Open Access Original Research Article

Model Validation of Aqua Crop for Brinjal (Solanum melongena) Crop at Madakasira Region, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh

P. Sivamma, N. Naga Hari Sairam, G. Raghavendra, M. Muralee Krishna, S. V. Swapna Priya, . Sampath, . Venkanna

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 30-41
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i931345

Crop simulation models plays a vital role for estimating the effects of soil, water, nutrients on grain and biomass yields and water productivity of different crops. Among the various crop simulation models, Aqua Crop model was adopted for the predicting the crop water requirement in the Madakasira region, Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh. The Brinjal crop was selected for the study and was irrigated through two different methods i.e., drip and flood irrigation. The model generated the crop yield and crop water requirement for the drip and flood irrigation of Brinjal crop was compared with the actual field results of crop yield and crop water requirement. The simulated crop yield and crop water requirement for the Brinjal crop under flood irrigation was 5.23 t/ha and 326 mm. The actual crop yield and crop water requirement for the Brinjal crop under flood irrigation was 4.2 t/ha and 335 mm. The simulated crop yield and crop water requirement for the Brinjal crop under Drip irrigation was 5.76 t/ha and 318.3 mm.  The actual crop yield and crop water requirement for the Brinjal crop under drip irrigation was 4.8 t/ha and 290 mm.  From the results, it was clear that the model simulated the actual conditions of the crop. The benefit cost ratio was done for the experimental field data which clearly shows that the crop yield under drip irrigation has achieved the higher cost benefit ratio. Therefore, Aqua Crop model was suitable for simulating the crop conditions under any circumstances.

Open Access Original Research Article

Marine Drive Highway along Central Odisha Coast, India; Feasibility and EIA Inferences

Siba Prasad Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 80-94
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i931351

The golden sea beaches of Puri district in Odisha state is panoramic and a myriad tourist attractions from India and abroad. The places are famous for their temples of excellence as a part of the Bhartamala project.  The high cost involved could not materialize it. Marine drive road has been completed under National Highways of 35.8km between Puri and Chandrabhaga (Konark) which has been successful and have increased the ecotourism of Odisha. Present study is the extension of the coast line highway project of 29.4km between Chandrabhaga and Nuagaon near Devi river mouth. The Comprehensive Transport Study (CTS) has been undertaken to identify coastal transportation network including environmental impact assessment and including design. The methodologies as per Indian Road Congress (IRC) guidelines, and MoRTH specifications, have been adopted to assess thecharacteristics of the traffic,geometric andpavement design of the proposed Coastal road. The flexible pavement technology having seal coat 25mm thick over 20 mm thick premix carpet (B.U.S.G.) over both 300mm thick subbase and base course has been provided. The slope protection works against erosion along with culverts (mostly box or Hume - pipe) and bridges has been designed for the project. Since the high way to run over mostly unmanned sand dunes and only the Prachi River system the project is cost effective and shall surge the economic status of the fisher group and the villagers of the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Load Deflection and Ultimate Strength Properties of Sandwich Lightweight Foamed Concrete Panels

Alonge O. Richard, Opatade J. Adeolu, Olusola Ololade Afolake

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i931343

The interaction that exists between two wythes of concrete, inner and outer, goes a long way to establish the structural behavior of the whole components and particularly, lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel. Precast concrete sandwich panel (PCSP) has become a household name since it has been utilized in the construction of structural shell in some building types. This research investigated the load deflection of six different lightweight foamed concrete panels. The six panels were produced using a foamed concrete mix of the same density and the mechanical properties of the mix were tested. Each panel consists of two withes (facings) made of lightweight foamed concrete and polystyrene was used as the core and the insulation layer. Mild steel wire mesh of 6mm sizes was used as reinforcement in three of the panels while 9mm diameter high yield steel was used in the remaining three panels. The reinforcement in both facing was tied together using shear and bend to an angle of 450.End crushing of the panels was avoided using concrete capping. An axial load test was conducted, the load deflection, mode of failure and crack patterns of the panels was observed. The result also revealed that panels with concrete capping deflect along with their Wythe in the same directions and small deflection was recorded in panels with concrete capping. Cracking modes in panels reinforced with 6mm mild steel were controlled by material failure while those in panels with 9mm high yield steel, cracks was only observed at the lower part of the capping.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validation of Aqua Crop 5.0 Model for Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Crop at Madakasira Region, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh

P. Sivamma, N. Naga Hari Sairam, G. Raghavendra, M. Muralee Krishna, S. V. Swapna Priya, . Sampath, . Venkanna

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 18-29
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i931344

