Open Access Original Research Article

Adulticidal Activity of Hyptis suaveolens, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Lippia adoensis Leaf Extracts and Essential Oils against Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae)

Kary Mallam Oumarou, Lame Younoussa, Jacob Dogbaga Langsi, Pierre Saotoing, Elias Nchiwan Nukenine

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 18-32
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i231249

The study was undertaken to evaluate the adulticidal efficacy of the methanolic leaf extracts and essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Hyptis suaveolens and Lippia adoensis against adults of Anopheles gambiae. A chemical profile of each plant extracts (qualitative phytochemical screening) and essential oil (GC/MS analysis) was also determined. Doses of 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/bottle of plant extracts and 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/bottle of essential oils were prepared and tested using CDC bottles. In each plant extract, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenolic groups, terpenoids, fats and oils were presents. Major chemical constituents of essential oils were thymol (27.09%), sabinene (18.93%) and 4-carene (52.88%) in L. adoensis, H. suaveolens and C. ambrosioides, respectively. L. adoensis extract (at 1000 mg/bottle) and essential oil of H. suaveolens (at 200 mg/bottle) were the most potent causing 100% mortality of An. gambiae adults, 24 h post-exposure. Methanolic extract of L. adoensis (LC50= 20.20 mg/bottle) was the most effective compared to other extracts. Similarly, essential oil of H. suaveolens (LC50= 5.27 mg/bottle) was revealed as the most toxic on An. gambiae adults compared to other oils. Therefore, the extracts of L. adoensis and essential oil of H. suaveolens showed a high activity and should be recommended to be promoting as natural bioinsecticides to control mosquito adults.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multiple Regression, Correlation and Path Analysis of Gall Midge Incidence, Yield and Yield Components in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Hybrids

Sameena Begum, B. Srinivas, V. Ram Reddy, Ch. Aruna Kumari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 33-45
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i231250

The present investigation was carried out to understand the interrelationship and degree of dependence of grain yield on its components and gall midge incidence and to elucidate their relative importance. The experiment was conducted using 42 rice hybrids developed by crossing 6 CMS lines and seven testers in Line X Tester mating design, their parents and four checks. Observations were recorded on gall midge incidence, grain yield and fourteen component characters. Correlation coefficient analysis suggested that grain yield per plant had highly significant and positive association with panicle length (rp = 0.4600**, rg = 0.5545**) followed by number of grains per panicle (rp = 0.4219**, rg = 0.5125**) and number of productive tillers per plant (rp = 0.4006**, rg = 0.4942**) and negative non significant association with gall midge incidence (rp =-0.1154, rg =-0.1430). Panicle length had the highest positive direct effect (0.9688) followed by the number of grains per panicle (0.5748). Gall midge incidence showed a negative direct effect at the phenotypic level and a positive direct effect at the genotypic level on the grain yield per plant. Further, it showed indirect negative effects via plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, number of grains per panicle, spikelet fertility, hulling percentage, milling percentage, kernel length and kernel breadth as revealed from path analysis. The result of multiple linear regression exhibited that only the number of productive tillers per plant and the number of grains per panicle contributed significantly towards grain yield per plant. The step-wise regression analysis revealed that the panicle length, number of grains per panicle and number of productive tillers per plant were the most important characters having R=0.6505 and thus, could explain 42.31% of the total variation of grain yield. Gall midge incidence contributed to only 0.95% of the variation for grain yield, which might be due to the low incidence or resistance of the hybrids to the gall midge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genesis of Meka’a Geophagic Kaolin Deposit (In Foreke-Dschang West Cameroon)

S. A. Douola Ninla, G. Kieufack, I. Y. Bomeni, M. Gountié Dedzo, A. S. L. Wouatong

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i231247

Geological, mineralogical and geochemical studies where carried out on Meka’a kaolin deposit located in Foréké-Dschang in order to define the ore genesis. Three kaolin facies (yellow, red and white) and isalteritic components were characterized by different methods including morphostructural description, XRD, XRF, ICP-MS, SEM-EDS, heavy mineral research and organic matter contents. The results show that all these kaolins are based on kaolinite (87–90%) associated with more or less significant phases of orthoclase (1-2%), goethite (0.5-3.5%), quartz (1-1.5%), anatase (1.2-2%) and hematite (1-2%). Small amounts of illite (3.5%) was found only in white facies. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) pattern shows that kaolinite particles contained in these kaolins are very small (<2 µm) and are poorly crystallized due to the impurities they contain. Meka’a kaolin’s are extremely weathered (CIA and CIW ≈ 100) and their organic matter content is considerable (1.82-2.54%) and is explained by the presence of carbonized wood in the ignimbrites. The combination of different analytical techniques points out a meteoric weathering of ignimbrite under oxidizing conditions as being of petrogenetic origin of this kaolin deposit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prospects and Challenges of Telemedicine at the Primary Health Care Level: A Basis for Certification of Providers in Ghana

James Antwi, Daniel Opoku-Mensah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 46-65
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i231257

Background: Telemedicine has proven to be one of the modern medical discoveries in recent times, serving as a technological tool to deliver healthcare at a distance and providing medical solutions to remote communities with limited access to quality healthcare. However, the challenges associated with the use of telemedicine in Ghana make it difficult to scale up its application at the Primary Healthcare (PHC) level.

