Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Problems among Cobblers in Footwear Repairing Work

Deepika Pandey, Aditi Vats

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 68-72
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831200

Cobbling or shoe-repairing is one of the aged old occupations belonging to unorganized sector. Majority of workers are dependent on this occupation for livelihood. The cobblers work in sitting position mainly on the busy routes with congested surroundings. The present study was conducted among 100 cobblers working in Uttarakhand State, India with an objective to find out the musculoskeletal pain or discomfort faced by them during their work. The data was collected using Standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Results revealed that the cobblers suffered from pain or discomforts in different body regions especially lower back, neck and lower leg. Sitting with folded legs and continuous bending of neck during work were the major reasons of pain/discomfort. Various muscle relaxing exercises can help the cobblers to overcome the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Further, an ergonomic workstation design will help in improving their workplace wellbeing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improving the Productivity through Site-Specific Nutrient Management in Cashew through a Mobile App in Coastal India

Shamsudheen Mangalassery, Palpandian Preethi, Bommanahalli Munivenkate Muralidhara, Mundakochi Gangadhara Nayak

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 73-88
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831202

Nutrient management plays a key role in the productivity and sustainability of land resources. Balanced application of mineral nutrition to the crops not only helps to realise increased yields but also to prevent land degradation. Cashew is generally grown as a rainfed crop in tropical regions with limited attention on nutrient management. Making an informed decision on the scientific aspects of the nutrient application in terms of the right amount, time and place of application are important for the growers. The mobile apps come handy in this direction because the farmers can themselves find out nutrient management schedule as per the field conditions. A mobile app for nutrient management in cashew was developed which takes care of varied field situations of farmers and was demonstrated in the farmer’s fields under participatory research mode. The app helped farmers to devise their own site-specific nutrient management. The field implementation for the site-specific nutrient management with the help of a mobile app showed improvement in soil and leaf nutrient status as well as the raw cashewnut yield. The yield improvement was in the range of 58 to 67% and the BC ratio was increased by 9 to 47% compared to the initial status. The mobile app DCR-Cashew Nutrient Manager was useful to empower the farmers, and field implementation was beneficial to improve the productivity, income and ecosystem sustainability by improving the nutrient balance in the soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

SWOT Analysis of Farmers’ Perceptions on Farmer Producer Companies: A Study in Maharashtra, India

S. B. Ramya Lakshmi, G. Jaya, K. C. Gummagolmath

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 124-135
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831209

The present study was conducted in the state of Maharashtra with an objective to analyze the farmers’ perceptions on Farmer Producer Companies (FPCs) in the state of Maharashtra. Member farmers were selected as sample respondents for the study. The results of the present study revealed that after association with producer company, there has been an improvement in the yields as stated by 96.66 per cent of the farmers under category I, 82.73 per cent of the farmers in category II and 77.50 per cent of the farmers under category III. It was also observed that there was an improvement in the quality of the produce and a majority of the farmers were happy with the price for their produce received after joining FPCs. It was also interesting to note that the problems faced by the farmers were different in all the three categories of FPCs. However, the common problem faced by the farmers in category II and III was manipulation of quotas and quality specifications by some of the companies. The SWOT analysis revealed that the major strengths identified by the farmers were more or less same in the selected FPCs like provision of inputs and production services, higher yields due to better management, minimizing the prices risk and better bargaining for small holders. The adoption of new production technology was a common weakness and pro-government policy was an important opportunity of all the producer companies as perceived by the farmers. The common threats to the producer companies of all categories include problem of sustaining long term operations, cut throat competition among companies, social and cultural constraints.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Manual Operated Two Row Planter for Onion Seeds

Balveer Singh Meena, Atul Kumar Shrivastava, R. K. Dubey

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 153-161
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831212