Crop simulation models were developed to estimate the effects of soil, water, nutrients on grain and biomass productivity and water consumption in different crops. In this study, the Aquacrop model was adopted to predict the volume of water consumed by crops in the Madakasira region, Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh. The culture of okra was selected for the study, using two irrigation methods: flood and drip. The model estimated the productivity of the crop and the amount of water needed for drip irrigation and flooding in that crop. the results were compared with field productivity, and their respective water requirements, and demonstrated yields of 4.3 t / ha in the flood irrigation system, with average water consumption of 326.6 mm / day, and in the field these values ​​were 3.5 t / ha average water consumption of 386 mm / day. And when using the drip irrigation system, the results obtained were: 5.2 t / ha with water consumption in the order of 320 mm / day, in comparison to the field crop that was 4.3 t / ha, consumption water of 300 mm / day. From the results, it was clear that the model simulates the real conditions of the culture. The cost-benefit ratio was made for experimental field data that clearly show that the yield of the crop under drip irrigation has reached the highest cost-benefit ratio. Therefore, the Aquacrop model was adequate to simulate the conditions of the crop in any circumstances.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Contamination Risks Due to the Sale and Storage Conditions of Smoked, Dried and Fresh Fishes in Ouagadougou

Arouna Ouedraogo, Cheikna Zongo, François Tapsoba, Hama Cissé, Yves Traoré, Aly Savadogo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 42-54
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i931346

Aims: Fish is a product more and more consumed in Burkina Faso, especially in Ouagadougou. Poor sale and storage conditions can impact on the hygienic quality of fish. The objective of this study was to identify the contamination risks due to the sale and storage conditions of smoked, dried and fresh fishes.

Study Design: A descriptive design was used to identify the different types and origins of fish on the markets in Ouagadougou and the practices and conditions of sale that could be sources of chemical and microbiological contamination.

Place and Duration of Study: Relevant data was collated in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) from February 2019 to July 2019.

Methodology: A survey was conducted among traders of dried and smoked fish from 50 markets and major sales sites in Ouagadougou. Data collection was done using a questionnaire developed with Sphinx Plus2 software.

Results: The results indicated a higher proportion of men (75%) than women (25%) with an age between 21 and 45 years old were participated in fish trade. The fish encountered in the markets of Ouagadougou come from Sourou, Kompienga and Bagré, as well as from external suppliers such as Côte d'Ivoire, Mali and Senegal. The different types of fish sold were dried or smoked carp (36.67%), smoked catfish (23.33%), dried Nanani or Djêdjê wala (concorde) (13.33%), smoked Macharon (10%), smoked Racok (10%) and smoked eels or Roolgo in mooré (local language) (6.67%). The types of fish most purchased by consumers, in order, were: Carp, Catfish, Macharon, Nanani. In addition, the study detected risks of contamination of the fish, namely: exposure material consisting of tables and baskets, conservation at room temperature, storage period of 10 to 30 days, no training in hygiene, fish served with bare hands, exposed to dust and stray animals.

Conclusion: In sum, the study revealed some characteristics of the fish industry in Ouagadougou and also risks of contamination of fish sold on the markets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Liquid Organic Manures on Growth, Yield and Quality in Oriental Pickling Melon under Organic Farming in Kerala

Vemaraju Ala, K. E. Usha, P. Venkataramanaiah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 55-62
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i931347

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the liquid formulations for production of organic oriental pickling melon (Cucumis melo var. conomon L.) was carried out at College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur during 2013- 2014. Among the liquid formulations, weekly foliar application of Jeevamrutham (100%) and Panchagavyam (3 %) recorded the highest growth and yield attributes such as germination percentage (81.67 % and 85 %) length of vine (110.83 and 110.00 cm), number of leaves (37.00 and 36.00), dry matter production (96.40 and 87.00 g/plant), number of fruits per plant (3.83 and 3.73), volume of the fruits (770 and 751.66 cm3), weight of fruits (2.5 and 2.43 kg/plant), and yield (30.33 and 29.50 t/ha). While, lowest growth and yield attributes recorded in POP (POP recommendations of KAU) and Cow urine. Among the liquid formulations, the NPK content was more in the liquid extract of composite organic manures and fish amino acid. The highest fungal and bacterial count was recorded in Panchagavyam treated plots. Jeevamrutham treatment reported the highest B: C ratio of 2.09 followed by Green leaf extracts (2.02).

Open Access Original Research Article

Cultivation of Milky Mushroom (Calocybeindica) in Greenhouse

P. Indraja, M. Madhava, S. Satyam, P. R. Chandra, S. Joy Prince

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 63-69
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i931348

Mushroom cultivation is one of the most important steps in diversification of agriculture. Milky mushroom (Calocybeindica) is a tropical edible mushroom, popular because of its good nutritive value and it can be cultivated commercially on large scale. Generally, by creating controlled environment in rooms mushroom cultivation is taken up, In traditional method  it is typical to manage the atmospheric temperature and humidity in desired range, which can be maintained easily in greenhouse by automatic control system.Cultivation of milky mushroom in greenhouse was taken up in controlled environment under three different conditions of controlled temperature and relative humidity (RH). The experimental conditions are 28°C and 79% RH, 24°C and 84% RH and 32°C and 72%RH. The yield obtained was found maximum at 24°C temperature and 84% relative humidity when compared with the other two greenhouse environment conditions. The yield from the mushroom cultivation under controlled environmental conditions in greenhouse was found to be high when compared with the conventional practice. It was concluded that, the mushroom cultivation yields high under controlled greenhouse conditions and also economical compared to the conventional method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-Chemical and Microbial Properties of Stored Mushroom Slices

