Open Access Original Research Article

Post Harvest Assessment and Nutritional Evaluation of Different Cultivars of Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) Grown in the Alluvial Soils of West Bengal, India

Manisha Ch. Momin, Alemmoa R. Jamir, Surajit Mitra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1431397

Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional content of various cultivars of taro acquired from All India Co-ordinated Research Project (AICRP) on tuber crops.

Study design:Completely randomized design (CRD) at 5% level of significance.

Place and duration of study: Department of Post Harvest Technology, faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra KrishiViswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India, between December 2019 and February 2020.

Methodology: 8 cultivars of taro were evaluated for their nutritional contents in this study and their physical attributes such as cormel girth, length, specific gravity, number of cormels per plant and weight of cormel as well as yield per hectare was calculated. Chemical attributes such as titratable acidity, starch, ascorbic acid, total phenol and total sugar as well as reducing sugar content in each cultivar was also studied.

Results: Analysis of variance showed significant variation among all the tested cultivars. Moisture content, total sugar and starch was recorded to be highest in the cultivar TTR-17-6 (72.233 %, 5.007 % and 31.805 % respectively). Total phenol (188 mg GAE 100 gm-1) and reducing sugar (2.817%) was found to be highest in TTR-17-5. Total soluble solids was highest in TTR-17-7 (3.867 0Brix). Dry matter content was highest in TTR-17-4 (37.333 %) and ascorbic acid was highest in TTR-17-2 (70.093 mg 100 gm-1).

Conclusion: The eight cultivars of taro studied were found to be rich in sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenols and starch. They were observed to vary in cormel girth, length, weight, specific gravity, yield, moisture, dry matter content, TSS and titratable acidity. The cultivar TTR-17-6 was found to be very high in starch, total sugar and moisture content. Therefore, this cultivar may be of considerable importance in ameliorating malnutrition in poorly resourced areas of the developing countries. Cultivar TTR-17-2 was found to be high in ascorbic acid and hence can be further used by the plant breeders to develop more cultivars of taro that are rich in such phytochemicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development Strategy of Coffee Shop Business in Office Area Jakarta, Indonesia

Bernard Hasibuan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 35-40
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1431401

The coffee shop culinary services industry is now growing rapidly in urban areas such as Jakarta.  The purpose of this study is to determine the priority strategy for the development of the coffee shop business. The study was designed using Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) method which is also supported by IE Matrix and SWOT Analysis method. The data retrieval used is Focus Group Discussion (FGD) involving customers, management, and staff as respondents. The results of this study, matrix IE shows that the company is in Quadrant II growing and developing which means J.CO Donuts &Coffee needs to focus on carrying out intensive strategies such as market penetration, market development, and product development. The result of QSPM is a strategy to improve the quality of human resources services, to correct the shortcomings of workers' skills. This strategy can be realized in the form of training or refreshment to take employees to more advanced coffee shops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Birds in Agroforestry Systems of Ayodhya District, Uttar Pradesh

Yashmita -Ulman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 103-120
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1431485

With the fast depletion of area under forest cover due to various anthropogenic factors, it is important that conservation of wild fauna must be focused in human-dominated landscapes such as agroforestry systems. It important to understand the bird diversity of agroforestry systems to develop a baseline to formulate policies encouraging trees in agricultural fields. Fixed radius point counts were placed across the agroforestry systems in Ayodhya district, Uttar Pradesh to determine the diversity and distribution of birds in these systems. A total of 148 bird species belonging to 53 families and 16 orders were recorded from the study area. Passeriformes (76) had the maximum number of bird species. Omnivore (51%) was the dominant feeding guild. According to their residential status, the maximum bird species were resident (76%), followed by winter visitors (21%) and summer visitors (3%). Out of the 148 bird species recorded, eight species were in the threatened category of IUCN Red List and 28 species were rarely sighted birds. This result proves that the agroforestry systems provide a good habitat for the terrestrial as well as waterbirds thus, highlighting the conservation value of this system. Such land use types must therefore be promoted and widely practiced all across the state.

Open Access Minireview Article

Intervention of NGOs and ICTs in Mainstreaming Indian Farm Women in Agriculture

Lalitha Navya Challa, Boppana Jagadeeswari, Karravula Rakesh, Ravinder Naik

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 28-34
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1431400

Agriculture sector employees are nearly 80% of all economically active women in India; 33% of agricultural labour force and 48% are self-employed farmers. As youth are migrating to urban places, to meet the demand of current and future population mainstreaming of women in agriculture is the need of hour. Farm women play an important role in Indian agriculture. Empowering farm women is a multi-dimensional task. If women farmers in developing countries like India, have equal access to productive resources as men, their productivity can be enhanced by 20-30 percent and agricultural production could be raised by 2.5-4.0 percent. To enrich women digitally, association of capacity-building partners such as Non-Governmental Organizations and ICT initiatives plays a vital role. Collaboration of NGOs and ICT for digitalized outreach of customized timely information to farm women helps in their multidimensional empowerment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Computer Security Practices in Senior High Schools in the Keta Municipality

Abraham Tetteh, Richard Essah, Gifty Opoku, Monica Akua Serwaa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1431398

Aims: To examine security practices in Senior High Schools in Keta Municicpality.

