Open Access Original Research Article

Morphometric Study of Dhatarwadi River Basin Using RS and GIS Techniques

Priti S. Jayswal, Narendra Kumar Gontia, Ketan N. Sondarva

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1031354

Aims: Morphometric study of Dhatarwadi river basin.

Place and Duration of Study: This study is a work done for the research work in Ph.D. degree at College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat, India.

Methodology: Morphometric analysis involved determination of linear, aerial and relief aspects of the Dhatarwadi river basin, which was carried out using 30 X 30 m SRTM DEM in ArcGIS 10.5 software using standard formulae.

Results: The obtained results revealed that the Dhatarwadi river basin is 6th order drainage basin. The total number of 1327 streams were identified out of which 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th order streams are counted as 1036, 239, 42, 7, 2 and 1 number, respectively. The mean bifurcation ratio value is 4.31 for the study area which indicates that the geological structures are not distorting the drainage pattern. Stream length ratio varies between 0.14 and 2.14 indicates late youth geomorphic stage. The length of overland flow was found as 0.3084 km which also indicates very less structural disturbance, low runoff conditions and having higher overland flow. The stream frequency of the basin is 1.5448 km-2, indicates that this basin is having high permeable geology, low relief and the almost flat topography. The form factor, elongation ratio, circularity ratio and compactness coefficient are found as 0.3951, 0.7094, 0.3126 and 1.7882, respectively of the study basin is suggests that the Dhatarwadi river basin shape is elongated. The drainage texture is 7.1426 km-1 which shows that the Dhatarwadi river basin has short duration for peak flow. The relief, relief ratio and relative ratio of the basin are found as 0.438 km, 0.009372 and 0.2352, respectively.

Conclusion: All these parameters indicate that the Dhatarwadi river basin is of flat terrain with small hillocks/inselbergs having low to medium runoff potential.

Open Access Short Communications

Screening of Ricebean (Vigna umbellata (Thumb.) Ohwi and Ohashi) Accessions at Early Seedling Stage for NaCl Tolerance under Controlled Condition

B. C. Nandeshwar, D. K. De

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 71-79
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1031360

More salt reduces the growth and causes leaf damage, necrosis, and eventually subjected to death of the crop. Ricebean, belonging to family Fabaceae is a fast growing summer legume crop can produce high green fodder with high content of protein, calcium, phosphorous, tryptophan and also starch content. Approximately, 21.5 million hectares of cultivatable land in Asia are affected due to salinity. An experiment was set up in Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) along with three replications in a growth room of the Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India to study the potentiality of Ricebean to withstand against imposed salinity. Data were collected on different seedling growth parameters for screening of available 30 Ricebean genotypes at a 120 mM NaCl salinity level which was identified as standardize salt concentration for screening Ricebean genotypes after standardizing the protocol. Six genotypes viz., KRB-77 (81.58 and 0.41), KRB-273 (79.97 and 0.44) KRB-81 (79.63 and 0.44), KRB-10 (79.17 and 0.60), KRB-95 (76.48 and 0.51) and KRB-271 (71.31 and 0.54) were exhibiting more tolerance to imposed salinity level while genotypes viz., KRB-44 (19.48 and 1.73), KRB-66 (21.38 and 1.69), KRB-115 (22.25 and 1.26) KRB-56 (32.00 and 1.45) and KRB-211 (29.07 and 1.42) KRB-73 (33.10 and 1.43) were identified as susceptible to salinity, based on the study emphasized on germination percentage, relative reduction of dry weights, tolerance index (TI) and salinity susceptibility index (SSI) of different seedling traits.

Open Access Mini Review Papers

Action and Reaction of Plants to High Temperature: Improving Response of Wheat to Heat Stress

Lemma Abayneh Tumebo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 62-70
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1031359

All estimates suggest that by 2050, upto 50% increase in food production will be required to feed the world population. Wheat is the second most important crop after rice and by 2050, wheat production needs to be increased by 60% for socio-economic stability. However, the climate change induced global warming will have adverse effect on crop plants including wheat. To deal with the crop yield decrease influenced by global warming, an indepth study of heat induced morpho-physiological and molecular changes in wheat will result in better understanding of the plant. This review focuses on the impact of high temperature on the morphological, physiological, reproductive development and signaling in plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparitive Field Evaluation of Roto Drill Cum Herbicide Applicator

N. V. Gowtham Deekshithulu, . Samreen, B. Raj Kiran, L. R. V. Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 12-22
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1031355