B. Brahmini, L. Edukondalu, Venkata S. P. Bitra, G. Veeraprasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 70-79
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i931349

Button mushroom (AgaricusbisporusL.) is extensively produced and consumed in the world. They are more perishable due to their high moisture content. Due to its short shelf-life, the mushroom is usually dehydrated for preservation. Hot air dried mushrooms result in losses in nutrients, colour degradation and deformation in structure. To overcome these problems, freeze-drying of mushroom slices was investigated. White button mushrooms after cleaning were vertically cut into 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm thick slices. Sliced mushrooms were frozen at −20 °C and then subjected to the freeze-drying at various heating plate temperatures of 10, 20, 30 and 40 °C. The effect of slice thickness and heating plate temperature on physicochemical properties like rehydration, porosity, firmness, water activity, colour, ascorbic acid, protein and microbial properties like total bacterial, yeast and mould were evaluated during the storage. Increase in the storage period resulted in decrease in porosity (73.25%), colour L* value (48.12), firmness (0.98 N), rehydration ratio (4.04), ascorbic acid content (14.47 mg/100 g) and protein content (19.15%), whereas the water activity (0.412) increased with the storage period. This may be due to the absorption of moisture during storage. Microbial analysis indicated by yeast count, mould count and total plate count was nil during the first three weeks of storage, whereas in the fourth week negligible growth was observed. So it is concluded that this may be due to the low water activity of stored mushroom slices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation of Khoa by Traditional and Mechanical Methods

B. Brahmini, E. Mounika, Rachit Saxena, Ch. Someswara Rao, B. Manjula

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 95-102
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i931352

Khoa is a rich source of calcium which helps in strengthening of bones and teeth. It is helpful in osteoporosis and abundance of riboflavin in khoa helps to maintain healthy immune system. . The traditional method of khoa making has a number of drawbacks: It has a limited capacity due to batch operation which results in non-uniform product quality and thus not suitable for large volume production, inefficient use of energy and low heat transfer coefficient results in bulky equipment, large spillage losses, it requires more manual labor and sometimes burning of the product occurs which lowers its quality. In the present study a comparison between preparation of khoa by traditional method as well as mechanical method using steam jacketed khoa pan was carried out. Khoa was prepared by traditional method by stirring the raw milk continuously in a pan over a flame until the raw milk was converted into semi solid stage. The drawbacks such as vary in temperature during the experiment because of non-uniform distribution of flame and burn out of milk solids were identified in this method. This leads to burnt flavour and discolouration of khoa. To overcome these drawbacks of traditional method, khoa was made in a steam jacketed khoa pan installed at Dairy and Food Processing Pilot Plant, College of Agricultural Engineeering, Madakasira at a uniform pressure of about 1.5 kg/cm2. In this mechanical method, the khoa was prepared in less time as well as it has good appearance, flavour, texture etc. compared to khoa prepared by traditional method. In traditional method, about 0.242 kg of of khoa was obtained from 0.94 kg of raw milk with addition of 0.0925 kg of sugar while 11.50 kg of khoa was obtained from 40 litres of raw milk with addition of about 4 kg of sugar when khoa was made in steam jacketed khoa pan. In this mechanical method, the khoa was prepared in less time as well as it has good appearance, flavour, texture etc. compared to khoa prepared by traditional method.

Open Access Review Article

Application of Phosphorus and Calcium to Improve Physiological Response of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Henry Tamba Nyuma, William S. Kollie, Cornel. L. Rweyemamu, John S. Fayiah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 103-111
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i931353

Genotype, environment and agronomic practices are key determinants of crop   growth and productivity which are important to provide food, feed, raw materials and income to small holder farmers in Africa. The study was conducted at Crop museum, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania to investigate physiological response of groundnut to calcium and phosphorus nutrition among three improved groundnut genotypes Mangaka (G1), Masasi (G2) and Pendo (G3) with three levels of phosphorus and at calcium control (T0), 125 kg/ha (T1) and 55 kg/ha (T2) supplied from Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) and Minjingu mazao, respectively.  Significant (P< 0.05) influence of calcium was observed on leaf area index (LAI) 4.03; crop biomass 88.79 g/plant; number of nodules 66.22, and crop growth rate (CGR) 15.05 g m2/day. Whereas phosphorus had significant influence on net assimilation rate (NAR) 10.84 g m2/day. Similarly, groundnut genotype (Masasi) had significant influence on LAI (3.95); CGR (13.04 g m2/day); NAR (12.36 g m2/day) and number of nodes (64.93). However, there was no significant effect of genotype on crop biomass recorded from the investigation. Growth  parameters were significant influenced by genotype and fertilizer interactions with Significant (P=0.2) interaction effect for crop biomass observed between G3 x T1, whileG3 x T2 significantly affected number of nodules and G2 x T1 had Significant interaction effects on CGR and NAR. This is an indication that investment in improved genotype and appropriate application rate of fertilizers has the potential to enhance yield and income of smallholder farmers.