Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Analysis of Agri-enterprises Facilitated through KAU-Agri Business Incubators

Binuja Thomas, K. P. Sudheer, Binoo P. Bonny

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 30-40
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i731325

Vocal for local’ the slogan for Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan accentuate self reliance by bringing the local products to the global arena. Indian agrarian sector provide huge scope for demand driven agricultural research in this context. Agri Business Incubation centres institutionalised by ICAR envisage product development, promulgation of IP protection and technology commercialisation. Each of these centres focus to reinforce the linkage between the research institutes and industries in their mandated areas. Accordingly, the network of Agri Business Incubators(ABI) established by Kerala Agricultural University (KAU) covers diverse crops under the agriculture sector with special emphasis on value addition and market linkage. The present paper depicts the agribusiness ecosystem of Kerala in general and the role of KAU-ABI in reviving the ecosystem in particular. The beneficiaries who were facilitated through KAU-ABI during 2017-2020 were selected for the analysis. Primary and secondary data were collected and ex-post facto research design based on purposive sampling was followed. Performance indicators such as preference for training, extent of support received, transfer of technology, legitimisation and upgradation of the enterprises were selected for the analysis. The results indicated that KAU-ABI strengthened the linkage between entrepreneurs, various facilitators and key investors in the entrepreneurial ecosystem. It also created entry points in the agricultural value chains to accelerate economic growth for the agripreneurs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Heat and Heat Retention in the Solar Green House Dryer

P. Sivamma, E. Mounika, K. Carolin Rathinakumari, G. Senthil Kumaran, B. Bindu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 51-62
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i731329

Solar greenhouse drying is a method of removing moisture from the food material in which drying medium is solar energy which is easily available and low in cost for farmers. The solar energy is decreases in the monsoon months in comparison to non-monsoon months. The decrease in the solar energy results in lower temperatures in the solar greenhouse dryer. The aluminium foil which has 88% reflectivity and black mulch sheet which is best absorber and emitter of heat radiation were used to increase the heat in the solar green house dryer. Different orientations of aluminium foil and black mulch sheet were used. By using both aluminium foil and black mulch sheet, the following treatments were experimented: T1 (control – without modifications), T2 (black mulch sheet on the floor), T3 (combination of aluminium foil on southern wall and black mulch sheet on the floor), T4 (aluminium foil on southern wall), T5 (aluminium foil on three sides of the dryer), T6 (combination of aluminium foil on three sides and black mulch sheet on the floor), T7 (combination of alternate strips of aluminium foil on two opposite sides, aluminium foil on southern wall and black mulch sheet on the floor) and T8 (alternate strips of aluminium foil on two opposite sides and aluminium foil on southern wall). The parameters viz; temperature and relative humidity were recorded in both solar green house dryer and ambient conditions. According to the results, treatment T7 was shown best results in terms of maximum temperature difference and maximum relative humidity difference. Treatment T7 exhibited maximum temperature difference between inside and outside the dryer of 19.5 °C and also maximum relative humidity difference between outside and inside the dryer of 31%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pah Content of Clarais gariepinus Harvested from Ekulu River, Eastern Nigeria Contaminated with Effluents Generated from a Roofing Sheet Industry Risk Impact Assessment

Ubani, Chibuike S., Nweze, Ekene J., Aneke, Munachimso V., Arazu, Amarachukwu V., Okeke, Emmanuel S., Kanu, Ruth O., Ezeorba, Timothy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i731323

Aim: This study evaluated PAH content and health risks associated with consuming Clarais gariepinus (cat fish) from Ekulu Rivers, in Enugu, Nigeria fed with roofing sheet company effluent.

Place and Duration of Study Design: Ekulu River, the largest body of water in the city of Enugu in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria, is a 25-kilometer long river (16mi) and it originates in the same city as well. The city is located on latitude 06o 21o N and 06o 30o and longitude 07o 26o E and 07o 37 Eo.

Methodology: This analysis was conducted with the use of Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) machine equipped with Flame ionization detector (FID). The health risks were evaluated by the mathematical models stipulated by USEPA and WHO.

