Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological, Chemical and Soil Enzyme Activity Profile of Coastal Wetland Soils Exposed to Crude Oil Exploration in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Ofonime U. M. John, Samuel I. Eduok, Victor O. Nwaugo, Reginald A. Onyeagba

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1631417

Coastal wetland soils exposed to crude oil exploration activities were assessed using microbiological and chemical procedures in the wet and dry seasons. The bacteria isolated from the impacted wetland soils included species of the genera Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Citrobacter, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Cellulomonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Sarcina, Serratia and Staphylococcus. In addition, species of the genera Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas and Rhizobium were isolated from the non-impacted soils. Total heterotrophic bacterial counts (THBC) in the wet and dry seasons ranged from 7.1 ± 0.4 to 8.6 ± 0.2 Log₁₀CFU g‾¹ and 3.7± 0.04 to 5.4 ± 0.1 Log₁₀CFU g‾¹ for the control and impacted soils respectively. The counts in control was 1.6 to 1.9 times higher than the impacted soil and the difference was significant at p = 0.05. The nitrifying bacteria (NB) associated with the impacted soil were the most adversely affected. There was 2.11 to 139 times higher concentration of the different heavy metals in the impacted soil than the control and 1.13 to 1.26 x 104 times higher Total petroleum hydrocarbon in the impacted soils in both seasons and these differences were significant (p = 0.05). Dehydrogenase activity was 2.8 to 3.1 times higher in the control soils compared to the impacted soil whereas Phenol oxidase was 15.14 to 15.75 times higher in the impacted soils in both seasons. This study indicates that Exploration and Production activitiesi in the coastal wetlands if not carried out according to specified guidelines by the environmental control agencies can result in the reduction of beneficial soil bacterial population and diversity, high concentrations of heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbon and decreased dehydrogenase activity at impacted explored wetland site. It also revealed non-impacted regions of this explored wetlands not within oil pipe-line routes are fit for agricultural use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Diesel Engine Operated High-speed Chaff Cutter

Ramesh Beerge, K. Revanth, Prabhakar Shukla, . Vinayaka, . Basavaraj

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 59-67
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1631425

Dairy farming has become one of major sources of income for farmers. To maintain a large dairy farm, fodder must be available in palatable form at every point of time in sufficient quantity. To ensure that the ready fodder is available for cattle, a high-capacity chaff cutter is necessary. A high speed and  hogh-capacity chaff cutter procured from the local market and tested for its performance. The machine consisted of a flywheel type cutter head which was mounted on the rectangular platform. The cutter head consisted of three rectangular plain knives fixed 120° apart on a circular disc of 440 ϕ. The feeding assembly was mounted with three feed rollers viz., upper, low, and additional. Chute type feeding mechanism was provided. The machine was operated by a 3.73 kW diesel engine.  The ‘v’ belt was provided for power transmission from engine to cutter head with a reduction ratio of 1:0.32. Feed rollers were driven by bevel and spur gears. Short run and long run evaluation of the machine were conducted for napier grass and dry jowar. The variation in length of cut pieces was found to be 8.39% and 5.78% for dry jowar and napier grass, respectively. Quality of cut was calculated and found to be -0.80 for dry jowar and -0.53 for napier grass. The average efficiency of the machine was found to be 86.87% and 88.93% for dry jowar and napier grass, respectively. The average diesel consumption was found to be 0.69 l h-1.

Open Access Opinion Article

How Agroecology is an Alternative to Avoiding the "Hunger Pandemic" and Climate Change?

