Open Access Original Research Article

The Outcome of Lumber Microdiscectomy

Chateen Jabbar Ali, Walid W. Al-Rawi, Arjan Mohammed Rasheed

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131197

Introduction: Low back pain (LBP) is the most common health problem between men and women between 20 and 50. Although most LBP's exact origin remains unknown, it is understood that degenerative damage to the intervertebral disk (IVD) plays a central role in the pathogenic mechanism leading to back pain. The study aims to study the incidence, clinical features, and presentations of the lumbar disc prolapse and clinical outcome of lumbar microdiscectomy for a period of 1 year post operatively.

Methods: 28 male's patient and 22 female patients qualified. The data were obtained by direct interrogation and clinical examination. The information that was taken from the patients includes the patient's age, gender, occupation, and chief complaint, history of present illness, and neurological signs and symptoms. Plain X-ray of the lumbosacral spine obtained for each patient in anteroposterior, lateral view and stress views.

Results: 15 male patients (53.5%) and eight females (36.3%). The most common site for the prolapsed disc was L4-L5 (58%); the next common site was L5-S1 (38%), backache was the most common presenting symptoms. It presents in all 50 patients (100%). Sciatica present in 45 patients (90%), in 13 patients the radiation of the pain was to the right leg, whereas 26 patients have radiation of pain to the left leg and six patients have bilateral radiation, 45 patients (90%) of total 50 patients complaint from backache recovered,36 patients (86.7%) of real 45 patients compliant from sciatica improved, paresthesia represented in 32 patients (64%) and 28 patients (87.5%) of them recovered, whereas 16 patients (32%) had motor weakness and 12 patients (75%) recovered. Conclusion: Lumbar microdiscectomy may be associated with a more rapid initial recovery in patients with sciatica; most patients had good outcomes with lumbar microdiscectomy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Unveiling Perturbing Effects of P-R Drag on Motion around Triangular Lagrangian Points of the Photogravitational Restricted Problem of Three Oblate Bodies

Tajudeen Oluwafemi Amuda, Oni Leke, Abdulrazaq Abdulraheem

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 10-31
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131201

The perturbing effects of the Poynting-Robertson drag on motion of an infinitesimal mass around triangular Lagrangian points of the circular restricted three-body problem under small perturbations in the Coriolis and centrifugal forces when the three bodies are oblate spheroids and the primaries are emitters of radiation pressure, is the focus of this paper. The equations governing the dynamical system have been derived and locations of triangular Lagrangian points are determined. It is seen that the locations are influenced by the perturbing forces of centrifugal perturbation and the oblateness, radiation pressure and, P-R drag of the primaries. Using the software Mathematica, numerical analysis are carried out to demonstrate how the dynamical elements: mass ratio, oblateness, radiation pressure, P-R drag and centrifugal perturbation influence the positions of triangular equilibrium points, zero velocity surfaces and the stability. Our investigation reveals that, though the radiation pressure, oblateness and centrifugal perturbation decrease region of stability when motion is stable, however, they are not the influential forces of instability but the P-R drag. In the region when motion around the triangular points are stable an inclusion of the P-R drag of the bigger primary even by an almost negligible value of 1.04548*10-9 overrides other effect and changes stability to instability. Hence, we conclude that the P-R drag is a strong perturbing force which changes stability to instability and motion around triangular Lagrangian points remain unstable in the presence of the P-R drag.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Persistent Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Commercially Important Fin and Shell Fishes of River Majidun, Lagos, Nigeria

O. Clarke Edwin, O. Adeboyejo Akintade, P. Ndimele Emeka, M. Olarinmoye Oluwatosin

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 142-153
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131244

Aim: The pesticide pollution of aquatic ecosystems has developed serious environmental anxiety, provoking a necessity for continuous evaluation of harmful constituents.