Onion (Allium Cepa L.) is cultivated globally as a one of the prominent vegetable crop. India is the second largest producer of onion in the world next to China, but still there is large of scope to enhance the production and productivity. In India, the cultivation of onion is not fully mechanized, only progressive farmers are using the machineries for cultivation. Therefore, it’s required the intensive labour, resulted low productivity with high cost of cultivation. Generally farmers are doing the manual sowing of seeds or manual transplanting system. To address this issue, a manual operated two row planter was developed for directly sowing the seed in prepared field. This machine can easily be operated by a single man/woman by pushing action while walking in the field. Evaluation of the machine was successfully performed in enclosed environment (i.e. laboratory) and on the grounds of some performance parameters that plays a crucial role in performance evaluation of machine. The parameters such as missing index, multiple index and quality of feed index were determined respectively that yielded numerical values of 11.5 per cent, 25 per cent and 63 per cent, respectively. On the basis of obtained results, it was easily justified that metering mechanism of vertical rotor type with dimensions of slot size 2.5 mm × 3 mm was most suitable for mechanical sowing of onion seeds having an operational speed of 2 km h-1 to obtain the optimum seed rate of 7-8 kg ha-1. The field capacity and field efficiency of the developed machine for sowing of onion seeds were found to be 0.042 ha h-1and 78 per cent respectively at the average operational speed of 1.8 km h-1. But as far as the labour requirement is compared, in instance of the onion planter, only 48 man-h are required for planting of 1 ha area, whereas in case of manual transplanting method, about 800-960 man-h are required for 1 ha area. The developed machine results in savings in terms of seed, labour requirement, inputs i.e. fertilizers, chemicals, water etc. by providing 15 cm of row to row spacing uniformly with an addition of 10 cm plant to plant spacing. Uniform crop establishment also enhance the mechanization of subsequent operations i.e. weeding, spraying and harvesting. The yield obtained by developed seed drill was 14.9 t ha-1which is very close to the yield obtained with manual transplanting of onion seedlings i.e. 15.6 t ha-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Designing Staircase for Age-Friendly Housing

R. Unesha Fareq, T. Neeraja

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 176-182
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831215

Aim: The study aimed to design a staircase for age-friendly housing by discovering the gap between existing staircase design and requirements of the elderly people.

Sample: Sixty elderly women in the age of sixty and above who were living independently in a separate house was the criteria for the selection of sample. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to draw the sample.

Study Design:  Ex post facto research design was adopted for the study.

Place and Duration of Study: The area selected to conduct the study were the Kurnool and Nandyal towns of Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh. The study was conducted in the year 2019-2020.

Methodology: The design recommendations for staircase in elderly housing proposed by various researchers served as yardstick to identify the existing staircase features in the elderly houses. An interview cum observation schedule was developed for gathering information about the existing staircase features in elderly houses. The elderly houses were physically observed by the investigator. The existing staircase features were measured in terms of above the recommendations, exactly as per the recommendations and below the recommendations with scores of 3,2 and 1 respectively. The elderly people were asked to express their requirements for staircase design in terms of essential, preferred and neutral with scores of 3,2,1 respectively. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for the existing staircase and requirements of elderly houses. Chi square analysis was performed to find out the relationship between existing staircase features and requirements of the elderly people. Taking into consideration of the elderly people requirements, staircase design was developed.

Results and Conclusion: The design of handrails, risers and treads of staircase was not found  as per the recommendations in most of the houses. Staircase with wider treads and lower risers were the features felt essential in designing a staircase by most of the elderly people. Staircase that facilitates safety and easy use was designed for the elderly housing as per the recommendations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Sprinkler Irrigation System on Production and Profitability of Wheat in Sagar District of Madhya Pradesh, India

Rajendra Singh Bareliya, Satyendra Singh Thakur, Deepak Rathi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 183-188
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831218

In India, the area irrigated by the sprinkler system is 3.59 million ha, which is less than 2.5 % of the total area under irrigation. Madhya Pradesh has been covered 35195 ha area under micro irrigation (2017-18) Share of Sagar district in micro irrigation area 895.20 ha. Sagar has major wheat growing district under micro irrigation system (MPKSY). An intensive survey was made to collect the relevant data from adopters (48) and non adopters (12) of sprinkler irrigation system in cultivation of wheat. An overall the total cost of cultivation of wheat nominal increase by only 1.66 percent in cultivation of wheat in sprinkler (Rs. 17271.47/ acre) an against without sprinkler (Rs. 16989.87/ acre) irrigation system. The net farm income, family labour income and return per rupee investment were found to be increased by 21.75, 17.73 and 9.81 percent, respectively after the introduction of sprinkler irrigation in cultivation of wheat in the area of the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield of a Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Mustard (Brassica juncea) as Influenced by Row Ratio and Liquid Manures

