Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Heavy Metal Contamination in Some Selected Cocoa Plantations in Oyo State, Nigeria

G. A. Adewoye, N. A. Amusa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i831333

The frequent use of copper-based pesticides for the control of cocoa pests and diseases by farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria has necessitated the determination of heavy metal contamination in soil samples obtained from randomly selected cocoa plantations in Longe, Abaagbo, Sikiti, Idi-Ope, Alaagba, and Idi-Ogun in the State. Presence and quantities of copper, chromium, cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc were assayed in the collected samples. Levels of contamination of each of the soil samples were also assessed using contamination factor, degree of contamination, index of geo-accumulation and pollution load index (PLI). Results obtained from the study revealed a gradual deterioration of the analyzed cocoa soils. The PLI values also gave an indication of pollution. Cocoa farmers in the State therefore need to be properly enlightened on the use of synthetic pesticides, and be encouraged to adopt integrated pest management practices that place less emphasis on the use of chemicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Consumer’s Perception in Adoption of Clean Energy Products in Areas of South Odisha

Shiv Sankar Das, Swagat Ranjan Behera, Debashree Debadatta Behera, Sanjib Patnaik

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 7-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i831334

Ending poverty and ensuring sustainability are the defining challenges of the recent times. Clean energy has the answer to both [1]. Clean energy plays a significant role in human development, economic and regional development. Clean energy is that which do not produce any negative externalities. Some of the clean energy includes energy generated from sun, wind, hydro, hydel, etc. This paper discusses on the prevailing market situation and demand prospects of clean energy products (here solar operated lights) in the region of South Odisha. An empirical study was carried out through structured questionnaire to understand the perception of the respondents towards adoption of solar operated lights for their use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Career Aptitude Assessment of the Undergraduate Agricultural Students in Kerala Agricultural University

Bheemanpalli Vinodkumar, B. Seema

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 13-21
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i831335

The study entitled ‘Career aptitude assessment of the undergraduate agricultural students in Kerala Agricultural University’ was undertaken with 120 undergraduate agricultural students of the three colleges under Kerala Agricultural University (KAU) during 2018-19. Ex post facto research design was used for conducting the study and  sample of the study comprised of 120 third year and final year students i.e., 60 students from COA, Vellayani, 35 students from COH, Vellanikkara and 25 students from COAP, Padannakkad were selected based on proportionate random sampling method.  The results of the study revealed that majority of the undergraduate agricultural students had medium to high mechanical reasoning, language usage capability and numerical ability. Almost 71.68 per cent of the undergraduate agricultural students had high verbal reasoning ability and majority (78%) of the students had medium to low word knowledge. It was also observed that majority (95%) of the undergraduate agricultural students had medium to high career aptitude. These results indicated that undergraduate agriculture students have the desired skills to succeed in plethora of jobs i.e., from low profile jobs to high profile administrative and management jobs. Further, Man – Whitney test had been undertaken to test the significant difference between career aptitude of male and female students. The results revealed that regardless of their gender the career aptitude of the male and female students remained same. From this study it is evident that undergraduate students of KAU are suitable for wide range of occupations / vocations / careers from farming to agribusiness, from clerical job to the high profile administrative jobs, from farmer to the management professional, from private jobs to the government job, from extension agent to the agricultural scientist and so on.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Constraints, Technological Gaps and Improved Production Practices on Yield and Economics of Greengram in Arid Regions

Raj Singh, Om Prakash, Shalander Kumar, Mahesh Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 22-31
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i831336

Low adoption of improved crop production technologies has been an important factor in reducing the income, increasing poverty and reducing socio-economic status of the farmers in the arid region. Greengram is one of the important pulse crop mainly grown during kharif season in rainfed conditions of Rajasthan. Apart from harsh agro-climatic and poor edaphic factors, non- adoption of innovative production technologies is one of the utmost important amenable factors for low yield in the region. Over a period of time, a number of improved crop production technologies have been developed, but due to many constraints and low adoption, full potential of the technologies could not be exploited. As a result, a large gap exists between potential yield and actual yield. There is a need to address various issues and factors, which helps to limit the crop productivity. The present study conducted at the farmer’s field in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan indicated that most of the respondents stated that low returns from crop production, high cost of inputs, lack of knowledge and processing industry were the major constraints and technological index varied between 44 to 48%. The results of the study also showed gaps in the use of high-yielding varieties, recommended doses of fertilizers and plant protection measures in greengram. Demonstration of high yielding varieties of greengram (RMG 62 and RMG 268), recommended dose of fertilizers (20 kg N+50 kg P2O5/ha) and plant protection measures (metasystox 750 ml/ha) considerably increased seed yield, net returns, B: C ratio and additionally income over farmer’s practice. Use of high yielding variety (RMG 62), recommended dose of fertilizers and plant protection measures increased seed yield and net returns by 42.5 and 63.8%, respectively over farmer’s practice. The study suggests that addressing the socio-economic issues and constraints that affect the adoption of improved production technologies are paramount. In addition, there is a need for knowledge extension of better production technologies to achieve higher yield and economic returns by greengram cultivation in the arid region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occupational Aspiration of Undergraduate Agricultural Students of Kerala Agricultural University- A Multidimensional Analysis

