Open Access Original Research Article

Participatory GIS (PGIS) Approach for the Development of Community-based Climate Smart Sustainable Agriculture Models in the Semiarid Regions of Southern India

L. Muralikrishnan, N. Manikandan, J. Prasanth Tej Kumar, Anjoo Yumnam, Azeze Seyie, Maharishi Tomar, P. Venkatesh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i531300

The climate change impacts primarily affect the developing country’s agriculture and natural resources which is highly vulnerable due to population pressure. Using Participatory GIS (PGIS) approach, first hand information on farmers needs, availability of resources, location specific problems and researchable issues were identified in Thattaparai village in Gudiyatham taluk of Vellore district of Tamil Nadu. In the present study, the Participatory Rural Appraisal tools like transect walk, agro-ecological mapping, social mapping, time trend, gender analysis, time line, livelihood analysis, seasonal calendar, technology mapping etc were employed to understand the farmers real need and problems of the study village. The Rank Based Quotient (RBQ) and Value Based Indicator (VBI) were calculated to find out the ranking of the problems in that village. Through analysis, it was found research gaps of water scarcity, increased atmospheric temperature, cropping system practices, heat waves causes extreme heat stress in crops and the extension gaps of poor awareness about water conservation and maintenance of water bodies, water harvesting process, crop insurance and weather forecasting and cultivation of less water consuming crops like sorghum, millets, pulses, oil seeds and value addition. The authors suggested solution to the identified problems of the village under study and also gave suggestion to formulate community- based climate smart sustainable agriculture model projects for inclusive development of the region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design of a Small Capacity Geothermal Power Plant for Cooling and Heating Systems of Health Resort in Jordan

Omar Othman Badran, Ghazi Salem Al-Marahleh, Al- Faroq Omar AlKhawaldeh, Izzeldeen Abed Aldabaibeh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 14-29
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i531301

Jordan is a developing non-producing oil country; a major part of its needed energy is imported from the neighboring countries in the forms of oil and gas, the cost of this imported energy creates a heavy financial burden on the national economy which reflects on the development plans and the standard living of the people. Jordan has good potential of geothermal energy at different places. Therefore, several applications are suggested to be utilized in the agricultural and industrial fields. In this study the binary thermodynamic cycle is suggested to utilize the geothermal source into the form of power plant for generating electricity for heating and cooling system of a health resort in the nearby region of the geothermal field. Also in this study, the air- conditioning and heating loads for a health resort are calculated and the underground thermal power plant is designed to provide the suitable power supply to the health resort. It is concluded that the geothermal resources of energy is proved to be one of the good options of renewable energy sectors in Jordan. Therefore the geothermal power plant can be an option for electrical production of the Jordanian volcanic mountains resorts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Development of Dental Implant Using Bio Ceramics

Koushik Alapati, Bheemisetty Saibaba, M. Amarnath

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 30-45
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i531302

Generally, dental tooth fixtures are made of conventional metals like titanium, gold, silver etc and also some other materials like Acrylic and porcelain. These fixtures are either too expensive to make or are delicate and would deteriorate after a certain number of cycles. Therefore, a possibility of using composite materials was looked at owing to its high strength to weight ratio under compressive conditions, durability and cost. On conducting research on various materials available, Hydroxyapatite in combination with Zirconia was chosen to be the ideal material. This pair was tested for the weaker one among them and the results are established conclusively which confirmed that it is indeed a viable option to go for.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Pearl Millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] Germplam Lines for Drought Tolerance Based on Morpho-physiological Traits and SSR Markers

M. L. Choudhary, M. K. Tripathi, Sushma Tiwari, R. K. Pandya, Neha Gupta, Niraj Tripathi, Prerana Parihar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 46-63
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i531303

Aim: The present study was undertaken to analyze genetic diversity among pearl millet genotypes based on drought linked morpho-physiological and microsatellite markers.

Study Design: In the present investigation, 96 pearl millet germplasm lines were screened against drought using different morphological and physiological traits along with SSR markers.

Place and Duration of the Study: The present study was conducted at College of Agriculture, Gwalior, Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior, M.P., India during July 2019 to December, 2020.

Methodology: The study was conducted to record different morphological and physiological traits related to drought tolerance and susceptibility. Thirty five microsatellite markers were also used in laboratory to analyze the variability among pearl millet genotypes under study.