Dhananjay Tiwari, Vikram Singh, Alok Kumar Verma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 206-215
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831223

A field experiment was conducted during 2018 and 2019 at the crop research farm, Department of Agronomy, Shuats, Prayagraj (Uttar Pradesh) to study the effect of intercrop row ratio and liquid manures on chickpea and mustard intercropping system. The treatments consisted of five intercropping systems viz. Sole chickpea, sole mustard, chickpea + mustard (1:1), chickpea + mustard (2:1), chickpea + mustard (3:1) row ratios in replacement series and four liquid organic manures viz. control (no spray), panchagavya 3%, cow urine 10% and vermiwash 10% were tested in split plot design with planting ratio as the main plots and liquid manures as the sub plot with 3 replications. Results revealed that maximum growth attributes in both crop were recorded under chickpea + mustard (3:1). However maximum, yield attributes and yield were recorded under sole stand of both crop. Among liquid manures maximum growth, yield attributes and yield were recorded under foliar application of panchagavya 3% at branching and flowering stage in both crop and vermiwash10% found at par.

Open Access Original Research Article

Principal Component Analysis for Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Rainfed Shallow Lowland Rice (Oryza sativa L)

Prince Raj, Anand Kumar, . Satyendra, S. P. Singh, Mankesh Kumar, Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Bishun De o Prasad, Sanjay Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 256-261
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831228

The genetic diversity was estimated using seventy two genotypes of rice in a randomized block design with three replications at the rice research farm of Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour (Bhagalpur) during Kharif, 2019-20 to determine the contribution of fifteen quantitative traits to the total variability in rice using Principal component analysis. In the present investigation PCA was performed for fifteen quantitative traits of rice. All the 3PCs exhibited more than 1.0 Eigen value and showed about 95.00% variability. Therefore, these PCs were given due important for the further explanation. The PC1 showed 77.28 per cent variation of total variation followed by second to third components which accounted 15.65 and 2.05 per cent of total variation presented among the genotypes, respectively. PC1 contributed 77.28% of the total variation and correlated with total carbohydrate, generation of H2O2, days to 50% flowering, biological yield, number of fertile grains per panicle, panicle length and flag leaf area while PC2 explained an additional 15.65% of the total variation and dominated by total carbohydrate, days to 50% flowering, harvest index, biological yield, total number of spikelet’s and plant height. PC III accounted 2.05 per cent of the total variability and correlated with the traits like days to 50% flowering, biological yield, total number of spikelet’s, 1000-seed weight, plant height, harvest index, generation of H2O2 and panicle length had maximum positive contribution Since, a total of 95.00% of the total variation was contributed by PC1 and PC2, therefore, these two principal components can be allowed for simultaneous selection of yield contributing traits in desi chickpea. Genotype usually found in more PC, were CR3933-13-2-1-4-1-2-1, TTB1011-14-171-2-2-1-2-1, TTB1032-45-937-2-3-3-1-1, (Santepheap3/IR49830-7/RajendraMahsuri)-1-3-1, (BR11/IR8041OB)-2-1-1, (RajendraMhasuri/CN1039)-4-2-1, TTB1011-14-243-1-2-2-2-1, TTB1032-45-937-2-3-3-1-1, CR4138-3-1-1, CR4139-9-2-1, CR4139-9-2- and CR4128-9-1-1. Genotypes fall in a common principal component were observed to be the most important factor for seed yield. These genotypes may further be utilized in breeding programmes for improving seed yield and these genotypes can be considered an ideotype breeding material for selection of traits viz. more total number of seed per plant and 100-seed weight further utilization in precise breeding programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of Knowledge Test on Organic Farming Techniques

Priti Priyadarshni, R. N. Padaria, R. R. Burman, Rashmi Singh, Sanjoy Bandyopadhyay, Pramod Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 286-292
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831231

The present study has attempted to develop a knowledge test on organic farming techniques mainly on organic manures and pesticides. Heavy reliance on synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides as well as growing awareness of health and environment have been attracting farmers toward organic farming. There is a need of more adoption of efficient organic techniques by farmers to get better and quality yields. The first stage of innovation adoption process is the knowledge stage. To analyze the knowledge gap about the organic farming techniques, a knowledge test was developed. The study was conducted in Gaya district of Bihar with randomly selected 45 farmers using organic techniques and 25 farmers as control. Initially 25 items were selected based on its content validity. Finally, 10 items were retained with reliability of 0.796, dicriminination index of >0.2, and significant t-test between the treated and control groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancing Entrepreneurship Opportunities through Millet Based Value Added Products to Farm Women of Nagarkurnool District