Mitashi K. Jules

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 53-58
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1631424

The crisis plaguing the world has weakened the globalization that has been underway for several decades. Trade, movement of goods and people are affected. Food security is threatened. Consequently, the recourse to a production-consumption policy which underpins the viability of ecosystems and human societies is more imperative than ever. Based on its potential, agroecology is proving to be an alternative since it is in many ways an expression of the population mainly made up of non-executives in society.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Rice-Bran Pretreatment in Biohydrogen Production

Ebenezer Olujimi Dada, Abass Olanrewaju Alade, Ademola Toheeb Adeniji, Tinuade Jolaade Afolabi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 12-19
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1631418

This study investigated the effect of different pretreatment methods on sugar liberation from Rice bran (RB) and Deoiled Rice bran (DRB). An amount of 100 g of RB or DRB were soaked in 1% (w/v) trichloroacetic acid (99.0 % stock concentration) separately and each mixture was made up to 1L with distilled water to generate the Acid treated RB hydrolysate (ARB) and acid treated DRB hydrolysate. RB and DRB were also subjected to a combined treatment of acid, hydrothermal (boiling) and enzyme treatments to investigate the effects of the combination of the three different methods. Sugar compositions of pretreated samples were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. It was that there was an increment of more than 400 % and 300 % respectively in the concentration of sugar obtained from acid treated RB and DRB hydrolysates over the untreated RB and DRB hydrolysates. In combined treatment, RB hydrolysates showed an increment of 584% in the amount of total sugar released as well as 500 % increment in DRB hydrolysates. The amount of sugar liberated from DRB hydrolysates is slightly more than the respective RB hydrolysates subjected to same treatment. The increase in the amount of rice bran hydrolysates produced demonstrated that pretreatment of Rice bran with acid, boiling and via enzymatic reactions can increase the amount of biohydrogen produced.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Psychological Implications of #EndSARS Protest in Nigeria: A Theoretical Expository Approach

Chukwuemeka A. F. Okoye, Harry Obi-Nwosu, Chidozie E. Nwafor, Paschal Chukwuma Ugwu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 20-29
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1631419

The nation of Nigeria recently experienced unprecedented violence occasioned by the activities of the Special Anti- Robbery Squad, popularly known as SARS. This tactical Police unit charged with the onerous responsibility of dealing with violent crimes such as car-jerking, armed robbery, kidnapping, and sundry crimes allegedly became a terror against Nigerians. They were accused of brutality, rights abuse, undue criminal profiling of youths, rape, extra-judicial killings, among other forms of abuse. These states of affair prompted Nigerian youths to initiate a protest against this Police unit tagged #EndSARS. The protest at inception was a peaceful one. Unfortunately, this supposed peaceful protest degenerated into a chaotic and violent one across the country, largely due to the high handedness of security operatives, particularly the special anti robbery squad. Consequently, several people lost their lives, public and private properties were burnt or destroyed, unimaginable looting occurred, several correctional centres witnessed jail-break, among other forms of violence. The aim of this paper therefore is to examine the psychological implications of the #EndSARS protest in Nigeria. This was done by analysing the position of some psychological theories, with the frustration-aggression hypothesis forming the theoretical framework for the analysis. Thereafter, recommendations were proffered on ways to avoid further protest, including the need for government to see the development of the youth as a priority in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Efficiency of French bean Production in Karnataka: An Economic Analysis

R. Raghupathi, M. J. Anjan Kumar, A. P. Bhavya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 30-37
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1631421

The present study is an attempt to estimate the technical and allocativeefficienciy of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)producing farms in Mysore district of Karnataka, whereFrench bean is cultivated extensively. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Cobb-Douglas production function were used for estimating theeconomic efficiency and the factors determiningthe same.The study is based on the primary data collected from 70 randomly chosen French bean cultivators comprising of 35 sample farmers each growing Arkasharath and check varieties (Ashok) of French beans. The results revealed that farmers realised 45 per cent higher gross returns (Rs.2,62,500 acre-1 ) from cultivation of ArkaSharath as pure crop compared the cultivatingcheck variety (Rs.2,01,750acre-1)which indicated cultivation of Arkasharathwas more efficient compared to check variety.The results of the data envelopment analysis revealed that the technical, allocative and economic of Arkasharath variety was found to be 98, 78 and 76 per cent respectively while in case of check variety than were found to be 96, 75 and 73 per cent respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Sulphur Fertilization on Yield, Nutrient Content and Uptake by Sugarcane in Sulphur Deficient soil of Thiruppuvanam Block of Sivagangai District