Study design:  Descriptive Survey Design.

Place and duration of study: The study was undertaken in the Keta Municipality of Volta Region.

Methodology: The researcher adopted quantitative research design. The target population for the study was made up of eight (8) senior high schools with four thousand two hundred (4200) senior high school students, teachers, administrators and account clerks in the Municipality. The total number of samples for the study was hundred (100) respondents. This comprises forty (40) teachers, forty (40) students, ten (10) ICT teachers, five (5) administrators and five (5) account clerks all from the five selected schools. The research instrument used for the data collection was questionnaire. The usage of a data analysis application known as the International Business Machine, Statistical Package for Social Sciences, assisted the data analysis (IBM SPSS).

Results: The results revealed that 35(87.5%) of students agreed to the fact that they used computer with permission, 32(64%) of teachers emphasized that there were security passwords on computers in their schools, and 27(82.5%) of students indicated that there are codes of conduct guiding computer usage in their schools. However, 20(40%) of teachers emphasized that intrusion detective system was not used on computers in their schools to detect network attack and that 7(70%) of administrators and account clerks attested to the fact that Antivirus is installed on computers in my school

Conclusion: Many schools in the Keta Municipality do not have enough computers let alone sustainable power generation in the schools and this has affected effective teaching and learning and quality education delivering.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fractions, and Compounds from Typha capensis in LPS-Stimulated Raw 264.7 Cells. Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines

Moise Ondua

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1431399

Typha capensis is widely used by traditional healers to treat male fertility, venereal problems and inflammation. There are many molecular targets implicated in the inflammatory process: pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1-β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8, and other proteins such as COX-2, and iNOS. In order to clarify the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of compounds isolated from T. capensis, RAW 264.7 macrophages were activated by lipopolysaccharide and pre-treated with T. capensis isolated compounds. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW macrophages after treatment with T. capensis crude acetone extract resulted in decreasing expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6,) and increased expression of immunomodulatory cytokine IL-12 P 70.  Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside and  isorhamnetin 3-O rutinoside increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, but failed to reduce the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α. Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside and isorhamnetin 3-O rutinoside increased the expression of immunomodulatory cytokine IL-12p70. Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside  increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 compared to quercetin and LPS-stimulated macrophages. The effect of isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside on molecular targets of inflammation may provide support for the use of T. capensis by traditional healers against inflammation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organoleptic Properties of Chocolate Coated Chinese Chestnut

G. Gupta, S. Mishra, A. Chakrobarty, P. Dubey, P. Shankar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 54-63
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1431403

Chinese chestnuts native to countries like Taiwan, China, Korea shows a great tool as to deal with several body ails. The main objective of this experimental study was to standardize and develop the value product from Chinese chestnut to alleviate ails in all age groups.

Not only to add value to the product but also to introduce the nut to the people residing in different parts of but also to people all over the world. As there are limited number of studies focusing on the presence of vitamins in Castanea crenata, C. dentata and C. mollissima.

The study was carried out to use Chinese chestnut with three different chocolates and flaxseeds for production of the confection- chocolate coated chestnut and flaxseed mix.

The raw material was obtained from Uttarakhand and was processed later using methods like roasting, sun drying etc.

For the packaging of the products, colorful foils were used as primary packaging material and then attractive cardboard boxes as the secondary packaging, which protects the confection against biological, chemical, physical factors. These confections were prepared from Chinese chestnut and are evaluated for their sensory properties. In sensory evaluation all three confection samples T1, T2, T3 were accepted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oil Pollution Analysis of Gjanica River from Petroleum Rafinery and Production Industry in Albania

Esmeralda Zeqo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 64-75
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1431404

Aim: Oil industry has its effect in environmental. For this reason we evaluated oil pollution from oil extraction processes, and petroleum refinery in Gjanica River.

Study Design: Analysis of hydrocarbon content for river bed pollution from oil industry are evaluated. This is made by comparing gas chromatogram with the model.  

Place and Duration of the Study: University of Vlora and ex Oil and gas Institute Fier between August 2016 and March, 2017.

Methodology: Sediment samples were collected in the Gjanica River. Extracts were prepared and taken using Soxhlet apparatus in ex Oil and Gas Institute in Fier. And hydrocarbons contents were evaluated using Hewlett Packard 5890 series II gas chromatography.   

Results: Based on the results of oxygen indicators in the Gjanica River COD = 559mg/l and BOD5 = 102.5 mg/l, we conclude that there are no living beings in this area. And based on six sediment samples analysed we see old and new hydrocarbon compounds in bed River.  

