Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Computerized Automated System for Feed, Water and Sanitation Management in Animal Farms

Julius K. Tangka, Mathias N. W. EVINA, John Ngansi Ngah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i331279

Frequent visits into animal farms either for cleaning, feed or water dispensation are a possible means of viral, and bacteria propagation into and out of the farms. The need for these visits compels the farmer to live in the farm and devote considerable time to these activities. A well-controlled automatic feed dispensation/water management system can considerably reduce labor and prevent frequent farm visits. This can in turn promote social distancing especially during the outbreak of epidemics.  A solar energy powered automatic system for feed, water dispensation and sanitation management was developed for animal farms.  It was made up of an Arduino UNO board, a water level/or feed sensor, a DS1307 Real Time Clock (RTC), two potentiometers, a buffer, an sim900 mini v3, a relay module for Arduino, a display (LCD) for visual monitoring of events. It was programmed to periodically command electric motors to release a desired quantity of feed and water into different troughs as well as open hydraulic valves to spray a jet of high pressure water to clean the enclosure.  Required data was fed into the program by the farmer depending on the daily needs which in turn depend on the animal species, age and husbandry requirements. The system communicated with the farmer through a GSM card after each operation. Initial tests of the prototype revealed minimum of 83.33% efficiencies for all the units. The module was able to report to the farmer minutes after completing each task. It was concluded that such a system can considerably reduce labor in animal farms as well as disease propagation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbreds Based on Morphological Traits

M. Shankar, Jai Prakash Shahi, Rajesh Singh, Ashok Singamsetti, Pavan Devesh, Pargat Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 16-25
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i331280

The screening of forty eight maize in breds from International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center was carried out to estimate the genetic diversity and the results indicated presence of considerable diversity. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replication and phenotypic data were analyzed using twenty one agro-morphological traits. The forty eight maize in breds grouped into eleven clusters based on Mahalanobis D2 statistic. Among them cluster I accommodated maximum number of inbred lines (15) followed by cluster III and V (9). Existence of six solitary clusters showed larger genetic diversity. The character chlorophyll content showed highest contribution towards genetic divergence followed by anthesis to silking interval, cob girth, cob weight, hundred grain weight, number of kernels per row, days 75 per cent brown husk, plant height at 90 DAS, cob length and number of kernel rows per cob. Based upon the divergence studies suggesting crossing may be made between genotypes of cluster VIII (CAL1428) and cluster X (ZL154357, CAL1467, ZL153785, CAL1422, and ZL154346) and the hybrid in these cluster could be used as donor parents for new single cross maize hybrid development for improving yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Fallow Land in Different Districts of Madhya Pradesh

Rajendra Singh Bareliya, Satyendra S. Thakur, H. O. Sharma, P. R. Pandey, Vishal Mehta

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 33-40
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i331282

The research study based on time series secondary data (2001-02 to 2015-16) of 51 district which were related to net area sown, rainfall, total fallow land, area under non agricultural uses and net irrigated area. The whole Madhya Pradesh was subdivided into two head i.e. major (14) and other fallow land (37) districts for the study. The area under fallow land showed decreasing trend by -19.26 percent from 601.90 thousand ha (The base year) to 485.99 thousand ha (The current year) with fluctuation of 9.94 percent (56.80 thousand ha) and magnitude of -8.97 thousand ha per year this also showed a negative compound growth of 0.98 percent per year during the period under study. The 1.00 per cent increase in net area irrigated to net area sown resulting highly significant decrease in share of total fallow land to total net sown area by 0.27 per cent. The aim of study was find out the fallow land in various districts of Madhya Pradesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Content for Newly Improved Breeding Rice Lines from Parentage of the Kavuni and CO 50

T. Vasantha Theiventhiran, S. Amutha, G. Hemalatha, S. Vellaikumar, T. Umamaheswari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 41-49
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i331283