Afifa Jahan, R. Arunjyothi, A. Shankar, M. Jagan Mohan Reddy, T. Prabhakar Reddy, M. Rajasheker, K. Rama Krishna, L. Shravika

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 293-299
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831232

Millets are known as one of the most important cereal grains as it is good source of phytochemicals and micronutrients. Millets are consumed by more than 1/3rd of the world’s population. It is the 6th cereal crop in terms of world’s agricultural production. Present study was carried out in Nagarkurnool district of southern Telangana zone and sample size is n=30 farm women from economically low background cultivating millets were selected purposively. Nutritional education, skill development programs and awareness camps were organized to encourage for starting value added millet based enterprise for livelihood instead of selling raw produce which fetch low profits. The result of present study has shown that Millet value based products has enhanced the enterprise opportunities as the increase in health consciousness of the people. In the present study the cost benefit ratio has increase gradually with the each year 1:1.46 in the year 2018, 1:1.92 in the year 2019 and 1:2.5 in the year 2020. The consumption frequency of millet based value added products has also increased from 66% of sample daily consumption to 92% of daily consumption. As traditional roties (Indian flat bread) were not accepted by young age and unable to chew and swallow by old age. Millet based value added products were highly accepted, increased the consumption frequency and increased the income of farm women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biohardening of Tissue Cultured Banana Plantlets of cv. Ney Poovan for the Management of Fusarium wilt of Banana with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (VB7) Triggers Defence Gene Products and Growth Promotion

C. Y. Shalini Udaya, S. Nakkeeran, K. Soorianathasundaram

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 352-366
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831243

Fusarium wilt of banana is the most devastating disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc). In order to combat the early onset of Fusarium wilt disease, an experiment was carried out on biohardening of tissue cultured plantlets. Six bacterial endophytes were observed to inhibit the growth of Foc in vitro. Among the six bacterial endophytes, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (VB7) inhibited mycelial growth of Foc to an extent of 70.58% over control. Further, these bacterial endophytes were used for biohardening of the tissue cultured banana plantlets
cv. Ney Poovan (AB) during primary and secondary hardening stages. Among the bacterial endophytes, B. amyloliquefaciens was found to significantly enhance plant height, leaf production, root numbers and root length compared to untreated control. Activity of defense enzymes were  also enhanced and such increase in activity was observed to be to an  extent of 93.67% in peroxidase, 92.39% polyphenol oxidase, 97.60% phenylalanine ammonia lyase  and 26.23% in β-1, 3-glucanase defence enzymes in plants biohardened with B. amyloliquefaciens (VB7) over untreated control after inoculation of Foc. Tissue cultured plants of Ney Poovan biohardened with B. amyloliquefaciens   (VB7),   B.   paraconglomeratum   (YEB   PT2) and S. maltophilia (YEB RH2) were completely free from wilt incidence symptoms upto planting stage when challenged with Foc inoculum under pot culture conditions. As among these three endophytes, B. amyloliquefaciens (VB7) also influenced favourable growth promotion, it can serve as a potential biocontrol agent for management of Fusarium wilt of banana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extension Participation of National Horticulture Mission Beneficiaries of Davanagere District in India

J. Raghuraja, M. Madhumathi, S. Shashikumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 402-407
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831251

The present study was conducted in all the six blocks (taluks) of Davanagere district of Karnataka state, India. The sample size was 144 randomly selected beneficiaries of National Horticulture Mission from 24 villages. Ex-post facto research design was employed for this study. The results revealed that family members (34.26%), neighbors (33.56%), friends and relatives (33.45) are the major sources of information for the NHM beneficiaries followed by other service providers, fellow beneficiaries and NHM personnel. Among the extension media, the farm magazine (66.21%), radio (57.87%), newspapers (55.10%), internet (44.44%), WhatsApp (42.36%) and mobile SMS (32.27 %) are regularly used by the beneficiaries. In case of contact with extension personnel, 42.82 per cent of beneficiaries had contact with agricultural assistant followed by 36.11 per cent with assistant agriculture officer, 30.09 per cent with veterinary officer and 28.70 per cent had contact with agriculture officer. The extension participation reveals that 33.45 per cent of beneficiaries participated in group meetings whereas, 33.10 per cent in krishi melas, 31.02 per cent in field visits and 28.47 per cent in training programmes. In all, 40.97 per cent of beneficiaries visited town or cities twice in a week while, 38.18 visited once in a week and 16.67 per cent visited once in fortnight. 