Results: Pearl millet genotypes were grouped according to their morpho-physiological characteristics. Among 35 SSR markers, twenty-two were successfully amplified across all germplasm lines and seven SSR markers were found to be polymorphic and fifteen markers were monomorphic. All seven polymorphic SSR markers were used consequently for amplification of all the 96 germplasm lines. The range of PIC value was 0.0939 to 0.2980 with the average of 0.2274. The highest PIC value was recorded for the markers Xibmsp26 and Xibmsp29 (0.2980), followed by Xibmsp03 (0.2392), Xibmsp29 (0.2392), Xibmsp06 (0.2289) and Xibmsp07 (0.1948) while the lowest for the marker Xibmsp01 (0.0939). The range of major allele frequency value was 0.7604 to 0.9479 with the average of 0.8363. The range of genetic diversity value was 0.0987 to 0.3644 with the average of 0.2665.

Conclusions: According to the morpho-physiological data a total of 22 pearl millet genotypes were found to be grouped distantly from rest of the genotypes. These genotypes had shown their drought tolerance bahaviour however, rests of the genotypes were found to be susceptible against drought.

Open Access Original Research Article

Methodologies for Imputation of Missing Values in Rice Pest Data

V. Jinubala, P. Jeyakumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 64-73
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i531304

Data Mining is an emerging research field in the analysis of agricultural data. In fact the most important problem in extracting knowledge from the agriculture data is the missing values of the attributes in the selected data set. If such deficiencies are there in the selected data set then it needs to be cleaned during preprocessing of the data in order to obtain a functional data. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the effectiveness of the various imputation methods in producing a complete data set that can be more useful for applying data mining techniques and presented a comparative analysis of the imputation methods for handling missing values. The pest data set of rice crop collected throughout Maharashtra state under Crop Pest Surveillance and Advisory Project (CROPSAP) during 2009-2013 was used for analysis. The different methodologies like Deleting of rows, Mean & Median, Linear regression and Predictive Mean Matching were analysed for Imputation of Missing values. The comparative analysis shows that Predictive Mean Matching Methodology was better than other methods and effective for imputation of missing values in large data set.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Pollen Parameters, Fruit Set and Fruit Development During Attempts on Intergeneric Hybridization of Papaya (Carica papaya L.)

R. Mohammed Aseef, K. Soorianathasundaram, P. Paramaguru, P. Muthulakshmi, A. John Joel, C. N. Chandrasekhar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 74-86
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i531305

Research was conducted at the University Orchard, Horticultural College and Research Institute, to investigate the extent of pollen production, pollen fertility, fruit set, fruit growth and seed set as well as seedling vigour when two wild relatives of papaya (Vasconcellea cauliflora and Vasconcellea candamarcensis) are involved in the hybridization programme as male parents with three papaya cultivars (CO 7, TNAU Papaya CO 8 and Pusa Nanha) as female parents. Among the two wild relatives, V. candamarcensis was more polleniferous but with significantly lesser pollen viability and germination than V. cauliflora. Among the six intergeneric crosses, although the fruit set ranged from 60.00% to 93.33% the fruit retention till harvest was only 30.77 per cent to 35.71 per cent. The study also revealed metaxenic influence of wild parent on the growth of the fruits derived after crossing. Seed set was observed only with CO 7 as female parent but the seed size and weight, germination and seedling vigour recorded by intergeneric crosses of CO 7 with Vasconcellea were found to be low. The implications of the observations are discussed in relevance to employing the wild relatives for improvement of papaya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Brew Fermentation Rate Using Tithonia diversifolia Catalyst

Hellen Chebet, Johnson Kinyua, Patrick Kareru, Njiema Gitaari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 87-94
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i531307

The consumption of alcoholic drinks have highly risen recently to a situation whereby there is a deficit in the stores, this is due to the higher demand compared to supply. Due to the high prices of most of the industrialized brews, consumers have opted for locally brewed drinks. Although locally manufactured brews are not recognized and certified by law, most are of good quality and with low cost of production. The use of Tithonia diversifolia can be employed to aid in improvement of the rate of production of local and industrialized brews. The main aim of this project was to improve the rate of fermentation of alcoholic beverage using both Tithonia diversifolia leaves extracts and iron II nanoparticles derived from it. It was observed that the plant catalyst reduced the time taken to produce alcohol. Alcohol fermentation rate in presence of yeast and with a tithonia extract as catalyst was measured, Rates of alcohol production was measured by UV VIS at intervals of one hour and deduced from a calibration curve. From the data, the alcohol content was higher in the sample catalyzed by the complexed extract and the one containing extracts as the catalyst as compared to the one without a catalyst. The percentage ethanol was able to be detected by finding absorbances (beer lambert law Ae l c.).

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological as Well as Growth Parameters of Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa L.) as Affected by Growth Regulators

Laxmi Prajapati, P. C. Yadav, Ram Bharose

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 95-100
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i531308

Plant Growth regulators (PGRs) are known to improve physiological efficiency including the photosynthetic ability of plants and offer a significant role in realizing higher crop yields. It affects the physiological characters such as plant height, number of effective tillers per plant, number of leaves per plant, RWC, Chlorophyll Intensity and growth parameters such as CGR, RGR, and NAR of Basmati rice. The plants were foliar sprayed with PGRs (IAA, Kinetin, CCC, SADH and Ascorbic Acid) at tillering and before anthesis stage. Results showed a conspicuous increase in growth traits in treated plants. All the traits described above were significantly improved by the treatment of IAA.

Open Access Original Research Article

E-Tendering System for Arecanut in Karnataka: Stakeholders’ Perspective

M. C. Vivek, S. Sahana, B. I. Halingali, B. Chinnappa, K. Amareshkumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 114-121
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i531310

This paper aims to explore the perception of farmers, commission agents and traders about e-tendering system for arecanut in Karnataka. The present study was conducted in two major Agricultural Produce Market Committees (APMC) of Karnataka state, viz., Shivamogga APMC of Shivamogga district and Bheemasamudra APMC of Chitradurga district during 2019-20. The primary data were collected randomly from 50 farmers, 10 traders, and 10 commission agents involved in e-tendering of Arecanut from each of the selected APMCs. Thus, the total sample size was 140. The study also attempts to document the constraints faced by the stakeholders and their suggestions for the improvement of the system. The results indicated that the majority of the farmers (65.00%), traders (60.00%) and commission agents (50.00%) had a favourable perception about e-tendering system. Frequent price fluctuation was the major constraint confronted by the farmers and difficulty in rectifying the mistakes after quoting the price was the major issue for traders and commission agents. Majority of the farmers insisted on creating awareness about the operational aspects of e-tendering system, whereas traders demanded a provision to rectify mistakes after quoting the price. Results from the present study could provide a                                better understanding of the effectiveness and inherent problems associated with the e-tendering system.

Open Access Review Article

A Brief Insight into Nutritional Deficiencies in Pulses and their Possible Management Strategies A Review

Nazir Hussain, F. A. Bahar, S. S. Mehdi, M. A. Bhat, Ashaq Hussain, R. H. Kanth, Tahir Sheikh, Rayes Ahmad, O. A. Wani, H. M. Nazim, Shaiysta Fayaz, Ayman Azad, Sadaf Iqbal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 101-113
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i531309

One of the main abiotic constraints that limits pulse production is nutrient imbalance. Pulses play very important role in human diet providing all nutritional and physiological beneficial effects on human health. Pulses are rich in protein, carbohydrates, and dietary fibre, and a rich source of other bioactive components, and their consumption extends worldwide. Pulses are dried legumes that consist of various varieties of beans, lentils, peas, green gram, black gram, horse gram, and chickpeas. Protein-rich pulses are considered a primary food for a large portion of the Indian population, which satisfies everyone's protein and energy demands. Phosphorus and Fe have significantly enhanced pulse crop productivity in many pockets in response to potassium application. The production of both applied and native P is increased by phosphatic fertilisers and the use of bio-fertilizers. Some micro-nutrient foliar nutrition proved to be very successful, the amount and mode of application is determined by indigenous nutrient supply. Balanced nutrition is vital for achieving higher productivity. At the same time, in order to 'increasing nutrients demand, there is immense need to exploit the alternate source of nutrients viz Organic materials and bio- fertilisers for sustainable productivity with more environmentally friendly systems for the management of nutrients. Environmental issues and other hazards arising from the imbalanced use of nutrients should also be addressed properly. several investigators reported that integrated use of chemical fertilizers with organic manure is becoming a quite promising practice not only for maintaining higher productivity but also for greater stability to crop production as well as make the pulses become healthy to feed the population.