Conclusion: High levels of oil products discharges have damaged the living life of the river water for, more than fifty year. This quantity has contaminated sediments of the bed and/or river banks that need to be removed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Field Efficacy of Thiophanate Methyl 44.8% + Kasugamycin 2.6% Sc against Major Foliar Diseases of Tomato

H. Narayanaswamy, Balanagouda Patil, . Pruthviraj

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 76-86
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1431405

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the important edible solanaceous plant originated from western South and Central America. Despite botanically being a fruit, it’s generally eaten and preferred like a vegetable. Tomatoes are the major dietary source of the antioxidant lycopene,   which has been linked to many health benefits, including reduced risk of heart disease                  and cancer. Early blight caused by Alternaria solani and powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe    orontii and bacterial leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris has become a serious       problem for successful cultivation of tomato. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out to      know the efficacy of Thiophanate methyl 44.8% + Kasugamycin 2.6% Sc on tomato diseases   during 2017-18 and 2018-19, at College of Agriculture, Shivamogga. Experimental results     revealed that all the treatments significantly reduced the early blight, bacterial leaf spot and powdery mildew disease severity over untreated control. Among all the treatments Thiophanate methyl 44.8% + Kasugamycin 2.6% SC @ 1250 ml/ha recorded significantly less Per cent Disease Index (PDI) of Early blight (Alternaria solani) (7.78 % and 10.19 %), Bacterial leaf spot (Xanthomonas campestris) ( 3.96 and 1.39 %) and Powdery mildew (Erysiphe orontii) ( 1.67 and 2.50 %) with yield of 340.33 and 333.33 q/ha followed by Thiophanate methyl 44.8% + Kasugamycin 2.6% SC @ 1000 ml/ha.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rehydration Characteristics of Mushrooms using Different Drying Techniques

Yesubabu Vinnakota, Nagalakshmi Yarlagadda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 87-91
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1431406

Mushroom may be baked, fried, boiled, creamed, roasted, pickled and stuffed. In India, it is mainly consumed fresh and a negligible amount is used for processing. They can be processed as canned, dried and frozen mushrooms. The dried mushrooms are packed in hermetically sealed air tight tins for quality retention and stored in a cool dry place. The study’s main objective is to know the effect of different drying methods on the quality of mushrooms and its dehydration, rehydration characteristics. Sun-drying and Cabinet tray drying methods were selected in the study. The rehydration ratio and coefficient of rehydration were calculated and compared for both the drying methods. An expert Committee did an Organoleptic evaluation. The results showed that cabinet tray dried mushrooms were reconstituted better compared to the sundried ones. The values of coefficient of rehydration and the rehydration ratio for cabinet dried mushrooms were found as 0.498 and 1:3.3 which were higher than sundried mushrooms. Cabinet tray dried mushrooms showed it’s superiority in sensory assessment. The study concluded that mushrooms dehydrated by the cabinet tray drying have better rehydration characteristics than sun drying.

Open Access Original Research Article

Birds in Wetland Ecosystems of Ayodhya District, Uttar Pradesh

. Yashmita-Ulman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 92-102
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1431480

This study was carried out in the wetlands across Ayodhya District, Uttar Pradesh using fixed radius point counts, to understand the diversity and distribution of birds in these ecosystems. A total of 102 bird species belonging to 35 families and 12 orders were recorded from the study area. Amongst the order, Passeriformes (24 and 12) had the maximum number of species and families. The highest number of species recorded were Carnivores (44 species, 43%). A total of 61 bird species (60%) were resident, 41 bird species (40%) were winter visitors and ten species were in the threatened category of IUCN Red List (2021) which highlights the conservation value of wetland ecosystems in Ayodhya District, Uttar Pradesh.

Open Access Review Article

Common Beans and Abiotic Stress Challenges

Ajaz A. Lone, M. N. Khan, Audil Gul, Zahoor A. Dar, Asif M. Iqbal, Bilal A. Lone, Ashraf Ahangar, Faisul Ur Rasool, Mehfooza Habib Khan, G. Ali, Fouzea Nisar, Asma Fayaz

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 41-53
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1431402

Legumes are well recognized for their nutritional and health benefits as well as for their impact in the sustainability of agricultural systems. The threatening scenario imposed by climate change highlights the need for concerted research approaches in order to develop crops that are able to cope with environmental stresses, while increasing yield and quality. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plays a significant role in human diets around the world, especially in developing countries and particularly in Asian Sub continent. It is very rich in protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Common beans face major production challenge in the form of various abiotic stresses like drought, cold temperature and salinity. Abiotic stresses play a major role in determining overall returns and also affects the differential distribution of the plant species across different types of environments. These stresses hamper production potential of beans and result in declining of final harvests. These traits are very complex in their expression behavior and their per se inheritance from one generation to next one. Abiotic stress resilience is most of the times governed by polygenic nature of inheritance and often conditioned by multiple factor interacting mechanisms right from physiological, biochemical and genetical processes. Enough has to be explored regarding effect severity and crop stage susceptibility against drought or moisture stress and to optimize the severity of stress to be put on in the field. This review draft will consider different aspects of common bean with respect to different prevailing abiotic stresses, and will suggest an better plant ideotype with a summation of most desirable traits to handle effectively with the unpredictability of abiotic stress, and their heavy impact.