Open Access Original Research Article

A survey of Phalaris minor Retz. Management in Wheat in Trans-Gangetic Plains Region of India

Jagjot Singh Gill

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 408-414
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831252

A survey was conducted to measure the extent of control of Littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor Retz.) in wheat crop in Ferozepur district in the state of Punjab (Trans-Gangetic Plains region) by Punjab Agricultural University Farmer Advisory Service Centre (FASC) Ferozepur during rabi 2018-19. The study aims to find out the causes of poor control of Phalaris minor in wheat crop on farm fields of farmers of Ferozepur district. 90 farm fields were selected randomly for collection of data. Survey data were analyzed using completely randomized design. Survey study revealed that sowings of wheat after first fortnight of November have significantly higher number of farm fields with medium control (control 50 to 60%) (3.0 farm fields) to low control (control less than 50%) (6.3 farm fields) environments of P. minor. High control environment (control more than 60%) has significantly higher number of farm fields (11.7) with less infestation of P. minor (population of P. minor less than 5 plants per square meter). However, in low control environments higher number of farm fields has population of P. minor 15 and more than 15 plants per square meter. P. minor appeared more in significantly higher number of farm fields (14.3), (3.7) and (7.7) in high control, medium control and less environment, respectively in the month of December. Significantly higher number of farm fields (16) used recommended herbicide to control P. minor in wheat crop in high control environment. However, farmers apply unrecommended herbicide in higher number of farm fields. Herbicide was applied timely to control P. minor in wheat crop in significantly higher number of farm fields (14) in high control environment. In low control environment farmers applied herbicide late to control P. minor in significantly higher number of farm fields (8.0). Farmers used right type of nozzle (Flat Fan and Flood Jet) to apply herbicide to control P. minor in significantly higher number (14) of farm fields in high control environment. Farmers used wrong type of nozzle to apply herbicide to control P. minor in more number of farm fields in medium control and less control environments. Optimum volume of water (150 litres of water per acre) was used to apply herbicide to control P. minor in wheat crop in significantly higher number of farm fields (17) in high control environment. Farmers used low volume of water (100 to 125 litres per acre) to apply herbicide to control P. minor in significantly higher number of farm fields (8.0) in low control environment. Farmers did not practice herbicide rotation in significantly higher number of farm fields 4.0 and 8.0 in medium control and low control respectively. P. minor inflorescence was not removed by farmers in significantly higher number of farm fields 4.0 and 8.0 in medium control and low control environments respectively. Inaproppropriate herbicide selection, method of application, delay in sowing of wheat and application of herbicide, lack of herbicide rotaion and non-removal of P.minor inflorescence were the reasons for poor control of P. minor in wheat crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Residual Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Nodulation, Yield, Quality and Available Nutrient Status in Soil after Harvest of Greengram

S. Mangaraj, R. K. Paikaray, S. N. Jena, K. N. Mishra, B. Swain

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 445-452
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831258

A field study was carried out during rabi seasons in 2017-18 and 2018-19 after harvest of rice to reveal the residual effect of integrated nutrient management on nodulation, yield, quality and available nutrient status in soil after harvest of greengram at Instructional Farm of College of Agriculture, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar. The maximum number of root nodules/plant at 30 DAS and 45 DAS in greengram (5.86, 6.19 and 12.49 and 12.94in 2017 and 2018 respectively) were recorded in the subplot treatment of 75% RDF+ rhizobium + PSB and lowest values were obtained in 75% RDF treatment. Similarly in main plot, residual effect of 50% RDF+50% RDN through FYM showed significantly higher number of root nodules/plant during both the years of study which remained at par with 75 % RDF+ Green manuring. Lowest values were obtained from only RDF treatment. Residual effect of 50 % RDF+50 % RDN through FYM showed significantly higher protein % (24.2 and 24) and protein yield (194.3 and 196.2) during both the years of study which remained at par with 75 % RDF+ Green manuring treatment. Residual effect of 75 % RDF+ Green manuring treatment recorded higher increase in soil organic carbon (4.87 g/kg), available N(225.7 kg/ha), Available P (26.2 kg/ha) and available K (296.0 kg/ha) than all other treatment combinations. The residual treatment 50% RDF+25% RDN through FYM recorded the lowest values of soil nutrient status after harvest of greengram. Similarly the sub plot treatment receiving 75% RDF+ Rhizobium+ PSB recorded significantly higher soil organic carbon (4.67 g/kg), available N(217.1 kg/ha), Available P (22.8 kg/ha) and available K (291.8 kg/ha) than 100% RDF and 75% RDF.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Development of Polycarbonate Dryer Assisted Bio-Composter