Study Design: A quantitative cum descriptive experimental design was used to evaluate the occurrence and concentration of Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides (POPs) in water, sediment, fish (Tilapia zilli and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and shell fishes (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, Littorina littorea and Callinectes pallidus) of River Majidun, Lagos, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Nigerian Institute of Oceanography and Marine Research (NIOMR) between June and December, 2019.

Methodology: Sediment samples were collected by the Rigosha grab sampler and fish samples were purchased from commercial fishermen. Sample preparation was done according to the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) 3570 method. POPs were evaluated using Hewlett Packard 5890 series II gas chromatography with electron capture detector.

Results: Twenty-one organochlorine residues were identified including p’p’DDT, Lindane (γ-HCH), Dieldrin, Heptachlor, Aldrin, Chlordane, Endrin aldehyde, Endrin ketone, Methoxichlor and Endosulphan. Concentrations in water ranged between 0.03 µg l-1 (Endrin ketone) and 1.97 µg l-1 (Methoxychlor). In sediment, it is between 4.55 µg kg-1 (β-HCH) and 128.25 µg kg-1 (Methoxychlor). In Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, Methoxychlor was 123.83 µg kg-1 and Lindane ((γ)- HCH) was highest here (39.35 µg kg-1). Callinectes pallidus had a high concentration of Endrin ketone (133.13 µg kg-1). The Tilapia zilli highest concentration was 110.35 µg kg-1 (endrin ketone) and it had the highest pp’DDT which was 41.40 µg kg-1.

Conclusion: Evidently, there was sequestration of POPs from water into sediment and bioaccumulation in the organisms, due to exposure. The level of POPs in all samples were below the limits of 200 µg kg-1 fresh weight in fish and sea food set by Codex Alimentarius Commission by FAO/WHO. The attendant environmental/human menace cum inherent danger of the raised levels of POPs, calls for continuous monitoring of River Majidun.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Examination of Clan Names and Clan Praises as Anthroponymic Domains in Swati Culture

Jozi Joseph Thwala

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 32-46
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131204

The objectives of this study are to examine and interpret the meanings of the selected clan names and clan praises. Their sequences, laudatory and eulogic views highlight their significances and generic perspectives. In Swati culture, clan name is shared by a nuclear family and passed from father to sons. In patrilineal societies, clan names are vital for maintenance and sustenance of lineage hierarchy. Clan names are commonly called surnames. The prefix sur-in surname is derived from Latin, meaning super, above or beyond. The word, tibongo (clan names) is derived from the verb, bonga (thank; praise). The word, tinanatelo (clan praises) is derived from the verb, nanatela (be genial towards; show courtesy to and praise). Their anthroponymic domains are evident when they are used as address form. Each Swati clan name has a primary or main clan praise which is widely known by the society and almost equivalent to the clan name, for example, Matfonsi (Droplets)Mjabulase! (Ever-elated one), Maphosa (Thrower)-Tsekwane (An owl) and Malindzisa (One who keeps others waiting)-Tfwala (Carry). In addition to the main clan praise, a number of secondary clan praise names follow and make a series of praise phrases. It is evident that all types of praises have their poetic features that are highlighted by bards, onomasticians, folklorists and oral poetry specialists.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Media and Crime among Adolescents in Anaocha LGA of Anambra Nigeria

Chelsea C. Adogu, Henry N. Chineke, Prosper O. U. Adogu, Chika F. Ubajaka, Amara F. Chizoba, Chinelo C. Nduka

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 65-78
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131222