Results: The PAHs identified from the Clarias gariepinus samples were Acenaphthene, Acenaphthylene, Naphthalene, Fluorene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, Flouranthene, Pyrene, Benzo(α)pyrene and Benzo (g-h-i)perylene. Benzo(α)pyrene and Benzo (g-h-i)perylene were predominant. The quantity of PAHs detected in all fish samples including the control ranged from below detectable limit (BDL) through 0.001 to 0.0786mg/kg. The LMW PAHs detected were 60 % while the HMW PAHs were 40 % of the total PAHs in isolated. The total PAH concentration observed from the different point locations were 0.1003 mg/kg, 0.0977 mg/kg, 0.1102 mg/kg and 0.0414 mg/kg for the downstream, upstream, POD and control respectively. The HQ and HI obtained in all point locations were < 1. The ILCR of all the PAHs detected were in the range of 10-5 to 10-9.  The benzo (α) pyrene in cat fish obtained from the POD has the most carcinogenic potency and also recorded the maximum limit (5E -03 mg/kg).

Conclusion: it is pertinent to enlighten the fish consumers and mongers on the dangers posed by the consumption of fish from Ekulu River and also caution industries with injudicious effluent disposal into water bodies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study between Modified Solar Dryer and Open Sun Drying for Drying of Onion Slices

P. Sivamma, E. Mounika, K. Carolin Rathinakumari, G. Senthil Kumaran, B. Bindu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i731324

Solar greenhouse drying is a method of removing moisture from the food material in which drying medium is solar energy which is easily available and low in cost for farmers. The solar energy is decreases in the monsoon months in comparison to non-monsoon months. The decrease in the solar energy results in lower temperatures in the solar greenhouse dryer. The aluminium foil which has 88% reflectivity, reflects the radiation inside solar greenhouse dryer and heats the air inside dryer and maintains heat for longer times.Aluminium foil was applied on eastern, western and southern walls of the dryer and the parameters viz; temperature and relative humidity were recorded in both modified solar greenhouse dryer, solar greenhouse dryer and ambient conditions. Assessment of temperature in ambient condition, solar greenhouse dryer with and without modification showed the maximum temperature difference between solar greenhouse dryer without modification and ambient condition was about 11.5°C whereas 17.5°C maximum temperature difference between modified solar greenhouse dryer and ambient condition. The dryer was able to reduce moisture content of onion from initial moisture content of 679 per cent dry basis to 5.7 per cent in 31 h of drying whereas the traditional sun drying was able to reduce moisture content of onion from initial moisture content of 679 per cent dry basis to 29 per cent in 31 h of drying time. The results showed a considerable advantage of solar dryer over the traditional open sun drying method in term of drying rate and less risk for spoilage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Interventional Programme on Enhancing Empowerment Status through Decision Making Skills of Tribal Working Women in Utnoor Mandal Adilabad District, India

N. Sandhya Rani, M. Sarada Devi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 41-45
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i731327

Empowerment of tribal women is one of the central issues in the process of development all over the world. Empowerment is the process that allows one to gain the knowledge and attitude needed to cope with the changing world and the circumstances in which one lives [1]. Women empowerment is a process in which women gain greater share of control over material, human and intellectual resources as well as control over decision-making in their home, community, society and nation. Given the need to analyze the empowerment status of tribal women, the present study aimed to enhance the empowerment status through enhancing decision-making skills of tribal working women in India. The specific objective is to study the impact of intervention on enhancing status of empowerment through decision-making skills of tribal working women in Utnoor Mandal Adilabad district. The total sample population for the study was 50 tribal working women, and data was analyzed using a paired t test. Results revealed that at pretest, majority of the women were at average level of decision-making skills (78%), 12% were at low level and only 10% were at high level. After the intervention, post test results revealed that 74% of the women were high in decision making skills and remaining 26% were at average level. Interestingly, none of the respondents had low level of life skills. Thus, intervention found to be effective among women respondents to develop and enhance their empowerment status through decision-making skills.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Rib Fractures due to Trauma

Suphi Aydin, Ahmet Dumanli, Adem Gencer

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 46-50
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i731328

Introduction and Aim: We aimed to evaluate the one-year mortality rates and the effect of comorbid diseases on mortality in patients with trauma and isolated rib fractures.