M. Sriram, R. Pavithiran, M. Tito Anand, R. Vidyalakshmi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 453-461
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831259

Household Food Wastes are causes major environmental problem and health risk problems during dumping into landfilling, sewage and garbage. If household food waste does not short it down in advances, it leads to huge contribution over Municipal Solid Waste. In India, nearly 40% of consumption waste occurs in current status. The present study focused on compost production using household food waste and culture mixed were pour into the fabricated bio-composter bin which can be placed in a polycarbonate dryer to increase the rate of microbial growth concentration, maintain the optimum temperature and make odor free environment. Presented design and fabrication of polycarbonate dryer assisted bio-composter model was done by using Computer-Aided Design (CAD). Further studies, a preliminary design and fabricated design were handled to take different formulation of composting ratio were incorporated and the physio-chemical testing were estimated. According to the composting observation, recovery of compost was higher yield obtained within a short period due to faster degradation with help stable microbes. Especially, this design was well planned, low cost setup approach and reassembled parts used, due to customer preference. Comparing to the different trails runs for the preliminary and final fabricated design, R1 and R4 trail runs showed 93% efficiency with minimum digestion loss and the optimized parameter value resulted for plant growth. The overall performance of this composter brings a solution for household seekers to utilize the food waste discard to zero waste success.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic and Morphometrical Characteristics of Sahiwal Cattle

Purabi Kaushik, Jnyanashree Saikia, Jitendra Saharia, Dulal Chandra Mili

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 462-465
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831262

The present study was conducted at Institutional livestock farm complex, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara. A total of 37 adult Sahiwal pure breed cattle were selected to study their phenotypic and Morphometric characteristics. Phenotypic characteristics were visually recorded and morphometric measurements were taken with a measuring tape. Coat and face colour of most of the animals are deep brown in colour but also few light brown colour animals were noticed. The muzzle, eye lashes, hooves and tails colour of Sahiwal cattle are mostly black.  Deep and light brown colour Hump was found.  A well-developed udder, a large pendular dewlap and long naval flap were found. The average Heart Girth, Body length, Ear length, Ear width, Neck length, Hoove length, Hoove circumference, Tail length were found to be 103.33±2.79, 62.33±0.48, 10.08±0.39, 6.58±0.28, 25.83±0.50, 4.33±0.18, 11.33±0.28, 39.83±0.27, 24.33±0.28, 113.41±2.27 cm respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Operational Parameters for Tractor Operated Swinging Lance Sprayer by Using ASPEE-SPGF Spray Guns

Arudra Srinivasarao, Tapan Kumar Khura, Roaf Ahmad Parray, Indra Mani, H. L. Kushwaha, Susheel Kumar Sarkar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 495-502
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831269

Spraying is one of the critical operations in agriculture. The importance of the use of chemical pesticides was well recognized in agriculture.  Consumption of pesticides was increasing year by year, on the other hand, wastage of chemical pesticides also alarming due to excess application of pesticides. The quality spraying affects several operational factors.  Tractor operated swinging lance sprayer developed for obtaining uniformity in spraying.  Four operational factors such as spacing between spray guns, spray gun height, swing angle and pressure were considered to evaluate and optimize the operational factors for effective swath width. Full factorial design considered using Minitab software tool, 243 experiments (34*3) conducted for the study. The main effects of each factor, 2-way interaction effects and 3-way interaction effects are significant at 5% level of significance. The swath width is significantly influenced by swing angle followed by spacing between spray guns for both the spray guns. The percentage contribution of swing angle, spacing between spray guns, height of spray gun and operating pressure on swath width was 44.37%, 37.62%, 2.51% and 2.02% respectively. The optimum combination of operational parameters for effective swath width was s3 - h2 – a3 – p2. The obtained optimum operation combination for swath width significantly improved the performance of spraying activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Antibiotics on the Haemocyte Count and Rearing Performance of Silkworm Bombyx mori L.