New media use has been recently understood as an important issue to be looked into among adolescents, parents and others who deal with adolescents. This study sought to examine the new media and crime among adolescents in Anaocha Local Government Area of Anambra State. The study employed the cross-sectional descriptive design method involving a quantitative approach which included a survey of 224 adolescents between the ages of 13-19 years selected by cluster and simple random sampling techniques from five communities in the LGA. The instrument for data collection was interviewer-administered questionnaire while the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in analyzing the data.  Findings revealed that phones were the most prevalent new media in use among adolescents particularly the male ones. Also, majority expressed negative view about the influence of the new media on adolescents, with sexting and cyber-bullying as the most common crimes associated with new media. Furthermore, psychological trauma was identified as the major effect of cyber-bullying on adolescent victims. This study recommended enlightenment of adolescents and other stakeholders in order to curtail the level of crimes committed through the new media. Parents and significant others are advised to keep a close watch on their adolescent children and wards while they are browsing the internet, and this will hopefully control criminal activities associated with new media use among adolescents in Anaocha LGA in particular and Nigeria in general.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cognition of Women about the Combination of Foods to Make Iron Bioavailable in the Diet: A Confirmatory Factorial Study

Haydée Serrão Lanzillotti, Maria Elisa Barros

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 79-91
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131233

Objective: to validate an instrument designed to assess the knowledge of adult women about combining foods to make dietary iron more bioavailable.

Design Study: cross-sectional, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA).

Place and Duration:  Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, May 2018 and February 2019.

Methodology: sample: n=222 women 15 to 49 years old, not pregnant. The questionnaire was designed on Likert scale. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Doornik-Hansen tests were applied, as well as the AFC models with Promax rotation. Convergent validity (CV) and discriminant validity (DV) and reliability (Cronbach's alpha) were evaluated.

The Quality of Model Fit was Assessed by: Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), Comparative Fit Index (CFI) and the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI). The dimensional structure of the questionnaire was reevaluated by Structural Equation Modeling (Modification Indices (MI) and Expected Parameter Changes (EPC).

Results: Initial model: total KMO 0.75 (min = 0.63, max = 0.84), Doornik-Hansen (chi2 (30) = 208.91, P = .00), eigenvalue (F1 = 2.87 and F2 = 1.98), CV not reached (F1: AVE = 0.30 and F2: AVE = 0.21) and DV corroborated, Conbrach alphas reached for 0.75 inhibitory items ( 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.81), for stimulators: 0.62 (95% CI = 0.51 to 0.70), RMSEA = 0.10 (90% CI = 0.08 to 0.11 ), CFI (0.70), TLI (0.65), items with MI>10 (i16I, i23E, i25E, i28E). Re-specified Model: eigenvalue (F1 = 2.44 and F2 = 1.42), CV not reached (F1: AVE= 0.29 and F2: AVE=0.20) and corroborated DVl, Conbrach alphas: for 0.75 inhibitory items (95% CI = 0.69 to 0.81); stimulators items: 0.55 (95% CI = 0.44 to 0.64), RMSEA = 0.03 (90% CI = 0.00 to 0.06), CFI (0.95), TLI (0, 94). The items did not show MI>10.

Conclusion: The reliability was achieved in both models. Validities: convergent was not achieved and the discriminant attested two-dimensionality.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Exploratory Study on Digital Transformation and Communication within the Moroccan Firms

Houda Bassim

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 92-101
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131235

Starting from the beginning of the third millennium, firms around the world in various economic sectors have been powerfully affected by the evolution process of digital technology and associated internet developments.

The use of Internet and new digital technologies has been considered as a great revolution that will allow companies to benefit from new opportunities, in order to extend their activities and profitability, specifically through decreases in costs. While some companies have been investing rapidly in this new filed with the aim to take advantages of new opportunities, others seem to fail in following such developmental pattern.

The main research question in the present paper is to understand perceptions of a sample of Moroccan firms operating in Casablanca, regarding the currently observed process of communication-based digital transformation worldwide. In this sense, our study turns to be exploratory, that is based on open interviews, within a focus group of professionals in the digital sector, rather than on collected data and effective orientations. Such exploratory analysis will be followed by upcoming empirical studies for a more comprehensive understanding of the profession.

Our research paper aspires thereby to better grasping the process of digitalization of communication channels among the firms’ professionals, as selected. The ultimate target is to know how well firms are evolving in utilizing newly integrated digital tools, with respect to innovation and trademarks.

To address this issue in an exploratory perspective, we have resorted to a focus group-based enquiry with six professionals of firms operating in Casablanca. The methodological framework relies upon qualitative data, as collected through the conducted interviews.     

The major research finding of the present paper is that the pattern of digital transformation and communication seems to follow the one observed worldwide. Nevertheless, in spite of strong customers’ expectations, some hesitations and inadequate fundraising allocations partially explain the relative slowness of the process. In terms of policy implications, a suitable public-private partnership is still needed so as Morocco can foster digital transformation for economic and social development as well as improvements in the population’s standards of life, especially through investment in human capital for better attractivity-generating progress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Titanium, Zinc, Lead, Chromium, Cadmium, Cobalt and Copper Concentrations in Vegetables Produced using Wastewater in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas of Nairobi City County, Kenya

David K. Rono, Jacob W. Wakhungu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 102-118
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131240

Vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals and fibres. Ingestion of vegetables contaminated with heavy metals is one of the main routes through which heavy metals enter the human body and may cause diseases. In this study we investigated the concentrations of titanium, zinc, lead, chromium, cadmium, cobalt and copper in the commonly produced vegetables viz. Brassica sp.,Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthus sp. and Solanum sp. using wastewater in Ruai ward, Nairobi City County, Kenya. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used to estimate the levels of these metals in vegetables sampled from five plots in the study area. The concentration status for each heavy metal in the samples was compared with the permissible levels for corresponding heavy metals set by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization. Our findings indicated the presence of Ti, Zn, Cr and Cu in all the vegetable samples and their concentrations varied considerably, while Pb, Cd and Co were not detected in most samples. The presence of heavy metals in vegetables was in the order of Pb > Cd > Co > Cu > Cr > Zn > Ti. We concluded that vegetables produced using wastewater had elevated levels of the investigated heavy metals at the time of analysis beyond FAO/ WHO safe limits for corresponding metals in leafy vegetables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Myco-enhanced Bioremediation in Open Field Crude Oil Contaminated Soil Using Mucor racemosus and Aspergillus niger

O. Ule, D. N. Ogbonna, R. N. Okparanma, R. R. Nrior

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 119-141
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131241

Aim: To assess the Mycoremediation potential of Mucor racemosus and Aspergillus niger in open field crude oil contaminated soils in Rivers State, Nigeria. 

Study Design: The study employs experimental design, statistical analysis of the data and interpretation.

Place and Duration of Study: Rivers State University demonstration farmland in Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Mile 3 Diobu area of Port Harcourt, was used for this study. The piece of land is situated at Longitude 4°48’18.50” N and Latitude 658’39.12” E measuring 5.4864 m x 5.1816 m with a total area of 28.4283 square meter. Mycoremediation process monitoring lasted for 56 days, analyses were carried out weekly at 7 days’ interval.

Methodology: Five (5) experimental plots were employed using a Randomized Block Design each having dimensions of 100 x 50 x 30 cm (Length x Breadth x Height) and were formed and mapped out on agricultural soil, each plot was contaminated with 22122.25g of Crude Oil except Control 1 and left fallow for 6 days after contamination for proper contamination and exposure to natural environmental factors to mimic crude oil spill site. On the seventh day bio-augmentation process commenced using two (2) fungal isolates namely Aspergillus niger [Asp] and Mucor rasemosus [Muc]). Two (2) control plots (P1: Uncontaminated and unamended soil - CTRL 1 US) and P2: Crude Oil contaminated but unamended soil - CTRL 2 CS); P3 = P5 were contaminated and amended/bioaugmented (P3: CS+Asp, P4: CS+Muc, P5: CS+Asp+Muc respectively. Soil profile before and after contamination was assayed while parameters like Temperature, pH, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) contents were monitored throughout the experimental period. Microbial analyses such as Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Heterotrophic Fungi (THF), Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria (HUB) and Hydrocarbon Utilizing Fungi (HUF) were recorded. Bioremediation efficiency was estimated from percentage (%) reduction of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) from day 1 to the residual hydrocarbon at day 56 of bio- augmentation/ biostimulation plots with the control.