Materials and Methods: Ninety patients who had trauma, isolated rib fracture between January 2016 and December 2016 and could be reached after one year after the trauma were included in the study. The files of the patients were scanned retrospectively. Age, gender, and length of hospital stay were recorded. After one-year follow-up, they were

contacted by phone to evaluate the rates of additional disease and mortality.

Results: 27 of the patients were female (30%), 63 of them were male (70%). Regarding the causes of injury, there were falls in 42 patients at most and in-vehicle traffic accidents in 35 patients. The mean age was 56.85 ± 16.33, the mean hospital stay was 4.04 ± 4.55 days. The most common comorbidities were diabetes mellitus in 13 patients and hypertension in 11 patients. The least detected additional diseases are; Ulcerative colitis, epilepsy, arrhythmia, gastroesophageal reflux, gastrointestinal bleeding, rheumatism, Alzheimer and Familial Mediterranean Fever in 1 patient each. One patient died who had gastrointestinal bleeding. Mortality rate was 1.11%.

Conclusions: Post-traumatic rib fractures disrupt people's quality of life and cause morbidity and mortality. Although the risk of comorbid mortality increases, close follow-up is important in preventing or reducing mortality rates.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of the Shielding Effectiveness of Tellurite Glass with Composition 85TeO2-5Nb2O5-5ZnO-5Ag2O for Diagnostic Radiology Application

Khalid I. Hussein

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 63-72
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i731330

The metal oxide glasses have attracted huge interest as promising types of shielding materials to replace the toxic, heavy and costly conventional shielding materials. In this work, the physical and the shielding effectiveness of Tellurite glass sample (S1) contain host metal oxides (85TeO2-5Nb2O5-5ZnO-5Ag2O) were evaluatedatphoton energies range between 15keVand1MeV.The shielding parameters of the proposed glass system such as linear attenuation coefficients, HVL, MFP, Zeff, and Neffwere evaluated. The proposed samples showed a superior performance at the diagnostic energy range between 40 and 90 keV and a comparable shielding effectiveness above 90keV when compared with other commercial standard shielding materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Influence of Temperature of Washed Water on the Main Indicators of Fertilizer Precipitate

A. L. Giyasidinov, B. E. Sultonov, Sh. S. Namazov

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 73-81
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i731331

The influence of the temperature of washing water on the main indicators of fertilizer precipitates obtained on the basis of mineralized mass (MM) and phosphorite flour (PF) has been studied. For laboratory experiments, MM with the following composition (weight, %) were used: 14.60-P2O5, 43.99-CaO;14.11-CO2, 1.58-SO3; CaO:P2O5=3.01 and PF, which has the following composition (weight,%):17.76-P2O5, 47.51-CaO; 5.27-i.r.; CaO:Р2О5=2,68. The optimal temperature of washing water can be considered 80-90oC of both phosphate raw materials (PRM). Under optimal parameters, the following formulations of fertilizer precipitates (weight.%) are obtained:P2O5total.=21.60-22.65;P2O5acceptable by citric acid=11.42-12.19; P2O5water solubility=2.08-2.20; CaOtotal.=40.89-41.40; CaOacceptable by citric acid.=22.12-23.07; CaO water solubility=4.03-4.26; Ntotal.=1.69-1.79 based on MM and P2O5total.=24.86-26.07; P2O5acceptable by citric acid=13.19-14.08; P2O5water solubility=2.40-2.57; CaOtotal=45.19-45.41; CaOacceptable by citric acid=24.54-25.37; CaOwater solubility=4.25-4.48; Ntotal.=1.78-1.90 based on PF. The degree of washing of fertilizer precipitates from Ca(NO3)2 is 97.82-98.01 and 97.75-97.98%, respectively for MM and PF.

Open Access Original Research Article

Willingness to Pay for Community Health Financing: An Approach to Financing and Sustainability of Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness in Rural Communities in Niger State

I. M. Sheshi, A. Ahmed, M. D. Sani, Y. F. Issa, B. E. Agbana

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 82-92
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i731332

Introduction: Community based health financing mechanism is referred to as a process whereby household in a community finance or co finance the recurrent and capital cost associated with a given set of health services thereby also include management of financial scheme and organization of health services.

Iccm as a strategy to providing integrated case management services for two or more illness including diarrhea, malaria, pneumonia among children from two to upto five years. It is a community approach where lay persons are trained on management of the three diseases. This approach is being funded by foreign donor. However, there was stipulated period in which this support would elapsed and the support from the state Government may not be feasible. In an attempt to source for financing of iccm, this study aim at determining the willingness of the caregiver to use Community financing approach through payment of Premium to finance this community intervention (iccm). The concept of willingness to pay is maximum price a consumer is willing to pay for a given product or services.

Materials and Methodology: A descriptive Cross sectional study was carried out among four hundred respondents that were selected using Multi stage sampling technique. Data was collected, coded and entered into a computer. Analysis was carried out using SPSS. Chi Square and logistic regression was used as a test of significance. Level of significance was set at Pvalue less than 0.05.

Results: Twenty two percent of the respondents had good knowledge of iccm activities. Less than half of the respondents 41.3% were satisfied with iccm activities. Majority of the respondents 93.3% were willing to pay. Out of this, half of them 50.0% said they could only afford to pay less than 1000 naira per annum and 72.8% said the convenient time to pay was during the harvesting time. Factors influencing willingness to pay include Age, marital status and income level ( Pvalue <0.05). Knowledge and level of satisfaction were not influencing factors. The predictor of willingness to pay are aged 38-47 years and income of less than 5000 naira.

Conclusion and Recommendation: There was willingness of the respondents to contribute for financing and sustainability of iccm in Niger State but the amount the majority of them were willing to pay was less than 1000 naira which might not able to sustain the iccm activities. There may be need for further research to determine amount needed for the annual activities and hence sustainability of iccm. The Government should show much responsibilities toward financing of iccm. Bi-apartite arrangement could be made between State Government and the Communities with iccm in place on how to share some responsibilities of iccm activities.

Open Access Review Article

Foliar Micro-nutrition of Vegetable Crops - A Critical Review

Zahedullah Zahed, Shamal S. Kumar, Ananta G. Mahale, J. Radha Krishna, Shahnaz Mufti

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i731322

Foliar Micro-nutrition is the application of micronutrients to plants by spraying directly onto their leaves. Although it is not economical to spray macronutrients and micronutrients through foliar spraying, researchers prefer soil application for macronutrients and foliar applications of micronutrients. Several researches have demonstrated that the method which is used to deliver the required micronutrient in appropriate concentration to improve nutrient status along with increased yield and quality potential are adapted by combining applications of FeSO4 at a dose of 0.2%, Calcium nitrate at 0.2%, Boron at 0.1% and ZnSO4 at 0.2% has revealed a 51% increase as compared to control in potato. Application of ZnSO4 (0.4%) and ZnSO4 (0.6%) provides significant impact on growth and yield characteristic of Chilli; Zinc Sulfate (0.5%) and Borax (0.5%) also shows better result on the number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit diameter and yield per plant in Eggplant. Applying ZnSO4 (0.5%) shows better results on plant height, weight of head and yield of head in cabbage cultivations. Combined application of Boron (100 ppm) + Molybdenum (50 ppm) along with 60 kg/fed of Nitrogen. The results showed increased 38.02% on curd yield of cauliflower over control. A study reveals that application of (0.5%) Zn+ (0.1%) B along with 75 kg/ha of potassium in combination showed 31.73% increases yield of watermelon. Application of boron at 0.25% and zinc 0.5% showed a 31.17% increase in the total onion yield. The combined application of MgSO4 (0.5%), MnSO4 (0.5%), FeSO4 (0.5%) and ZnSO4 (0.5%) has increased yield of okra 31.8% over control. In general this critical review lays an emphasis from the review point of that micronutrients have been found to show satisfactory results than control conditions and has an immense potential in vegetable production to increase yield attributes.