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the current trends and applications of telemedicine in health care delivery at the primary health care level in Ghana. The study also sought to identify the prospects and challenges of telemedicine implementation in Ghana. 

Study Design: The study employed both qualitative and quantitative design involving 200 respondents made up of 80 healthcare professionals and 120 patients from four primary healthcare facilities in the Ahafo-Ano North District of the Ashanti region of Ghana

Methods: Survey questionnaire, semi-structured interview guide, and field observations were used to find out the knowledge of providers, capacity, availability of network infrastructure, and challenges of implementing telemedicine at the PHC level from the viewpoint of healthcare 'professionals' and to verify factors that can persuade patients to participate in the implementation of telemedicine. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the factors influencing 'patients' decision to participate in telemedicine, while the qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis.

Results: The results show that knowledge and education about telemedicine, easy access to specialist care at home, widespread use of mobile telephony, and reduction in travel cost due to telemedicine significantly influence both providers' and patients' participation in telemedicine at the primary healthcare level. The minimum educational level for patients to participate in telemedicine implementation is a primary education (OR = 0.233, p<0.025). On the other hand, inadequate infrastructure, legal issues such as non-certification of providers, reimbursement and confidentiality challenges are some of the factors that impede telemedicine implementation.

Conclusion: The authors suggest that developing countries need to take advantage of the massive use of mobile telephony and embrace telemedicine application to increase access to healthcare in rural areas. Again, certification of care providers is critical for effective application and integration of telemedicine and this should be adaptive to local needs, high internet connectivity and the demands of both healthcare professionals and patients especially in rural communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of some Properties of Bio-coal Briquettes Produced using Beniseed (Sesame seed) Stalks as Biomass

Harry Iorwuese Guusu, Alex Okibe Edeoja, Jacob Sunday Ibrahim

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 80-101
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i231261

This study evaluated the properties of bio-coal briquettes made by blending coal with beniseed (sesame seed) stalks in order to determine the optimum composition. The briquettes were produced using a hydraulic compression machine at 5, 10 and 15 bar applied to coal:biomass compositions of 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100% by weight of mixture and particle sizes of 212, 300 and 600 µm. The physical, ultimate and proximate properties of the briquettes were then measured and analyzed. The results indicated that the optimum composition for producing the briquettes lies between 60:40% and 40:60%. These ranges of composition of briquettes had the lowest ignition time of 57.6s, highest percentage volatile matter of 42.7% and low percentage sulphur content of 0.38%. Furthermore, the 40:60% briquettes had the highest mean calorific value of 26.67 MJ/kg. These indicate good potentials for briquettes using coal and beniseed stalks as an alternative energy source while contributing to a friendly environment and wealth generation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Construction Materials Cost Reduction Measures in Building Industry in Imo State, Nigeria

Uche Felix Ikechukwu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 102-111
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i231263

Cost reduction measure on construction materials is very critical in the effectiveness of any construction material management. Negligence on this frustrates the integrated effort deployed in cost control of any building project. As the study aims at assessing the impact of some building material cost reduction strategies with regard to their sourcing, applications and designs for affordable houses, field survey research design method and activity sampling involving some of the major building materials were adopted. Data were analyzed using some non parametric tools like likert scale and chi-square to rank the level of effectiveness of the various materials’ cost reduction measures in the industry. It was also used to determine the impact level of the material management on the overall cost of the materials used in the construction of public building in Owerri. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was also used to examine the strength of relationship between the two major sources of the information.  Findings in the study reveal that local sourcing of materials is the most significant method of material management in cost reduction. Other methods in their order of significance for cost reduction are quality assurance, economic design and specification, and on-site production of materials. The various percentage cost effects however are found to be significantly dependent on the methods of material management adopted for the materials’ cost reduction in the study. It is therefore recommended that an effective legislative back-up be instituted with a very strong awareness on the need for robust development of local construction material resources, as well as advocate for more practical contact hours on the stressed areas in the appropriate curriculum of the building profession in all the tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Finally, appropriate checklist/indices for check-mating quality assurance on professional personnel and materials schedules; as well as enforcement of ‘buildability’ and maintainability analyses of building projects should be encouraged in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Indole Acetic Acid and Phosphate Solubilisation by the Yeasts Isolated from the Leguminous Crops

Archana K., Mallesha B. C.

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 112-117
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i231264

Aim: The present study was aimed to estimate the quantity of IAA production and Phosphate solubilisation by the isolated yeasts from the leguminous crops.

Place and Duration of Work: The experiments were carried out in the Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru during 2019-2020.