Iqra Rafiq, Z. I. Buhroo, K. A. Sahaf, N. A. Ganie, M. F. Baqual, S. A. Mir, Shahina A. Nagoo, Sabiha Ashraf Kirmani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 528-538
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831274

Background: Antibiotic agents have been used in recent years to increase the growth of silkworm larvae and to improve production. In this context, the present investigation reported the effects of ceftiofur sodium, oxytetracycline and enroflaxcin on total haemocyte count (cells/mm3), survival percentage and economic characteristics in silkworm Bombyx mori L. at various concentration levels. The study regarding the effect of antibiotics was conducted on the silkworm breed APS-45. Three concentrations (0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15%) were prepared for each antibiotic. The worms were reared upto 3rd instar without any treatment. After third moult silkworms were supplemented with antibiotic fortified mulberry leaves.

Results: The experimental results showed that the effect of different antibiotics on economic parameters like larval weight, larval duration, cocoon weight, shell ratio and raw silk percentage were significantly increased in the treated lines in comparison to the control. Antibiotics also increased survival percentage and the most effective result was obtained at 0.15% of ceftiofur sodium followed by oxytetracycline and enroflaxcin. In the present study highest THC value of 9157.33 mm/cm3 was recorded in treatment ceftiofur sodium treated batch at concentration C3 0.15%. An increment in the total haemocyte count was observed in other treatments as well and the cell count increased with an increase in concentration of antibiotic dosage and the effectiveness of the antibiotics followed the order ceftiofur sodium, oxytetracycline and enroflaxcin.

Conclusion: This research outlines that there is a significant improvement in the total haemocyte count and economic traits in silkworm with the supplementation of antibiotic fortified mulberry leaves. The antibiotic treatment has significantly improved the raw silk percentage and has been found to be effective in reducing the mortality of silkworms. So, this antibiotic fortification can be further exploited for higher raw silk production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combining Ability and Heterosis Studies for Yield and Yield Contributing Characters in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

P. Gonya Nayak, M. Venkataiah, P. Revathi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 566-573
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831287

In groundnut during Rabi 2015-16 Combining ability and heterosis was studied among 9 crosses involving three diverse lines viz., IVK 2015-21, IVK 2014-21and ICGV 00348 and 3 testers viz., Kadiri 7, Kadiri 6 and JCG 2141.On the basis of per se performance and General Combing Ability (GCA) effects together, the parents IVK-2014-21 and Kadiri-7 were identified as better combiners for various yield and its attributing characters. These parental materials could be better utilized as valuable basic material in developing high yielding groundnut varieties. Among those, based on per se performance, the corresponding GCA status of parents and SCA effects for most of the yield traits viz., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, 100 kernel weight and pod yield per plant only one cross viz.,IVK14-21 x K7 was considered as better one.

Open Access Minireview Article

Impact of COVID-19 on Indian Seafood Industry and Potential Measures for Recovery: A Mini-review

Susmita Mukherjee, Asik Ikbal, Soibam Ngasotter, Deeksha Bharti, Susmita Jana, Anakhy Mondal, Triparna Pahari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 519-527
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831273

Global seafood sector is going through a massive shock during a global-scale disturbance named “COVID-19 Pandemic”. Restricting national and international trade and traffic was the most needed step to contain the spread of virus; meanwhile it has wreaked havoc on all import-export businesses. Seafood sector, is one of the major pillar behind agricultural export (fisheries sector contributing 1.07% to the Indian agricultural GDP) and blue revolution. But due to uncertainty of the lockdown periods, the Indian seafood sector has crashed, affecting livelihoods of all fishing and related communities, export and supply chain (both domestic and international), demand and consumption etc. The sudden crisis has exposed various shortcomings of the sector and expanded our vision to look ahead of temporary solutions and find long-term sustainability. Unavailability of real-time data from planned surveys are one of the major reasons behind this failure. This article aims to highlight the present scenario of the Indian seafood sector during the pandemic through assessing various news articles, national reports and publications. Further it suggests some recovery steps like building up alternative seafood networks, promoting domestic demand and markets, forming fishing community friendly schemes (medical and insurance), adopting new technologies to prevent and handle any future crisis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Alkylating Mutagens on Rooting Response and Callus Age on Shoot Regeneration of Rough Lemon (Citrus Jambhiri Lush.)

