Open Access Original Research Article

Upright (45°) Versus Supine Position for Intubation in Intracranial Bleed Patients

Hadi Bux Zardari, Inayat Ali khan, M. Z. Jillani, Aftab Ahmad Lakho

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 22-27
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1331389

Objective: To find out the effective method of endotracheal intubation among patients of intracranial bleed.

Methods: A quasi experimental research was performed at emergency department of Ziauddin University Hospital Karachi. 236 intracranial bleed patients were selected by consecutive sampling, half of them were intubated at upright position (45°) and remaining half at supine position. Patients of musculoskeletal deformities, ischemic stroke and previously intubated were excluded. Success or failure of endotracheal tube was confirmed by measuring oxygen saturation and audible breath sounds on chest.

Results: Success rate of endotracheal placement (p-value <0.001) was high in upright position 115 (97.5%) as compared to supine position 90 (76.3%). Similarly, endotracheal tube placement attempts (p-value <0.001) and completion time (p-value <0.001) was low in upright position 1.1 ± 0.4 and 62.9 ± 24.9 sec as compared to supine position 1.5 ± 0.9 and 90.2 ± 67.9 sec.

Conclusion: Endotracheal intubation of intracranial bleed patient at upright position is more successful, effective, less painful in terms of number of attempts and less time consuming as compared to supine position.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Robotic Versus Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy: Systemic Review

Emad Rezkallah, Wael Elsaify, Andrew Elsaify, Grace Lim

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 59-70
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1331394

Background: Minimal invasive surgery has become the standard for most surgical procedures now. Many studies have tried to compare robotic versus laparoscopic to adrenalectomy.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to review most of the available studies comparing robotic to laparoscopic adrenalectomy to evaluate which procedure provides the superior clinical outcomes. Methods: A systematic literature search of ScienceDirect and PubMed databases. The perioperative clinical outcomes were collected by two independent reviewers. We used Random-effects (DerSimonian-Laird) models to get the pooled effect estimates.

Results: 18 studies were eligible in our study. 10 of them were prospective and 8 were retrospective. A total of 1376 patients underwent adrenalectomy, 592 (43.02%) were treated with RA and 784 (56.9%) with the LA technique. There were no significant differences between both groups regarding the conversion rate (Odds ratio: 0.70, 95% CI 0.31-1.57, P= 0.65), intraoperative complications (OR: 2.18, 95% CI 0.49- 9.71, P= 0.28), post-operative complications (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.55-1.24, P= 0.49), and mortality (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.07-2.72, P= 0.98). However, robotic adrenalectomy was associated with longer operative times (MD: 9.89 min, 95% CI: -2.79 to 22.58), shorter hospital stay (MD: -0.33, 95% CI: -0.46 to -0.21) with less blood loss (MD: -25.34, 95% CI: -36.77 to -13.91).

Conclusions: We proved that robotic adrenalectomy has equal safety and feasibility with similar clinical outcomes when compared with laparoscopic approach. However, better well-designed studies are required to determine the role and cost-effectiveness of robotic adrenal surgery.

Open Access Minireview Article

Biological Effects of Global System of Mobile Communication- A Review

M. R. Agaku, M. S. Shiada, O. S. Ode

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 9-15
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1331387

In this study, a review of the biological effects of Global System of Mobile Communication handset was carried out using available literature and safety standards for radiofrequency of the National and International Agencies in conjunction with the International Committee for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The dose received by a biological tissue in time 0.5 minutes of dose as stated by the aforementioned agencies is equal to the microwave of 10mw/cm2 SAR of 2 w/kg. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) limit of tissue for occupational workers for a whole body is 0.04 w/kg and for non-occupational workers is 0.08 w/kg. Additionally, GSM users exceeding the above SAR limits are likely to suffer from physiological effects of various forms such as alteration of calcium balance in the nerve tissues and inhibition of cells growth in the human amniotic, disruption of biorhythms due to the influence of electromagnetic field on the epiphysis resulting in dizziness, headaches and brain tumour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socioeconomic Profile of Farm Based Agripreneurs in Sanga Reddy District of Telangana State, India

B. Srishailam, Basava Prabhu Jirli, Vavilala Priyanka, Keesam Manasa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1331386

Socioeconomic status is measurement of economic and social position of an individual in the society. It influences the accessibility to the resources, livelihood pattern, food and nutritional security. The research investigation was conducted in Zahirabad, Narayanakhed and Sanga reddy.  Revenue divisions purposively based on the highest number of agripreneurs. Nine blocks were selected from each revenue division purposively, thus making up a total of 27 blocks with the objective to know the profile of agri-input based Agripreneurs. Sample size constituted 200 Agripreneurs. The respondents were interviewed with the help of a schedule designed for the study. The exploratory survey design was used for the present study. The analysis of data revealed that majority of the respondents were ‘middle age’ with ‘Graduation level’ education (40.05%), majority of the Farm based agripreneurs with ‘medium’ Socioeconomic status (80.00%), Source of information utilization(53.50%) and Extension agency contact (69.00%), had ‘medium’ value orientation(49.00%) and had ‘high coordinate  ability (64.50%) and medium achievement motivation (71.00%) and medium risk taking behavior (74.00%) and medium innovativeness(57.50%) were observed. Hence these independent variables should be taken care of by the implementing agencies while selecting the beneficiaries for entrepreneurship development programmes and farmer-friendly policies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Quality Control Measurements with Aging X-Ray Machines

