Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Crop Health Monitoring in MPKV – Rahuri, Using Remote Sensing Approach

Ankita P. Kamble, A. A. Atre, Payal A. Mahadule, C. B. Pande, N. S. Kute, S. D. Gorantiwar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 11-16
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i431291

Pests and diseases cause major harm during crop development. Also plant stress affects crop quality and quantity. Recent developments in high resolution remotely sensed data has seen a great potential in mapping cropland areas infected by pests and diseases, as well as potential vulnerable areas over expansive areas. Crop health monitoring in this study was carried out using remote sensing techniques. The present study was carried out in MPKV, Rahuri, Ahmednagar District, Maharashtra. Vegetation indices like Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) were used to classify the crops into healthy and dead or unhealthy one. Sentinel-2 image data from October 2019 to January 2020 processed in Arc GIS 10.1 were used for this study. Vegetation is a key component of the ecosystem and plays an important role in stabilizing the global environment. The result showed that the average vegetation cover was decreased in the month of November and healthy vegetation was found more in month of October as compared to December and January. This shows that NDVI and SAVI indices for Sentinel-2 images can be used for crop health monitoring.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Contactless Academia – The Case for Automated Essay Scoring (AES) System in COVID 19 Pandemic

Kennedy A. Osakwe, Kunle Ola, Pete Omotosho

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 17-29
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i431292

Background: The 2019 SAR COV- 2 outbreak ushered and made the term ‘contactless’ a new normal for most businesses as a mitigation measure to risky coronavirus exposure. Similarly, there are several exposure scenarios in higher education where contact poses a threat. One of which is the handling and marking of essay scripts from assignments, task, research outputs and more. An invaluable measure worth considering is the inclusion of ‘Automated Essay Scoring’ (AES) system in the mitigation toolkits for higher institutions of learning.

Objectives:  We conducted this scoping review to identify the suitability of AES products in higher education and examine the type of methods used to present these products.

Methods: This study was undertaken in the form of a scoping review using the Prisma flow sequence of literature search and selection from 6 databases.

Findings: Different AES products, literatures and research designs were employed in the investigation of AES products. The outcome of reviewed literatures varied on suitability of AES in scoring essay task in Higher Institution of Learning.

Conclusion: There exist substantial case for the use of AES in most literatures amongst few opposing authors; however, in order to achieve contactless interface with human and materials in COVID 19 pandemic, AES should be used with triggers for human raters’ intervention in exceptional cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Correlation Studies for Pre-harvest Sprouting Tolerance and Associated Traits in Soybean [Glycine max L. Merrill.]

G. Praveen Kumar, M. Pallavi, N. Swapna, Firdoz Shahana, G. Eswara Reddy, G. Rakesh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i431290

Evaluation of a set of 65 diverse genotypes of soybean was carried out for their pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) tolerance in a field study during kharif 2019. Percentage of pods ruptured by sprouting seed (PPR) was used as a measure of pre-harvest sprouting tolerance. It ranged from 0-5.8% among the genotypes. High estimates of genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) were recorded for the percentage of pods ruptured by sprouting seed (PPR) indicating the presence of wider variability over which selection can be effective. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent mean was recorded for number of pods ruptured by sprouting seed per plant and PPR. The phenotypic character association revealed a significant negative correlation of PPR with pod wall thickness, number of pods per plant, and number of clusters per plant. Path coefficient analysis revealed number of pods per plant, plant height, and pod wall thickness have a negative influence on pre-harvest sprouting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Quality of Liquid Digestate from Small-scale Anaerobic Biodigesters Used for Crop Irrigation in Urban and Peri-urban Maseru, Lesotho

Emmanuel B. Tanor, Itumeleng Lejone, Sibusisiwe Magama, Mantopi Martina Lebofa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 30-46
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i431293

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the quality of Liquid Digestate (LD) from selected small scale anaerobic digesters for biogas production and assess the suitability for crop irrigation.

Methodology: The selection of the parameters was guided by national standards and international guidelines for the agricultural use of wastewater and wastewater treatment products. The analysis was carried out using standard methods.

Results: The results showed that most of the parameters determined of the LD from the anaerobic reactors were within the ranges of the national standards and the FAO recommended guideline limits for crop irrigation with wastewater; pH (6.75-8.50), alkalinity 12.5-45.7 mg/L), EC 0.39-1.30dS/m), COD (82.3-158.0 mg.O2/L, SS (1.35-6.17 mg/L) and TDS (249.6-832.0 mg/L). The LD from the reactors contain some considerable amounts of plant nutrients; total nitrogen (11.5- 33.1 mg/L), ammonium nitrogen (2.3-22.0 mg/L), total phosphorous (1.5-121.6 mg/L) calcium (37.68-438 mg/L), magnesium (15.25-127-36 mg/L), sodium (4.67-32.47 mg/L), chloride (9.30-19.5 mg/L) and potassium (12.07-39.50 mg/L). The mean concentrations of the micronutrients cobalt (0.67-0.94 mg/L), copper (0.78-1.08 mg/L), iron (0.851.93 mg/L), manganese (0.09-0.20 mg/L), nickel (0.82-1.48 mg/L) and zinc (0.31-2.24 mg/L) were greater than the FAO guideline limits for wastewater used in crop irrigation, which suggests that the LD are potential low-cost biofertilizer. The level of toxic metals arsenic (0.65-0.87 mg/L), cadmium (0.70-0.97 mg/L), chromium (0.71-0.98 mg/L) and lead (0.55-1.46 mg/L), were higher than the recommended levels for use of treated wastewater in crop irrigation. The numbers of the common pathogenic microorganisms determined were much lower than the FAO and WHO recommended limits indicating that the liquid digestate will not pose any major health risk a biofertilizer.

Conclusion: The nutrients and other parameters indicated that the quality of the LD is good enough to be used for crop irrigation without any restrictions.However, the LD should be used with caution, because of the levels of the toxic metals, which may accumulate in the soil after prolonged application. Also, extension services on best practices for the agricultural application of the LD should be made available to potential users to mitigate any potential negative environmental and health impacts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Rootstock Planting, Scion Type and Time of Grafting on Grafting Success and Subsequent Growth of Walnut Plants

Rifat Bhat, Saffina Kosser, M. K. Sharma, Sharbat Hussain, Raouf Malik

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 47-57
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i431294

This was carried out in the Experimental Farm, of Division of Fruit Science, SKUAST-K- Shalimar during the years 2017 and 2018. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications having 15 plants per replication. In this study rootstock were planted at three different timings (2nd fortnight of November, 2nd fortnight of December, 2017 and 2nd fortnight of January, 2018) and were grafted with two different scion types (Middle portion of current season growth with 3-5 buds and Current season growth (3-5buds) with small piece of 2- year old-wood) on two different dates (3rd week of February and 1st week of March, 2018) under polyhouse conditions. The results obtained indicated that initial graft success (75%), leaf area (350 cm2), leaf number (11.4), scion girth (4.8 cm), shoot length (21.8 cm), final plant height (132.9 cm) and final graft success (69%) were significantly better when rootstocks were planted during 2nd fortnight of November as compared to other timings of rootstock planting. Among two different scions viz., (Middle portion of current season growth with 3-5buds) and (Current season growth (3-5buds) with small piece of 2-year old wood), initial graft success (63%), leaf area (309.9 cm2), leaf number (12.9), scion girth (4.3 cm) and shoot length (19.3 cm), final plant height (119.8 cm) and final graft success (58%) were observed better with scion type having middle portion of current season growth with 3-5 buds. Time of grafting significantly influenced all the recorded parameters and best results were obtained when grafting was performed during 3rd week of February as compared to 1st week of March.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seed Borne Nature of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) in Blackgram in Tamil Nadu

K. Kamesh Krishnamoorthy, V. G. Malathi, P. Renukadevi, S. Mohan Kumar, M. Raveendran, N. Manivannan, G. Karthikeyan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 58-67
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i431295