Bheemanpalli Vinodkumar, B. Seema

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 32-40
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i831337

The study titled ‘Occupational aspiration of undergraduate agricultural students of Kerala Agricultural University- A multidimensional analysis’ was undertaken during 2017 - 19. The objectives of the study was to study and compare the occupational aspirations of the male and female undergraduate students of agriculture and also to categorise and compare the male and female undergraduate agricultural students based on the level of occupational aspiration. The study analyses both idealistic and realistic occupational aspirations of the undergraduate agricultural students by considering the concept of long and short range for goal period expression. The study also categorises the students based on their level of occupational aspiration by following the procedure adopted by National Opinion Research Centre (NORC) and Ajit [1] in developing level of aspiration scale. The occupational prestige rating scale establishes level of occupational prestige as viewed in India as well as determines the weighted score for each of the occupation. The sample of the study comprised of 120 third year and final year students i.e., 60 students from College of Agriculture (COA), Vellayani, 35 students from College of Horticulture (COH), Vellanikkara and 25 students from College of Agriculture (COAP), Padannakkad were selected based on proportionate random sampling method. The results on occupational aspiration of the students revealed that more than half (56.65%) of the undergraduate students in agriculture belonged to the category of high level of occupational aspiration.  Getting the state/ central government job (67.5%) and entering into administrative sector jobs through PSC’s (48.3%) were the realistic occupational aspirations of majority of the students. Becoming Agricultural scientist in central/ state government (45.85%) and cracking civil services (36.66%) were the idealistic occupational aspirations of the majority of the students. It was also observed that irrespective of the gender and college of study, the students’ level of occupational aspirations remained same.

Open Access Original Research Article

Zinc Induced Variations in Dry Matter Production, Partitioning and Yield of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) under Water Stress

B. Srikanth, K. Jayalalitha, M. Sree Rekha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 41-52
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i831338

A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2017-18 at Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla to study the effect of seed pre - treatment and foliar application of zinc on dry matter production, partitioning and yield of mungbean under water stress. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications consists of two main treatments viz., no stress i.e. control (M0) and stress from flowering stage (i.e. from 30 DAS) up to harvest (M1) and seven sub-treatments viz., no zinc application (S0), seed treatment with 0.05% and 0.075% ZnSO4 solutions for 5 hrs before sowing (S1 and S2), foliar spray of 300, 400 and 500 ppm ZnSO4 at 30 DAS (S3, S4 and S5) and water spray at 30 DAS (S6). The results showed that leaf, stem, reproductive parts, total dry matter and seed yield was decreased by 23.0, 23.3, 15.3, 18.7 and 33.6 per cent, respectively in the plants that were subjected to stress from flowering stage over control plants. Foliar zinc spray @ 500 ppm at 30 DAS increased the leaf, stem, reproductive parts dry matter, total dry matter and seed yield by 24.6, 24.8, 20.9, 22.5 and 55.2 per cent, respectively, over untreated plants. Normal irrigated plants sprayed with zinc @ 500 ppm (M0S5) recorded the highest mean values of above parameters and the lowest mean values were recorded by the stressed plants with no zinc application (M1S0). Under water stress, mungbean plants sprayed with zinc @ 500 ppm at 30 DAS (M1S5) increased the leaf, stem, reproductive parts, total dry matter and seed yield by 17.6, 16.4, 23.9, 21.3 and 42.0 per cent, respectively, over unsprayed plants (M1S0).

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Process Technology for Laxative Biscuits

S. Srivastava, A. R. Tapre, Mayank Jain

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 53-60
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i831339

Aims: The main objective of this study was to develop the whole wheat flour based castor oil fortified biscuits as per the maximum safe daily dosage of castor oil requirement for adults.

Study Design: In the present investigation attempts were made to prepare the whole wheat flour based castor oil fortified biscuits. As per the maximum safe daily dosage of castor oil requirement for adults, different levels of castor oil viz. 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 56% were tried to prepare acceptable quality biscuit based on sensory parameters. The effect of variable amounts of castor oil in the biscuit formulation on dough and biscuit texture was also studied

Place and Duration of Study: Experiments were done in Department of Food Processing Technology, A D Patel Institute of technology, Gujarat (India) and completed within 8 months.

Methodology: The texture profile analysis for dough and biscuit samples prepared with varying levels of castor oil was carried out using texture analyser. Sensory evaluation of the prepared biscuit samples with varying % of castor oil was carried out for consumer acceptance and preference using semi-trained and consumer panelists.

Results: Dough with castor oil was observed to be significantly harder and less sticky. The hardness of the biscuits decreased with the increase in the level of substitution of castor oil. Overall acceptability of biscuits sample with 56% castor oil was the highest as compared to other samples and was significantly better than the control sample.