M. R. Agaku, N. B. Akaagerger, O. S. Ode

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 16-21
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1331388

The investigation of Quality Control measurement (QC) with ageing x-ray machines was undertaken. Ten x-ray machines were examined across different hospitals within  Makurdi metropolis, Benue State  using Gammex 330 kV meter and ten (10) X-ray Machines in government hospitals (GH) and private hospitals (PH) with age’s (4-12) years for new X-ray Machines and (22-47) years for aged X-ray Machines. With these, on the quality of diagnostic X-rays and patient’s dose were examined separately when a graph of age of the machine was plotted against the power n of the kVp and a graph of machines age was plotted against radiation intensity. Based on the analysis obtained in this study, the value of n for the new machines with ages (5-12) years has a value of  and aged machines with ages (22-47) years has a value of. This shows that there is a relationship between age and n. In conclusion, the findings of the present study showed that the output radiation dose of new and aged x-ray units differs at the same kVp and mAs measurements, indicating that the x-ray tube deteriorates as its ages increase, thereby posing higher health risk to patients and as such, the study recommends that QC measurement be undertaken on x-ray machines at definite stages of the machines life to verify the effects of aging of a machine on patient's dose.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Possibilities of Simultaneous Operation (SIMOPs) and Practicality of Positive Pressure Habitat in a Hazardous Industry: Where Process Safety Meets Occupational Hygiene

Kennedy A. Osakwe

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 28-37
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1331390

High risk industrial facilities require operational shutdowns to undertake maintenance activities when the interaction between maintenance activities and facility processes are potentially explosive. This study presents a model that circumvents this interaction thereby enabling simultaneous operations flammable hydrocarbon facility while hot work progresses. A mixed study in which qualitative data on Simultaneous Operation (SIMOPs) of a hydrocarbon facility, hot work and deployment of Positive Pressure Habitat were generated through a walk-through survey. Quantitative data on the exposures within and around the hot work activities were generated using air quality monitor to measure the concentration of welding particulates, portable ozone meter used to measure the ozone level, sound level meter to measure ambient noise level, personal noise dosimeter to measure personal noise level, Multi-gas Meter. While concentrations of chemical parameter, temperature, relative humidity, habitat pressure were not in exceedance of exposure limits; the average noise level and particulate matter (PM) 2.5 within the habitat were 87 – dB(A) and 65 µg/m3 respectively. The exceedances in noise and PM2.5 level was mitigated using hearing protection, respirator and local exhaust ventilation (LEV). A simultaneous operation involving live hydrocarbon facility and hot works was achieved using the Positive Pressure Habitat (PPH) as a buffer between flammable work environment and thermal energy emitted from hot work activities. Chemical pollutants were introduced by maintenance activities within the habitat but was however mitigated through occupational hygiene measures. This study validates the possibility of simultaneous operation in the event of two mutually explosive scenarios with the aid of process safety equipment’s and occupational hygiene measurements and control measures. Globally, downtimes in high risk industries occasioned by maintenance activities could be prevented by deploying process safety and occupational hygiene control strategies concurrently.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Salinity on the Feeding Efficiencies, Growth Performances and Survival Rate of 11th Strain of Tilapia (GIFU) in Laboratory Condition

Smriti Chakraborty, A. F. M. Arifur Rahman, Bhakta Supratim Sarker, Maruf Hossain Minar, Md. Belal Hossain

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 38-51
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1331391

Feeding experiment was conducted for 45 days to evaluate the effects of salinity on the feeding efficiencies, growth performances and survival rate of 11th strain of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (GIFU) in laboratory condition. Three rectangular glass tanks were used for the experiment with different level of salinity (0 as control; 8ppt and 10ppt (ppt means parts per thousand, g/l) as treatment 1 and treatment 2 respectively) using two replicates for each level of salinity. Seventy-five fingerlings were stocked in the tanks. The investigation was conducted at one feeding rate (3% of body weight) which has given twice a day in a 1 X 2 factorial experiment. Average food conversion ratios (FCR) were 2.66 ± 0.04, 1.76 ± 0.04 and 1.69 ± 0.07 in controls, T1, and T2 respectively. Average protein efficiency ratios (PER) were 0.63 ± 0.04, 1.31 ± 0.01 and 1.68 ± 0.02 in control, T1, and T2 respectively. The feed efficiency (FE) were 35.22 ± 1.54, 32.45 ± 1.22, and 31.54 ± 1.85 in control, T1 and T2 and specific growth rate (SGR) were 0.42 ± 0.03 %/d in control, 0.99 ± 0.03 %/d in T1 and 1.34 ± 0.09 %/d in T2 respectively. The net weight gain of fish in T2 (39.12 ± 0.17 g) and T1 (31.1 ± 0.02 g) were significantly higher than that of control (30.00 ± 0.21 g). The net length gain of fish in T2 (12.12 ± 0.03 cm) and T1 (10.5 ± 0.02 cm) were significantly higher than that of control (9.5 ± 0.04 cm). The survival rates were 85%, 100% and 100% in C, T1 and T2 respectively. The proximate composition of fishes, water quality parameter, feeding efficiencies and growth performances were better in T2 than that of T1 and C. The best growth was found from T2 (salinity 10 ppt) and lower growth was found from control (salinity 0 ppt) in case of GIFU. The present study revealed that GIFU can tolerate a wide range of salinity and shown better growth and survival rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil of Lagos State University, Epe, Lagos State, Nigeria

L. Salami, J. G. Akinbomi, R. J. Patinvoh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 52-58
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1331392

Soil contaminated with heavy metals poses an ecological risk especially to public health. The aim of this work is to assess the ecological risk of heavy metals in soil of Lagos State University (LASU), Epe, Lagos State, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from 8 different points in LASU which were stored in various polythene bags labeled SS1 – SS8. A control sample was taken 1 km away from LASU and was labeled SC9. All the sampling locations were identified using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) for the purpose of universal identification. The soil samples were analysed for nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) and Iron (Fe) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Enrichment factor (EF), potential ecological risk (Ei) and ecological risk index (RI) were carried out using the data from the analysis. The results revealed that all the EF values were less than 2 except that of lead in SS1. The Ei values were less than 40 except that of lead in SS1. Moreover RI values of all the soil samples investigated were less than 150. It was obvious from this work that the soil of LASU, Epe, Lagos State, were not enriched with heavy metals and have a low potential ecological risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Emission Analysis of Diesel Engine by Cooking Oil Waste as Part Substitute of Fuel

Manas Ranjan Padhi, Siba Prasad Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 82-90
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1331396

Methyl ester as biodiesel is one clean energy sources for fueling diesel engines. The adverse effects of the conventional fossil fuels and rise in fuel price have made researchers to carry out their researches on various sources of biodiesels. The process of producing biodiesel from vegetable oil is not so economical due to cost of the raw materials though there are reductions in emission gases from automobile exhaust. The cooking oil as waste is not eco-friendly and difficult to dispose. The same can be used as a part substitute to diesel to run internal combustion engine to economize the fuel cost, reduce environmental pollution, ameliorate the difficulties of unburnt cooking oil disposal. Recent study envisages an attempt to convert the waste cooking oil to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) as a supplement to diesel. An internal combustion engine was run with different proportion by substituting with FAME acquired from cooking oil waste. The analyses of the noxious gases released have been conducted to find the concentration of noxious gasses by using Exhaust Gas Analyzer. The percentage of toxic gasses exhausted on running the internal combustion engines with extracted biodiesel at 10%, 20% and 30% mix were analyzed. The results revealed that the percentage of emitted gases like Hydrocarbon (HC), and Monoxide of Carbon (CO) were reduced and it was found optimum at a blend of 20% of biodiesel when added with 80% conventional diesel but need further work on it.

Open Access Review Article

Nanoclay and Its Importance

K. Nagaraju, T. N. V. K. V. Prasad, V. Munaswamy, Y. Reddi Ramu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 71-81
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1331395

Clays are the one of the most important minerals and have numerous applications in nanotechnology, helps in improvise the product quality, cost effective and protect the environment from pollution. This review explained about the key characters of nanoclay particles and classification of nanoclay based on the sheets arrangements in their structural unit called layer. Nano clay major groups are kaoline-serpentine, smectite, mica, vermiculite, pyrophyllite talc and chlorite. The physicho-chemical and morphological properties of halloystite and mantmorillonite clay represents the 1:1 and 2:1 layer groups respectively. Nano clays are the group which is naturally present in the soil fraction of clay and most important nano clay material present in the soil are montmorillonite and allophone. Montmorillonite is a characteristically crystalline, phyllosilicate and hydrous silicate layer. Organo clays are the organically modified forms of the montmorillonite and formed from quaternary ammonium ions intercalation process and which have been used in inks, rheomodifiers, cosmetics, greases, as a additives in paints and also used in controlled release of drugs in delivery systems. Largest usage of nanoclaysis being practiced in polymer-clay nanocomposites. Organo clays are most importantly using in water treatment and pollution control. Allophane is formed by weathering of volcanic ash; it is non crystalline alluminium silicate derivative. Agricultural lands in Chile mostly formed by the allophane clay fraction. It is most suitable for enzyme mobilization. It also very useful in abortion of phenolic compounds, mill effluent colours and phosphates from waste water.