNA content. It is an important biotechnological tool to increase the milk production and the profitability of Dairy Industry. Current study deals with the Principle, methods, main method, advantages, disadvantages and the current status of Sex sorted semen in India and Jharkhand. The main emphasis of this study is to draw the attention of Scientific fraternity towards the effect of Sex Sorted Semen on Population dynamics. The Sex Sorted semen increases the deviation of ratio between Male and Female Population from ideal 1:1, thereby decreasing the effective population size Ne and thus slowly reducing the viability and survivability of the population or breed concerned. Further the already depleting Y chromosomes will be reaped off all its genes in long run at a faster rate due to antagonistic selection pressure arising out of Artificial selection via Sex Sorted Semen acting against all the gene of Y chromosome of the breed or population concerned which might disturb many vital genes and the associated functions. The degeneration and extinction of scientists have been predicted long ago. The effect of Sex Sorted semen on Y- chromosome degeneration is yet to be pointed out, calculated and subsequently verified in any of the literatures. SSS is indeed a boon for India as well as Jharkhand. It might be too early to predict about the negative impact of SSS on population dynamics and Y-Chromosome degeneration. Further research work must be done to assess the extent and authencity of above mentioned impact( Predicted  theoretically) by calculation as well as practical field based Experimentation.

Open Access Review Article

The Emergence of Emotional Intelligence and Self- Regulation in Early Years

. Annu, C.K. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 53-60
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1731434

Early years are important for the emotional intelligence development and self-regulation of young children because of rapid brain development. Early years are time of pretending, blending fact and fiction and learning to think of world using language. There is specific attainment of mainly three components of emotional intelligence during early years of development such as expression, knowledge and regulation of emotions. They have abilities to express social and self-conscious emotions as well as recognize the emotions of other people. Self-regulation has a foundational role in promoting wellbeing across the lifespan, including physical, emotional, social, and economic health and educational achievement. Early harmonious, stimulated and enriched environment serve as driving force for the development of emotional intelligence and self-regulation skills in young children. The reactions and instructions of parents and teachers to emotions of young children are the main socialization tools that enhance the emotional intelligence and skills of self-regulation in young children.

Open Access Review Article

Promotion and Development of “Start-ups” Through Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives in India

L. Murali Krishnan, N. Kumarasamy, S. Oliyarasan, Sukanaya Barua, Quadri Javeed Ahmad Peer, Irfath Rashid

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 68-73
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1731436

Indian economy is a fifth largest developing economy. It has been grown in between the periods of time (1991 – 2016) India’s GDP stood at Rs 5,862,120 million in 1991 and in 2016 it was at Rs 1,35,760,860 million economy with 2, 216 percent growth. At the same time, global disparities are growing with industrially and technologically more advanced countries by accessing the ever increased digital technologies, online platforms, data analytics, automation and robotics and capitalizing the globalized opportunities. Hence, as a second highly populated country like India should access the technologies to promote various start-ups in to globalized established corporations for economic development and to be the second largest economy in the world by 2050. The start-ups support and help to absorb productive resources at all levels of the economy. It contributes to the creation of resilient economic systems in which start-ups ecosystems and small and large firms are interlinked. Such increasing linkages support, attract foreign direct investment and investing transnational corporations seek reliable domestic suppliers for their supply chains. In agriculture and allied sector start-ups also have a potential to empower millions of farmers and farm women to address the food and nutrition security, livelihood security and other sustainable development goals. But still funding activities are the biggest driving factors in the start-up ecosystem. Hence, appropriate funds and other assistance may enrich the start-up ecosystem to boost up the Indian economy in the globalized platforms. So, the CSR funds plays very important source to capitalize the start-up ecosystem in to sustainable development based economic ecosystems.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19, Food Insecurity and Health in Liberia

Forkpah Pewee, Helena Mulbah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 84-90
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1731438

Background: This paper highlights empirical evidence on how COVID-19 has caused havoc for food security and health in Liberia. With the alarming rise in poverty, low agricultural production and poor health among Liberians, the presence of COVID-19 further intensified the magnitude of difficulty in resolving these societal problems. COVID-19 has created a scene of chaos for poor families; which have to keep struggling through it to live healthy and have equal access to food items. 

Methods: A literature search was conducted using 5 electronic databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cross Ref, Google Scholar and Google Search Engine. The inclusion criteria included: research that focused on COVID-19 and food security; peer-reviewed academic journals published in English in the last 5 years period; open access articles with accessible abstracts and full text; and commentaries/discussion papers.

Results: In spite of the efforts applied by the Government of Liberia in minimizing COVID-19 impacts on food insecurity and health, citizens still feel the huge effect of food insecurity and poor health due to high unemployment rate and low purchasing power. 

Conclusion: COVID-19 has created unfavorable food insecurity situations and adverse effects on quality health and wellbeing of citizens.        Food security and quality health are of interest now due to the fact that most Liberians depend on food items to survive and live healthy lives. And if proper care is not taken to reverse the unwanted course of food insecurity, thousands of Liberians would suffer from starvation, malnutrition and untimely death, even after coronavirus has left mother    earth.