Conclusion: Overall acceptability of biscuits sample with 56% castor oil was the highest as compared to other samples and was significantly better than the control sample.

Open Access Original Research Article

Population Dynamics of Natural Enemies in Okra Agro-ecosystem in Relation to Abiotic Factors

Ram Kumar, P. P. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 61-69
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i831340

The present experiment was carried out to access the relationship between population fluctuation of natural enemies and abiotic factors in okra agro-ecosystem at the Research Farm, Tirhut College of Agriculture, Dholi, Muzaffarpur (Bihar). From pooled data of two consecutive Kharif seasons i.e. 2018 and 2019 it was inferred that the highest coccinellids population was registered during 35th standard week (4.56 coccinellids/ 5 plant). Thereafter, the population gradually decreases and reached to 1.19 coccinellids/ 5 plant during 41st standard week i.e. end of the crop. Correlation studies of coccinellids population with abiotic factors indicated that the maximum temperature had positive and highly significant effect on coccinellids. While, minimum temperature and relative humidity at 7 hrs showed positive but non-significant effect on coccinellids. The relative humidity at 14 hrs and rainfall had negative and non-significant correlation with coccinellids population. All the weather parameters together governed 49.90 per cent to the coccinellids population build up (R2 = 0.4990). In case of spider, incidence commenced in 27th standard week however, the maximum population (3.94 spiders/ 5 plant) was observed in 35th standard week. Correlation analysis of spider population with abiotic factors exhibited that the maximum temperature had highly significant and positive effect on spider population. Unlike it, minimum temperature and relative humidity at 7 hrs indicated positive and non-significant effect on spider population. However, the effect of relative humidity at 14 hrs and rainfall on spider population was found negative and non-significant. However, all the prevailing weather parameters together contributed 48.23 per cent towards spider incidence (R2 = 0.4823).

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Organic Manures and Inorganic Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Fodder Maize (Zea mays L.) Grown in North Eastern Zone of Tamil Nadu

T. Ananthi, C. Vennila

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 70-78
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i831341

Experiments were conducted during rabi season of 2019 and 2020 at the Department of Agronomy, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai to assess the performance of fodder maize (Zea mays L.) under varying combinations of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers. An experiment was laid out in split plot design with four organic treatments in main-plots viz., No manure, farm yard  manure (25 t/ha), vermicompost (12 t/ ha),  poultry manure (12 t /ha) and four fertilizer treatments in subplots with levels of No fertilizer, 125% RDF, 100% RDF, 75% RDF.  Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) for fodder maize crop is 60 kg N ha-1: 40 kg P2O5 ha-1: 20 kg K2O ha-1. The organic manures were applied as per the N equivalent basis to inorganic nutrient recommendation. The results revealed that all the maize growth parameters, green and dry fodder yield were significantly affected with the application of organic manures and fertilizer levels. Growth parameters viz., taller plants, more number of leaves per plant, higher leaf area index, stem girth, leaf stem ratio were observed under the combined application of poultry manure @ 12 t/ha  and fertilizer level of 75% RDF. The highest green matter yield and dry fodder yield were recorded with the integrated application of poultry manure @ 12 t/ ha along with the fertilizer level of 75 % RDF.

Open Access Review Article

Enhanced Oil Recovery Practices: Global Trend, Nigeria’s Present Status, Prospects and Challenges

Adeolu J. Alawode, Olugbenga A. Falode

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 79-92
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i831342

Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques are considered due to unimpressive oil recovery, limited oil reserves, and non-applicability of primary recovery methods in some (heavy oil) fields. In Nigeria, preparation is in gear towards implementing EOR projects. This paper therefore reviews the global trend of EOR practices and discusses Nigeria’s present status, prospects, and challenges.

Most EOR projects are employed in sandstone (high permeability) reservoirs; hence based on lithological considerations, all EOR methods are feasible in Nigeria. However, miscible hydrocarbon gas injection is found to be a very good EOR choice because it would drastically reduce the uneconomical practice of gas flaring; besides, transportation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and flue gas is virtually non-existent in Nigeria. Chemical (especially surfactant) flooding is costly; hence it would be feasible in Nigeria if oil price is high. At present, cost implications of heat treatment facilities may be an impedance to implementing thermal EOR for heavy oil in Nigeria. Though microbial EOR is the cheapest, it is not favorable in high temperature (above 85 oC), high salinity (above 100,000 ppm) and deeper (beyond 3,500m) reservoirs.

For EOR practices to thrive in Nigeria, there should be an extensive economic evaluation and forecasting, effective research and development, effective training of technical staff for proper operation, surveillance and maintenance of EOR projects, implementation of health, safety and environmental (HSE) guidelines, low inflation rates, low interest rates on loans, general price stability, favorable tax policy, low import duties on machineries and equipment used for EOR, modified private market decisions and encouraging legal and regulatory framework.