Individual field operations such as ploughing, clod breaking, stubble clearance and leveling are necessary for the preparation of even and fine seed bed. These operations consume time and labor which become more economical. Strip tillage, direct paddy sowing, Zero tillage, requires minimum soil manipulation and no tillage respectively, where there incur reduced cost of operation. Timely sowing and proper weed control results in bringing out good returns. Farmers have many options for choosing equipment that is required to grow and harvest a crop. Farmers may own their own equipment, lease it, or have the field operations completed using custom operators. Considering the above facts and importance of paddy, in-order to reduce cost of cultivation a multi crop roto drill cum herbicide applicator was developed by combining three varied machines such as rotovator, seed drill and herbicide applicant or equipment at College of Agricultural Engineering, Bapatla. A tractor drawn roto drill cum herbicide sprayer was developed, evaluated and compared its cost economics with individual operations. Roto drill is the combination of rotavator, seed hopper and rocker sprayer pump. It pulverizes the soil, drills the seed and applies herbicide in single pass of tractor. The cost activity of multi crop roto drill cum herbicide applicator for performing three tasks was estimated as Rs/h. 641.00. While the individual costs of operation for tillage, sowing and herbicide application were computed as Rs/h. 571.00, 540.00 and 95.00 respectively. The cost of operation per one hour for developed multi crop roto drill cum herbicide applicator was 46.72% less when compared with costs of individual tasks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Oak Tasar Silk Waste/ Viscose Blended Knitted Fabrics through Kawabata Evaluation System (KES) for Apparel use

. Pooja, Sandeep Bains

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 23-36
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1031356

Tactile sense or the sense of touch has been an important aspect of the human interactions with the environment. The study of tactile sense, or the haptics, has received tremendous attentions for its potential applications. This paper introduces a novel approach for evaluating fabric sensory responses. Attempt has been made to objectively assess the oak tasar silk waste/ viscose blended knitted fabrics of two different yarn counts in order to obtain the scores on various parameters of hand. The Kawabata Evaluation System (KES) used five highly sensitive instruments that measure fabric bending, shearing, tensile and compressive stiffness, as well as the smoothness and frictional properties of a fabric surface. The instrument also gave direct value of primary hand value and total value of the fabric. It the findings of the research revealed that, 40%OTW:60%viscose blended fabric of 15 Nm yarn count depicted best results for smoothness, uniformity, tactile sensation, aesthetic appearance and total hand value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trends in Agricultural Trade of Asia Pacific Region

P. Soumya, R. A. Yeledhalli

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 53-61
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1031358

The present study was carried out to assess the growth rate in agricultural exports and imports of Asia Pacific region. Data for a period of 27 years i.e., from 1992 to 2018 is considered for analysis. The agricultural exports from Asia Pacific region and the world showed positive and significant annual growth rate of 7.90 per cent and 7.09 per cent, respectively. And also, there is increasing trend in import of agricultural commodities to Asia Pacific region (7.29%) and world (6.94%). In case of Asia Pacific agricultural exports as well as imports, the share of Animal and Fibre products decreased whereas share of Vegetable and Food products increased gradually over the study period. The growth rate of Vegetable products is 9.33 and 9.29% in case of exports and imports, respectively. The growth rate of both agricultural exports and imports is increasing for entire Asia Pacific region due to increasing share of Vegetable products. To maintain the increasing trend there is a need to focus on liberalizing logistics, facilitating adoption of modern information and communication technologies promoting competition among service providers and improving access to credit and trade finance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interplay between Performance and Convenience in Customer Choice of Self-Service Technologies

Badra Sandamali Galdolage

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 80-91
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1031361

Technological enhancements bring more convenience to customers by providing opportunities to do various service transactions through Self Service Technologies (SSTs). However, a very few studies focused on understanding SSTs profoundly. Thus, this research focuses on exploring performance and convenience related to SSTs in detail. Based on the inductive research approach, qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 SST users and data were analyzed using thematic analysis approach. The study found eight performance features; ‘usefulness, speed, efficiency, consistency, cost-effectiveness, user-friendliness, reliability, trialability’ and three convenience features; ‘locational convenience, time convenience and physical exertion’ as important in customer choice of SSTs. This study fills the gap in the literature by discussing two important matters in customer choice of SSTs in detail. It opens theoretical lenses to understand the significance of self-service technologies to customers from its performance and convenience perspectives. It provides useful insights for SST service providers that can be incorporated to their SSTs in designing and delivering a high-quality service which matches with the customer expectations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Moving Chord Inclination Angles when Determining Curvature of Track Axis

Wladyslaw Koc

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 92-103
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1031362

The analysis presented in the paper explains computational issues related to the use of a new method of determining the curvature of the track axis – the so-called moving chord method. It indicates the versatility of this method – it may be used both in a horizontal and vertical plane. It also draws attention to its very high precision, as evidenced by the exemplary geometric cases under consideration. The focus here is on the computational foundations of the discussed method regarding the angles of inclination of the moving chord. It was found that for a circular arc in the horizontal plane, the inclination angles of the moving chord depend on the track turning angle, while the difference in inclination angles depends only on the radius of the arc. In the case of a circular arc in the vertical plane, the moving chord inclination angles are much smaller than in the horizontal plane, which is connected with the range of the applied radii of the arcs. As in the horizontal plane, the radius of the vertical curve is the only factor that determines the discrepancy in the inclination angles of the moving chord.