The objective of the study was determining the physical properties and minerals composition in the twenty three breeding lines and two parent rice varieties. Physical properties found that no significant difference in terms of shape and size of the grain. The calcium, iron and zinc content of rice samples in the ranged from 7.56 to12.72 mg/100g, 0.73 to 2 mg/100g and 2.29 to 3.39 mg/100g, respectively. Results showed that the cultures 144-5 (12.72 mg/100g)>155-3(12.62 mg/100g)>144-2(12.61 mg/100g) =148-2 (12.61 mg/100g) contained higher levels of calcium content. Among the rice lines accessions, the samples: 144-2 (2.04 mg/100g)>32-2 (2 mg/100g)>145-2 (1.67 mg/100g)>145-3 (1.57mg/100g) had higher contents of iron. The zinc content of rice lines ranked in the following decreasing order; 144, 144-1,144-2, 144-3, 145-3, 145-6, 143-1,148-2,271-2. From the twenty three rice lines, some of the rice lines contained more minerals than of parent kavuni. The finding indicated that the cross breeding technique may increases not only the yield and also nutrient content of rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact Assessment on Adoption of Soil Health Cards for Fertilizer Management in Tiruvallur District

R. Manimekalai, V. A. Vijayashanthi, P. Yogameenakshi, P. Santhi, G. Sathish

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 50-55
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i331284

Soil Health plays a vital role to ensure agricultural production in a sustainable manner. The basic objective of the soil testing is to provide recommendations to the farmers for the optimum and economic use of fertilizers and better soil management practices to increase agricultural production in their farm. The present study was conducted to analyze the adoption of soil testing and Soil Health Cards for fertilizer management conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Tirur, Tiruvallur district. The data revealed that the number of conduct of awareness and training programmes on soil health management and soil samples analysed (30 nos. to 240 nos.) at KVK Tirur increased from 2012 to 2018. Results indicated that highest percentage of beneficiaries belonged to the middle age group of 36-55 years (48.75%) followed old age (37%).  Most of the farmers were practicing agriculture in Semi Medium (28%) followed by medium land holdings (24%) among the SHC beneficiaries and small (35%) and Marginal land holdings (30%) among non-SHC beneficiaries. It was observed that medium level of knowledge was obtained (48%) by SHC beneficiaries followed by high level (20%) whereas 60% of non-beneficiary was having low level of knowledge on SHC. On an average majority of the SHC beneficiary were lying in the medium adoption level (43%) followed by high adoption category (21%). Reason behind the partial adoption and no adoption might be due to their unawareness on the benefits of optimum fertilizer application. Comparative analysis between adopted beneficiaries and SHC non-beneficiaries on crop productivity in paddy, Greengram Blackgram and groundnut indicated 11.66%, 16.12%, 8.67 and 15.10% increase in productivity over non-beneficiaries.

Open Access Original Research Article

On the Stability of Collinear Points of the RTBP with Triaxial and Oblate Primaries and Relativistic Effects

S. E. Abd El-Bar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 56-73
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i331285

Under the influence of some different perturbations, we study the stability of collinear equilibrium points of the Restricted Three Body Problem. More precisely, the perturbations due to the triaxiality of the bigger primary and the oblateness of the smaller primary, in addition to the relativistic effects, are considered. Moreover, the total potential and the mean motion of the problem are obtained. The equations of motion are derived and linearized around the collinear points. For studying the stability of these points, the characteristic equation and its partial derivatives are derived. Two real and two imaginary roots of the characteristic equation are deduced from the plotted figures throughout the manuscript. In addition, the instability of the collinear points is stressed. Finally, we compute some selected roots corresponding to the eigenvalues which are based on some selected values of the perturbing parameters in the Tables 1, 2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reproductive Morbidities and Treatment Seeking Behaviour among Rural Women in Manipur-Community Based Study

Kh. Ringsuachong Aimol, Minoti Phukan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 74-83
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i331286

Reproductive morbidity is a public health problem that affects the health and well being of women’s life around the world. The magnitude of reproductive problems of women both at national and global is high. In this paper, an attempt was made to assess the self reported reproductive morbidities, treatment seeking behavior and factors influencing reproductive health among two communities of women in Manipur. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from two hundred fifty women in the age group of 18 to 40 years by using in-depth interview and focus discussion methods. Analysis revealed that a large number of women (71.6%) had at least one or two kinds of reproductive health problems. The predominant reproductive health problems reported by the respondents were menstrual related problems (53%), urinary tract infection (51%) and white discharge with bad odour and itching (41%). Prevalence of unintended pregnancy was found among 24 per cent of the selected respondents. Income, standard of living, abortion history, number of pregnancy and number of living children have significant factors influencing reproductive health of the respondents. Treatment seeking behavior was poor as they are not aware about the consequences of reproductive ill health. Further, higher proportions of the tribal women reported symptoms of reproductive health problem compared to the non-tribal. The study felt the need to provide information on effect of reproductive health problems through awareness camp at village level in order to increase knowledge and practices of good reproductive health of women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proactive Cost Management Model for Building Projects

Yusuf Joe Gandu, Yakubu Gimson Musa-Haddary, Yakubu Micheal Zaki

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 84-104
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i331288

Aim: Scholars are persistent in calling for proactive management of construction characteristics. Lack of a feasible model continues to daunt the cost objective in the sector. A framework was developed to guide this process of developing a feasible one. This research complements the recommendation aimed at developing a proactive cost management model for building projects. 