The yellow mosaic disease of blackgram caused by Mungbean yellow mosaic virus has emerged as a serious threat to pulses production especially in the South Eastern Asia.  Seed borne nature of MYMV in blackgram seeds was determined using the seeds harvested from a MYMV resistant (either VBN-6 or VBN-8) and susceptible blackgram (CO-5) varieties grown in three different agroclimatic zones of Tamil Nadu in India for three consecutive cropping seasons namely, Rabi 2018 (October- December), Summer 2019 (March-May) and Kharif 2019 (June- August) at three different time intervals viz., 20, 40 and 60 days after sowing (DAS). Seed borne nature of MYMV was observed only in the susceptible variety CO-5 and was absent in the   resistant varieties. Transmission of MYMV from infected plant to seeds was observed in all the three parts of the seeds viz., seed coat, cotyledon and embryo. Seeds from infected plants also showed abnormalities like shrinking, discolouration, ill filling inside pods and misshapen appearance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relational Analysis of Profile of Bt Cotton Growers with their Adoption of Integrated Pest Management for Controlling Pink Bollworm

J. M. Deshmukh, B. Y. Ghuge

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 68-71
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i431296

Maharashtra state particular has faced the problem of control of pink bollworm in cotton as a more pronounced during last year and the incidence has been identified from the middle of crop season seriously damaging the cotton in late pickings. Hence the Pink bollworm of Bt. (Bacillus thuringiensis) otton is the major pest in observed in this state. So the present study was conducted in Beed district of Marathwada region from Maharashtra state. In Beed district and three tehsils namely Beed, Wadwani and Majalgaonwere randomly selected on the basis of area under Bt cotton. From each tehsils 4 villages were randomly selected and from each village 10 respondents were randomly selected to comprise 120 respondents. How profile characters affecting adoption of IPM in Bt Cotton was the major objective of the study. Regarding independent variables age had negative significant relationship with their adoption of Integrated Pest Management for controlling pink bollworm. Independent variables of: i) education, ii) occupation, iii) land holding, iv) annual income, v) social participation, vi) economicmotivation, vii) innovativeness, viii) ix) risk orientation, and x) knowledge had significant relationship withtheir adoption of Integrated Pest Management for controlling pink bollworm and extension mcontact had positive and highly significant relationship with their adoption of Integrated Pest Management for controlling pink bollworm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anatomical Description of the Bony Segments that Make Up the Skull of the Puma Concolor Species

Manuel Saldivia, Leandro Castro, Katherine Zapata, P. Cardenas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 72-91
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i431297

The Puma concolor is one of the largest carnivores present in Chile, although its size varies according to the geographical area in which it is found. It is increasingly common to find them outside their habitat and more in our environment. Its ecology, reproduction and nutritional aspects are known, but very little about its anatomy, which creates a challenge in the veterinary morphological area that needs strengthening.

The present study consisted of an anatomical description of the skull of five adult specimens of Puma concolor (2 female and 3 male) in the veterinary anatomy laboratory of the Santo Tomás University, of the Puerto Montt headquarters and the Austral University of Valdivia headquarters. , which allowed a detailed study on the bone conformation of each structure present in the skull of these specimens. This allowed us to achieve results of morphological interests and deepening in the anatomy of this species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Soil Fertility Status of Kanwara Minor Lift Canal Command Area in Banda District of Bundelkhand using Nutrient Index Values

Chandrakant Chaubey, A. K. Chaubey, Amit Mishra, Narendra Singh, Gaurav Shukla, Sanjay Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 98-104
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i431299

A study was conducted to assess the fertility status of Kanwara minor lift canal command area using Nutrient Index values of different soil parameters under study in 2019-20. A systematic set of two hundred and eleven georeferenced soil samples were collected and analysed following the standard sampling and analytical procedure. The analysed values of different parameters were categorized in low, medium and high and further used in determination of the nutrient index. NI value of soil organic carbon was 1.16, 1.00 for available N, 1.47 for available P and 2.55 for available K respectively. Regarding the fertility class based on Nutrient Index values it was deficient in organic carbon, available N and available P while, sufficient in soil available K. This requires immediate attention towards the management of nutrients to restore the soil fertility and sustain crop productivity.

Open Access Technical Note

Technical Problems of Trigen Intertan Insertion in Indian Population: How to Overcome Them?

Raviraj A, Vidyasagar Maalepati, Ashish Anand

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 92-97
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i431298

In this technical note, we are going to discuss the technical problems( based on experience with 5 patients) that we have faced during fixation of inter trochanteric fractures while using the intramedullary nailing system - The TRIGEN INTERTAN nail (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee), in Indian subjects.