R. Raghunath, P. Saravana pandian, P. P. Mahendran, T. Ragavan, R. Geetha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1631422

Effect of various levels of sulphur (50,100 and 150 kg ha-1) with three sources of sulphur fertilizers was studied on sugarcane crop in a field experiment conducted in Typic ustropept at Thiruppuvanam block of Sivagangai district during 2018-2019. The results revealed that the application of sulphur @ 100 kg ha-1 as FeSO4 as soil application along with application of N, P2O5 and K2O on Soil Test Crop Response (STCR) basis registered the maximum nutrient content of N, P, K & S in cane, leaf and total nutrient uptake. The cane yield (162 t ha-1) was maximum at the application of sulphur @ 100 kg ha-1 as FeSO4 followed by the treatment receiving 150 kg ha-1 of sulphur as FeSO4 inconjoint with N, P2O5 and K2O on STCR basis (157.00 t ha-1).

Open Access Original Research Article

Atmospheric Benzene and Determination of Trans, Trans-Muconic Acid of Workers at Oil Sites in Pointe-Noire

Ebenguela Ebatetou Ataboho, Josué Richard Ntsimba Nsemi, Donatien Moukassa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 82-90
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1631427

Trans, trans-muconic acid is generally considered a useful biomarker of exposure to benzene that occurs naturally in crude oil.

Objective: To estimate exposure of benzene to workers in an oil and gas production company.

Materials and Methods: Firstly, it was a descriptive, cross-sectional study which consisted of benzene atmospheric quantification in a sample individual measurements of a homogeneous exposure group of workers. Secondly, urinary assays of trans, trans-muconic acid have been performed at the end of the shift in the selected workers.

Results: A total of 79 (47.88%) workers agreed to participate in the study. Seventeen atmospheric samples were usable and 79 urinary assays at the end of the shift were carried out. The average benzene concentration for all sites was 10 times lower than the regulatory average exposure value (1 ppm=3.25 mg/m3):average: 0.122pp, median: 0.053ppm and range: 0.019-1.448 ppm. All 79 urinary assays of trans, trans-muconic acid were below the biological exposure index (<500 µg/g creatinine) with an average of 37.34 µg/g creatinine, a median of 30 µg/g creatinine, and an extent from 10 to 150 µg/g creatinine.

Conclusion: Airborne benzene concentrations were below company limits. The same was true for the urinary assays of trans, trans-muconic acid. Overall, therefore, exposure to benzene is low in this company. However, there is a need to maintain regular medical surveillance as the risk of exposure is ongoing.

Open Access Review Article

Substantial Personal Traits That Distinguish Entrepreneurs

Shyamalie Hadiwattage, Ravindra Koggalage

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 46-52
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1631423

Personality traits are believed to be born with each individual, but there is a greater possibility of developing such required skills with dedicated effort and trainings. Skills which are at high demand for an entrepreneur is very much subjective due to various factors such as the personal views, context of the industry, country, culture, and many other factors. This paper investigates about such substantial personal traits that distinguish entrepreneurs from others, using recent publications. It also analyzes some articles publicly available on personal traits of entrepreneurs and share the most popular traits an entrepreneur would need to stay on top of his role. The findings from literature review about entrepreneur characteristics argues out that, some traits are important regardless of the factors or the background of an entrepreneur is operating.

Open Access Review Article

History of Plasma Display Reflected by Patents

Octavian Baltag

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 68-81
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1631426

The paper is a historical presentation of the development of television and presents chronologically the evolution of the use of plasma in television.

The first inventors who proposed the use of plasmas together with imagined solutions and patents related to plasma display panel - PDP are presented.

The first attempt to accomplish an extra flat display by using a modified cathode tube is also presented. Yet, the technological difficulties stopped its utilization at a large scale in television. The solutions that determined the realization of certain TV displays with applications in other fields of electronics are also introduced. A pioneer invention from the 1960’s, which set the bases of future TV displays, is also specified. The utilization in the 1970’s was the most adequate technological solution for the realization of the first thin displays, a solution which survived even after the appearance of the LCD and LED systems.