Open Access Original Research Article

The use of Geoeletric Methods for Post-foundation Assessments of Distressed Buildings in Ebute-meta, Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State

O. J. Airen

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 104-119
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1031363

Geophysical and geotechnical investigations were combined to investigate the immediate causes of the distresses and foundation failures of buildings in Ebute-Meta area of Lagos, south-west Nigeria. Six (6) traverses were mapped in the study area across which six (6) 2D Wenner ERI, and fourteen (14) VES geophysical data were acquired. One (1) boring and five (5) CPT geotechnical data were also acquired. 2D ERI results reveal that resistivity values vary from 4.62 – 293 Ωm across the study area. Three resistivity structures were identified which denoted peat/clay, sandy clay, clayey sand and sand. The resistivity of the peat/clay varies from 4.62 – 27.9 Ωm with thickness varying from 12 - 25 m. The sandy clay varies in resistivity and thickness values from 26 – 86 Ωm and 8 – 29 m respectively. The clayey sand from 84.4 – 182 Ωm and 10 -15 m, and sand, having resistivity and thickness values of 293 Ωm and 3 – 5 m. The VES reveals similar results to the 2D ERI, delineating six geoelectric layers which are the topsoil, peat, clay, sandy clay, clayey sand and sand at maximum depth of 35.8 m. The borehole (BH) reveals a maximum boring depth of 45 m with eight zones comprising dark grey sandy clay, firm to stiff silty clay, soft, dark organic silty peaty clay, grey silty sand, dark grey silty sandy clay, dark grey organic peaty clay, grey silty sandy clay and medium dense to dense grey sand with occasional gravels. The CPT, which penetrated a maximum depth 15.8 m reveal that the cone resistance values vary progressively from 0 – 162 kg/cm2indicating very soft clay to soft clay near-surface and medium dense to dense geologic material at deeper depth. The peat/clay delineated by the 2D ERI and VES at 5 – 25 m depth with resistivity value varying from 4.62 -17 Ωm in the study area, and also revealed in the BH at 5.75 – 27.75 m depth as soft, dark organic silty peaty clay, having cone resistance values varying from 0 – 20 kg/cm2 is laterally extensive and incompetent to support engineering foundation.

Open Access Review Article

Site-specific Crop Nutrient Management for Precision Agriculture – A Review

Tapan Gorai, Pankaj Kumar Yadav, Gopal Lal Choudhary, Anil Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 37-52
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i1031357

Present irrational crop and nutrient management practices have raised several concerns of high merit. The concerns include low factor productivity or nutrient use efficiency (NUE), declining crop productivity, farmer’s profitability, impaired soil health and ecological contamination. Site-specific nutrient management (SSNM), after considering indigenous nutrient supplying capacity of soil using plant and soil analysis, can feed the crop in synchrony with its nutrient requirement in different physiological growth stages. Besides, several modern geospatial techniques viz. remote sensing techniques, geographic information system (GIS), global positioning system (GPS), proximal sensing; information and communication technologies (ICTs) including decision support system, smartphone apps and web services can also assist in diagnosis of soil and crop nutrient status, fertilizer recommendation and its dissemination to users. Optical and thermal remote sensing can effectively detect crop stress including nitrogen (N) deficiency through several vegetation indices especially normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). GIS techniques with spatial data acquired by GPS, can create spatial variability map and management zone (MZ) for precise farm operations including variable rate fertilization. Proximal crop sensors viz. chlorophyll meter and Green Seeker can also recognize crop nitrogen status and promote fertilizer N use efficiency by synchronizing fertilizer N supply with crop requirement. Even proximal soil sensing using electromagnetic radiation and contact electrode can estimate soil properties like soil pH, electrical conductivity, major and micronutrient content. Several decision support systems such as QUEFTS based model, crop manager, nutrient expert® and smartphone apps like ‘crop doctor’ can suggest for precise application of agro-inputs to rural youths and farmers. Yield monitoring and mapping tool can generate historical GIS database for spatial variability of crop yield under farmers’ crop management practices and assessment of nutrient uptake. Variable rate machinery based on variability map and sensor technologies can also be used for fertilization under different management zones. Therefore, SSNM technologies can enhance NUE; improve and sustain crop productivity, profitability; avoid nutrient wastage; maintain good soil health and environmental safety.