Mudasir Iqbal, Parshant Bakshi, B. K. Sinha, Mohsin Iqbal, Arti Devi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831191

Many species of Citrus and compatible sexual relatives are being used to develop biotic and abiotic tolerant rootstocks and their ability to confer positive stionic effects. Citrus jambhiri is the commercial citrus rootstock in India, deep-rooted well adapted to the diverse agro-climatic conditions. It ensures high yield with large size fruits in most of the scion cultivars and at the same time is resistant to most of the viruses. For in vitro mutagenesis, leaf and epicotyl calli derived shoots were used as explant material. In-vitro mutagenesis is a valuable tool for improvement of a crop, especially when there is a need to add one or two easily identifiable characters in an otherwise well adapted variety, without disturbing its basic genotype. The alkylating agent methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6%, were used for mutagenesis. The mutagenic calli derived shoots were regenerated on MS medium augmented with BAP (3.0 mg/l), followed by rooting in MS medium containing NAA (2.0 mg/l). Percent rooting (29.50-8.33%), (27.11-07.72%), number of roots per shoot (3.11-1.18), (3.12-1.04) and root length (4.13-2.22), (4.15-2.17) decreased with increasing doses of MMS and EMS treatments, respectively. Effect of increasing age of callus showed that callus retained regeneration capacity (3.55%) even after 210 days of culture by repeated sub-culturing. The plantlets were successfully acclimatized in different potting mixtures and highest survival rate (90.35%) was achieved in potting mixture containing garden soil with sand and farmyard manure (1:1:1).

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Attributing Characters and Yield of Mungbean Crop as Affected by Phosphorus, PSB, and Vermicompost

. Shamsurahman, S. B. Singh, Amit Kumar Singh, J. K. Tiwari, Virendra Kumar Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831192

Pulses cover a vast area of the Bundelkhand (UP) and Mungbean is prominent among the pulse crops and it is grown on a larger scale using local varieties entirely in dryland conditions and on residual soil moisture and fertility. In Bundelkhand, farmers grow the crops traditionally and without considering the scientific recommendations. Inorganic fertilizers (synthetic) are an important source of plant nutrients but their continuous and injudicious use posing health and environmental complications. Minimum use of inorganic sources of nutrients and rely on integrated nutrient management is the way to tackle the health and environmental issues due to imbalance and excessive use of inorganic nutrients. Phosphorus, PSB and vermicompost are found to play very important role in boosting the yield of legume crops. This research is, therefore, taken into account to evaluate the response of Mungbean crop to phosphorus, PSB, and vermicompost. The leguminous crops require more phosphorus as it is required for energy transformation in nodules. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) is assumed to have greater significance because it helps to convert insoluble organic phosphates into simple and soluble forms. Vermicompost is a better and rich source of N, P, K, and micronutrients. Besides, containing a good proportion of exchangeable Ca, Mg, Na, etc., vermicompost enhances organic carbon to the soil and meagerly helps to release of nutrients and in turn uptake is improved. A field experiment was performed during Kharif season, 2019 at Agriculture Farm of Banda University of Agriculture and Technology Banda, Uttar Pradesh, India. Results of the study reveals that the basal applications of 75 kg DAP, 5 t Vermicompost (VC) ha-1 and seed treated by Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) led to a significant increase in yield attributing characters and yield and gave by 22.57% more yield advantage than the farmer’s practice. However, the application of higher doses of DAP with VC and PSB gave luxuriant growth to the crop rather than increased yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energetics and Cost Economics of Laying Plastic Mulch in Vegetable Cultivation

. Omprabha, V. M. Victor, A. K. Chandraker, Nawang Palden Bhutia

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 20-25
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831193

The use of plastic mulch in agriculture is increasing day by day due for increasing crop yield. Mulch film are available in different types but plastic mulching requires less efforts. This paper highlights a new developed mulch laying machine for spreading of polyethylene black plastic mulch on soil. