Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Identification of Lijiadagou Landslide and Debris Flow Hazards Chain in Yong'an Town, Fengjie County of Chongqing City

Q. H. Song, S. C. Ren, X. L. LI, B. L. Chen, K. Li, D. J. Tan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1131364

Lijiadagou landslide and debris flow hazards chain in Yong’an Town of Fengjie county is one of the representative geohazards. By using satellite remote sensing technology, field investigation and observation, survey and analysis, mechanical analysis and other technical means, this paper makes qualitative or semi quantitative analysis on the hazard environment, instability probability, vulnerability analysis of elements at risk, risk loss, etc. The risk factors of Lijiadagou landslide and debris flow were identified. The conclusion shows that the unique landform and climate of Lijiadagou lay a foundation for the occurrence of multiple debris flows in the history. Under the alternate control of multiple factors such as the nature of the rock and soil mass, the stratum structure that controls the sliding, the complex geomorphic environment, continuous heavy rainfall and the rise and fall of the water level, there are high risks of landslides and debris flows, threatening about  6,000 residents in the middle and front range of Lijiadagou. The risk economic loss of hazards is about 80 million yuan, and will cause serious social impact. It is urgent to strengthen monitoring and early warning, and at the same time take targeted measures against the landslide source  area to cut off the hazards chain from the source, so as to achieve a multiplier effect with half the effort.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) – Analysis of Profile of FPOs and Its Members in Medak District of Telangana

C. D. Amitha, B. Savitha, V. Sudha Rani, P. Laxminarayana

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 24-31
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1131367

This paper focused to study the profile of selected FPOs and its members. With respect to the profile of FPO members, twelve profile characteristics selected were grouped under group composition, governance and management and membership commitment. An Ex-post-facto research design was adopted for the study. Three FPOs were selected randomly from 3 different promoting institutes working in the Medak district viz., Suraksha Farmers Producer Company Ltd (SFPCL) promoted by independent research organization Centre for Sustainable Agriculture (CSA), Marpalli Kisan Kranthi Producer Company Ltd (MKKPCL) promoted by Vrutti NGO and Siddipet Kisan Agro Farmers Producer Company Ltd (SKAFPCL) promoted by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics (ICRISAT). The results of the study revealed that under group composition, majority were small farmers with middle age (55.55%), primary school education (35.55%), with medium farming experience (47.77%) and with medium annual income (60.00%). Majority of respondents perceived that with respect to management and governance characteristics of FPO had poor group leadership (41.11%), fair group communication (58.88%) and medium adherence to rules(41.11%). With respect to membership commitment majority of respondents had low group participation (43.33%), medium group cohesiveness (47.77%) and low team spirit (43.33%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Three Artificial Lift Operations in the Niger Delta

Chinedu I. Ndubuka, Julius U. Akpabio

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 97-116
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1131375

More than 70% of oil-producing wells require some form of artificial lift to increase the flow of fluids from subsurface to the surface when a reservoir no longer has sufficient energy to produce at economic rates. This situation has been observed in the Niger Delta oil wells over the past years and has caused the abandonment of reservoirs with a significant volume of  hydrocarbon. Data from two oil wells that could not flow naturally to the surface have been  obtained from an oil company operating in the Niger Delta. The arm of this study is to optimize the  production of two oil wells using an artificial lift system. To increase production and extend the life of these wells, artificial lift projects were considered. This was done with the aid of Integrated   Production Modelling (IPM) tool in Petroleum Expert suite. Two wells were simulated using the obtained data, and their production performances were evaluated. The well’s   production outputs were optimized using artificial lift systems, that is electric submersible pump (ESP), hydraulic pump (HP), and gas lift (GL). The results obtained showed that the ESP wells have the highest oil production rate compared to GL and HP respectively. An economic analysis was carried out using Net Present Value (NPV), Profitability Index (PI) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). In terms of economic comparison, ESP is the most viable project  with the highest NPV, PI and IRR Hence, the ESP technology proved to be the best technology for sustaining a high production rate, increasing revenue and proved to be economically viable in Niger Delta oil fields.

Open Access Mini Review Papers

Air Quality effects Along with Potential Agricultural Solution to Amid COVID-19

Hanuman Singh Jatav, Kailash Chandra, Udit Nandan Mishra, Subhash Chand, Champa Lal Khatik, Mudasser Ahmed Khan, Sanjay Kumar Attar, Shish Ram Dhaka, Ramu Meena, . Ompraksh, Shaantanu Dabi, Mukesh Nitharwal, Subhita Kumawat, Jhumar lal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 43-46
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1131369

Life forms and their health status are highly dependent on the surrounding environment especially on the air quality as air and its constituents are the basic requirements for life sustenance on earth. Booming population and their dependency on machineries such as vehicles for their mass transportation has tortured the mother earth with polluted environment. This has affected the quality of air that we breathe and in turn affects our health status. Some of the notable air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO, SO2, O3 NH3 and Pb) serve as the means to determine the air quality index. This article outlines the impact of air quality on humans and plants as well as the effect of lockdown due to novel Corona virus (COVID-19) on air quality globally. In order to intervene the communal spread of COVID-19 governments across different continents have imposed restrictions on public movement and gathering which has reduced the mass transportation and usage of vehicles. This has benefited the air quality by reducing the pollutants in atmosphere and it is needless to say this is a blessing in disguise amid COVID-19 pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Numerical Modeling of Water Table Fluctuation in Unconfined Sloping Aquifer in Response to Multiple Localized Recharge

Shikha Saxena, Rajeev Kumar Bansal, Basant Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 13-23
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1131365

Numerical modeling for the variations of water table fluctuation in response to subsurface seepage and downwards recharge is an important aspect in the estimation of surface-groundwater interaction. In this work, a numerical model is developed for the approximation of water table variation in an unconfined sloping aquifer subjected to the multiple localized recharge and seepage from the adjacent water body. The Boussinesq equation characterizing the flow of groundwater in unconfined sloping porous media is solved numerically using Du Fort Frankel finite difference method. The application of the result is demonstrated with illustrative examples using varying aquifer parameters. The results indicated that the water table form groundwater mound beneath recharge basins due to continuous recharge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Soil Microbial Population and Enzyme Activities under Jasmine Cultivation as Influenced by Nutrient Sources

B. Bhakiyathu Saliha, B. Banupriya, P. Balasubramaniam, R. Indirani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 32-42
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1131368

Multi nutrient deficiencies in soil have been reported with increasing frequency over the past two decades on a worldwide scale, is considered as an important factor that reduces yield and affects the quality of harvested products. Nutrient cycling and transformation of in soil is influenced by microbes and the availability of organic and inorganic nutrients to plants and microbes can both be controlled through enzyme activities. Keeping this in view a field experiment was conducted at O. Alangulam village of Thiruparankundram block, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu during 2016-18 to evaluate the influence of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on soil microbial population and enzyme activities and optimize the sulphur requirement of Jasmine (Jasminum sambac) which plays a key role in enhancing the yield and quality of flowers. The significantly higher bacterial population of 124 × 106 CFU g-1 was observed in the treatment that received pressmud as sulphur source @ 60 g sulphur/plant/year along with RDF (recommended dose of fertilisers were applied @ 60:120:120 g of N:P2O5:K2O/plant/ year in the form of urea, SSP and MOP).This was followed by the treatment that received pressmud @ 40 g sulphur/plant/year along with RDF (111 × 106 CFU g-1). Application of inorganic NPK fertilizers without organics decreased the activities of dehydrogenase and aryl sulphatase enzymes. The flower yield hectare-1 ranged from 3.8 to 15.4 tonnes ha-1as influenced by various nutrient sources. Application of RDF along with Gypsum @ 60 g sulphur/ plant/year recorded significantly higher yield followed by the treatment that received RDF along with Pressmud @ 60 g sulphur/plant/year.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional Performance of Parallel Drain Subsurface System in Waterlogged Paddy Field

L. Kathirvel, M. Manikandan, A. Raviraj, M. Baskar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 47-63
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1131370

Waterlogging induced salinity is a common problem in many command areas of irrigation projects. Subsurface drainage improves the productivity of poorly drained soils by decreasing the water table, providing greater soil aeration, improving root zone soil salinity and enhancing the crop yield. A pilot study has been conducted to explore the functional performance of the parallel drain subsurface system in waterlogged paddy field by considering the lateral drain spacing and drain depth are the factors influences the soil properties. This experiment was carried out in farmers’ field at Sembari village, Lalgudi, Tamil Nadu, India in waterlogged paddy field during October 2020 to February 2021. Treatments of this study consisted the combination of three lateral drains spacing of 7.5 m, 10.0 m and 12.5 m and two drain depths of 60 cm and 80 cm and a control plot. This study investigated the changes in soil properties, depth to water table, drainage coefficient and crop behaviors after installation of the system. Reduction in Soil pH, removal of slats in drain water, lowering the depth to water table and higher drainage coefficient recorded for narrow lateral drain spacing and deeper drain depth treatment has improved the root zone environment for crop growth. Paddy has been established very well in terms of plant height and number of tillers per plant in S1D2 (7.5 m drain spacing and 80 cm drain depth) treatment which was also reflected in grain yield and straw yield over undrained paddy field yield. Based on the results, it is recommended to install parallel drain subsurface system at 7.5 m drain spacing and 80 cm drain depth in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standardization of Starch Concentration for Saree Rolling at Domestic Usage

Lakshmi Pooja Sanku, R. Neelarani, Khateeja Sulthana Shaik, K Pushpalatha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 64-73
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1131371

Starching is one of the most significant finish given to sarees. Apart from minimizing wrinkles, starch/sizing material protects fiber due to its polished appearance provided by adequate starch concentrations while finishing the textile material. Hence, the present study is conducted on standardization or optimization of selected starches (Mango kernel starch (MKS), Jack fruit seed (JFS) starch, Bhagavathi gum (BG)/synthetic gum, Maize starch (MS) and Revive liquid (RL)) for 1 and 3 percent concentrations as per the consumer requirement on cotton fabric. All the sized samples were tested for stiffness, crease recovery angle, and tear strength parameters assessing against control sample. Results showed that, for all the tested samples, the crease recovery angle of control sample is more in both ways and other treated samples have higher angle in warp ways than the weft ways. It was also observed, with an increase in concentration there was an increase in the angle. Similarly, the bending length and tear strength is more towards warp direction than weft direction in all the tested samples. Bending length is higher in 3 percent than 1 percent starch concentration for both warp. Amongst all the starched samples, MSK has good tear strength in both directions of the fabric. Based on the study it can be concluded that, depend on the type of the material one and three per cent of the starches from natural sources can be efficiently used at domestic level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sustainable Emergency Light for Scarcely Electrified Area of India

Shrutirekha Tripathy, Mitali M. Sahoo, Nimay Chandra Giri, Siba Prasad Mishra, Smruti Ranjan Nayak

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 74-82
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1131372

About 200 million people of India are deprived of grid based power supply, prominently in inaccessible hilly and rural hamlets of the country. Present research is an attempt to design, install, operate use, and maintain the hand on set of light source to address the unserved populations dwelling in electricity inaccessible areas in India. The approach is designing and developing a low cost sustainable or solar emergency light through, “Solar Home Lighting Systems” or “Sustainable Emergency Light” technology, which is one of the smart and innovative approaches of illuminating sources by harnessing solar energy to light the darkened places. The attractive daily usable gadget with surged luminous efficiency, durability, extended life, ecofriendly, compact, and efficient to work at both small values of current and voltages and they are growing acceptance. The safe and non-ignition start, is the uniqueness over conventional emergency light, and solar energy founded. The stand-alone device with mobile charging port with luminosity of 150 Lux can be used in lighting the escape routes, open areas and high risk areas. Under the crisis of pandemic of Covid-19 virus, the portable solar lights is  safe and riskless light source for the economic backward classes, and can provide the children and students for online undisrupted  study up to about 8 to 10 hours at low cost in remote areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Heritability and Relationships among Phosphorus Efficiency Traits in Maize under Low P Soils of Western Kenya

Evans Ochieng Ouma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 83-96
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1131373

Low available phosphorus (P) remains a major limitation to maize (Zea mays L.) productivity across the world. Selection for P efficiency is key as part of strategies to achieving agricultural sustainability. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the phenotypic and genetic relationships among P-efficiency traits in maize under low P soils and (ii) determine the heritability of some of these traits under similar conditions. A total of 32 experimental maize hybrids were evaluated for tolerance to low P in a replicated trial at four locations for one season. The experiment was laid out in a split plot arrangement in RCBD replicated 3 times across two P levels (36 kgP/ha and 6 KgP/ha). Grain yield had the highest correlation (r= 0.44-0.95) with most P- efficiency traits at both P conditions. It also exhibited high positive and significant correlations with plant height (rg = 0.72**) ear height (rg = 0.54*), cob Length (rg =0.81**) and stover yield (rg = 0.61**) while it was negatively correlated with days to anthesis and silking. The correlation between grain and shoot P concentration and grain P content with majority of the P efficiency indices (P acquisition &Utilization efficiencies &P efficiency) at both P levels was low & tended to be negative and non-significant indicating that seed P reserve, and stover P concentration, had minimal contribution to differential P efficiency. However, the relationship between shoot P content with P-efficiency traits was significant (r= 0.51-0.95), suggesting that shoot P content is a useful parameter in selecting for P efficiency in maize. Moderate to high heritability (0.50-0.95) was observed for the various traits showing that a large proportion of the observed variations were due to genetic differences among the hybrids. This study has determined genetic and phenotypic associations among P selection parameters that can help in flexing the selection methodologies to suite unique circumstances and environments.