Study Design: a set of prototyped residential building design was obtained and bill of quantities prepared. Historical cost data collated through secondary sources for ten years was used to generate unit rates and elemental cost history of the prototyped design. The cost of the prototype design was estimated forty times and the yearly incremental or growth rate of each element computed.

Study Area: Relevant data was collated in Nigeria. Cost data was extracted from the market research reports of the Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyor’s quarterly publications.

Methodology: the research is underpinned on three constructs that, with best practice, proper knowledge management and predictions the proactive cost management can be attained. Geometric mean was used to compute the cost growth rates and a mathematical forecasting model using incremental rate principle developed. Best Practice Modules and Lessons Learned Mechanism subsystems were also created.

Results: The three subsystems synthesised into the desired proactive cost management model predicts the likelihood of flawed activity and the culpability of associated stakeholder. The mathematical model forecast true cost growth of building elements at various milestone for possible contingency plan. There’s no significant difference between estimates and forecast values generated by the model, and the strength of the linear relationship is strong at 0.929571.

Conclusion: This is a feasible tool for stakeholders’ proactive cost management.  Stakeholders in building contracts can use the model from inception to finish. Project can better be managed and cost efficacy assured.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Varied Drip Irrigation and Fertigation Regimes on Curd Yield and Water Productivity of Cauliflower

G. Sidhartha, Md. Latheef Pasha, M. Uma Devi, V. Ramulu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 105-110
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i331289

An experiment on cauliflower was carried out at Water Technology Centre, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana during rabi 2019-2020. Experiment was laid out in split plot design with nine treatments consists of three drip irrigation levels (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 Epan) as main plots and three NK fertigation levels (Control, 40:50 and 80:100 kg N and K2O ha-1) as subplots. The results revealed that drip irrigation at 1.0 EPan recorded significantly higher  curd yield ( 18.7 t ha-1) followed by 0.8 EPan ( 17.1 t ha-1) and lower curd yield ( 15 t ha-1) was obtained at 0.6 EPan.  Fertigation at 80:100 kg N - K2O ha-1 recorded significantly higher curd yield (23.8 t ha-1) than 40:50 kg N - K2O ha-1 (19.7 t ha-1) and  lower curd yield (7.2 t ha-1) was obtained in  control treatment. Higher water productivity (9 kg m-3) of cauliflower recorded at lower drip irrigation regime of 0.6 Epan than 0.8 (8 kg m-3) and lower water productivity (7.2 kg m-3) recorded at higher drip irrigation regime of 1.0 Epan. It was recommended that scheduling of drip irrigation at 1.0 Epan and fertigation scheduled at 80:100 kg N - K2O ha-1 to obtain higher curd yield where as high water productivity was observed in drip irrigation regime of 0.6 Epan.

Open Access Review Article

Post Harvest Management of Bael Fruit: A Review

M. Sai Srinivas, S. K. Jain, S. S. Lakhawat, N. K. Jain, Arun Kumar, H. K. Jain

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 26-32
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i331281

The bael tree is very hardy and can grow under adverse agro-climatic conditions; unlike other delicate fruit trees. The postharvest system for these fruits is not yet adequately developed, and therefore several handling problems are still common. Bael is a seasonal fruit. Spoilage of bael fruit is mainly due to fungal attack. The stem end of the fruit is very vulnerable to infection. The fruit is presently underutilized but has an important role to play in satisfying the demand for nutritious and delicious natural foods of high therapeutic value. This fruit is rich in anti oxidants and phytochemicals besides some essential nutrient components like vitamins, minerals and dietary fibres etc. No other fruit has such a high content of riboflavin. There is need for processing of bael in to different value added products to reduce the post harvest losses. This paper reviews the literature on post harvest management of bael fruit most notably it covers various facets of post harvest processing, different fruit varieties and its features, handling operations and processed products of bael fruit.