Methodology: Yeasts were isolated from the leguminous crops such as Red gram, Cowpea, Green gram, Black gram and Bengal gram. Thirty-five yeast isolates were obtained using four media and were subjected to IAA production test and Phosphorus solubilisation by Spectrophotometry method. All the yeast isolates were subjected to the temperature tolerance test at 25, 30, 35 and 40°C.

Results: Yeast isolate, CP15SI21 has found to produce the highest IAA under in vitro conditions 30.50 μg/ml and the lowest was found to be 17.16μg/ml by yeast isolate BG20SI29. 24 yeast isolates were found to produce above 20 μg/ml. In the case of Phosphate solubilisation highest was observed in GG7SI9 (25.70 mg/l) and lowest in BG6SI8 (1.20 mg/l). Seven isolates showed Phosphate solubilisation above 10 mg/l. At 35°C all the yeast isolates have shown very good growth compared to other lower temperatures. All the yeast isolates were found to grow in the media supplemented with micronutrients such as zinc and potassium.

Conclusion: Our study highlights the potential of yeasts isolated from the leguminous crops that can help in plant growth promotion as the yeast isolates are capable of producing higher amounts of IAA. Some of the yeast isolates can solubilise phosphate under in vitro conditions which in turn helps in the utilization of unavailable P from soils thereby improves plant growth and tolerance to a higher temperature can alleviate abiotic stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation on the Influence of Building Materials Price Fluctuation on Cost of Building Products in Nigeria

Felix Uche Ikechukwu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 118-130
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i231265

Volatility in the fluctuation of prices of building materials has made price forecast on the cost of the materials less reliable in building project management in Nigeria. In the light of this, the study examines the causes of the constant increase in the prices, as well as the implication of the price fluctuation on building projects in the study area. Survey research designs used to gather information for the study are non-parametric in nature. Data were analyzed using chi-square and likert scale to rank the various factors involved in the price fluctuation, as well as the effects of the variation on building projects respectively. Other analytical tools are price index for the rate of changes in the prices of the materials from time to time on average, and simple regression analysis for the relationship between changes in the average price of building materials and the average house rent within the last ten years. Findings reveal that inflation, force of demand and supply, and exchange rate, as economic factors among others are the most significant ones responsible for the building materials price fluctuations in the study area. Difficulty in forecast and planning, project cost overrun, as well as shortage and high cost of accommodation however, are found as the most common effects of the building materials price fluctuations. Besides, the mean un-weighted aggregate price index, and the mean house rent index for each of the successful year are discovered to be 11.02% and 8.73% respectively. Increase in the aggregate price of the building materials however caused approximately a proportional increase in the house rent, especially in the early part of the period. The variables therefore have a positive and linear relationship with the regression model of Y=5776+0.98xi, as derived from Equ.6. It is therefore recommended that research, development and improvement on local material resources be encouraged by the government and the construction stakeholders with legislative instruments against the importation of the basic building materials in Nigeria. Nevertheless, an appropriate framework designed with the aggregate building materials price indices, the model relationship between the effect of change in the aggregate price of the building materials and the consequent change in the residential house rent should be adopted in the management of building projects; for effective forecast and planning of the projects towards sustainable delivery in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum. L.) and Mustard (Brassica juncea) Intercropping System as Influenced by Different Row Ratios and Liquid Manures

Dhananjay Tiwari, Vikram Singh, Makani Sarath Chandra Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 131-143
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i231267

A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive rabi seasons of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P.). The present  experiment comprising with five intercropping systems viz. sole chickpea, sole mustard, chickpea + mustard (1:1), chickpea + mustard (2:1), chickpea + mustard (3:1) row ratios in replacement series and four liquid manures viz. control (no spray), panchagavya  3%, cow urine  10% and vermiwash  10%. Results revealed that among the row arrangements maximum plant height and dry weight of both crop (Chickpea and mustard) were recorded under chickpea + mustard 3:1 row ratio. However sole stand of both crop produced maximum yield attributes and yield. Whereas among the liquid manures foliar application of panchagavya 3% found to be superior over rest of the liquid manures.

Open Access Review Article

A Systematic Review of Wireless Transmission System

A. M. Aibinu, J. A. Ojo, I. A. Adeyemo, T. A. Folorunso, I. G. Adebayo, M. A. Adeagbo, D. O. Babajide

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 66-79
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i231260

Wireless transmission of energy has gained immense attention and importance in the heart of researchers over the years. Many attempts to make it a widely used technology have been done. However, this has not been successful or fruitful. Hence, the need for a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and techniques by harmonizing the findings of various researchers cohesively and adeptly. Thus, this review paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the research works in wireless power transmission from the time of Andre-Marie Ampere in 1826 till date. The transmission mechanism and techniques used were concisely discussed as well as technologies that have incorporated wireless power transmission into their system. The study closes with a conclusive review of the challenges, and limitations faced, the application, advantages, and disadvantages, of wireless power transmission.