Results: Results revealed actual amount of remediated hydrocarbon and % Bioremediation Efficiency at 56 days in the different treatment plots (initial TPH contamination value of 8729.00mg/kg) in a decreasing order as follows: CS+Muc (8599.19mg/kg; 33.66%) > CS+Asp+Muc (8357.31mg/kg; 33.04%) > CS+Asp (8341.58mg/kg; 32.98%) > CTRL 2 -CS (Polluted soil without amendment) (81.06mg/kg; 0.32%). Microbiological results After fifty-six (56) days of bioremediation monitoring; %HUB were as follows; CS+Asp+Muc (45.30%) > CS+Asp (40.32%) > CS+Muc (35.01%) > CTRL 2 –CS (30.43%) > CTRL 1 – US (0%). These results indicate that the presence of the contaminated crude oil stimulated and sustained the growth of Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria (HUB) in the contaminated plots (P2 - P3); more so, the higher growth in the enhanced bio-augmented plots (P3 – P5) shows the positive impact of fungal bio-augmentation in bioremediation of crude oil polluted soil. It was further observed that treatment plots with higher HUB or HUF had higher percentage (%) bioremediation efficiency; that is, the higher the sustained HUB and HUF population, the higher the %Bioremediation process. Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria (Log10 CFU/g): CS+Asp (4.20) (Day 35) > CS+Muc+Asp (4.18) (Day 35) > CS+Muc (4.08) (Day 28) > CTRL 2 – CS (3.95) (Day 21) > CTRL 1 – US (3.78) (Day 35). (Fig. 3). Hydrocarbon Utilizing Fungi (Log10 CFU/g): CS+Asp (4.68) (Day 35) > CS+Muc+Asp (4.58) (Day 35) > CS+Muc (4.48) (Day 35) > CTRL 2 – CS (4.23) (Day 21) > CTRL 1 – US (2.85) (Day 42).

Conclusion: Study showed that bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated soils with Bioaugmenting fungus singly may be more effective than combination with others depending on the type of substrate used, nature of the hydrocarbon utilizing organism and environmental conditions prevalent as seen in Mucor racemosus having higher bioremediation potential than when combined with Aspergillus niger. Notably, Hydrocarbon Utlilizing Bacteria (HUB) and Hydrocarbon Utilizing Fungi (HUF) which are the key players in Bioremediation has its peak count value on Day 35, this confers that nutrient renewal on bioremediation site should be at interval of 35 days for continuous effective bioremediation of hydrocarbon pollutants. It is therefore recommended that single microbes of high bioremediation potential could be used since its more effective than consortium of many hydrocarbon utilizing microbes. Also, nutrient or bio-augmenting microbes’ renewal on bioremediation site should be at an interval of 35 days for continuous effective bioremediation of hydrocarbon pollutants.

Open Access Review Article

Opportunities for Enhancing Winemaking Processes by Employing High Power Ultrasonics Technology: A Review

A. S. J. Yap, G. A. Logan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 47-64
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i131206

High power ultrasonics (HPU) technology has been used in the food industry to develop effective methods for food production, and to reduce operational costs and improve product quality with large-scale commercial applications since the 1990s. While high intensity energy produced by HPU has been successfully applied to many processes in food production, its application to winemaking is still at an experimental stage. However, as a disruptive industry changer, HPU technology offers an enormous range of possibilities to improve the wine industry’s competitive position through lower cost, higher quality, and the delivery of cleaner, fresher, and more appealing wines to the customer. It will enable wineries to create more sustainable, transformative and innovative solutions to enhance winemaking processes.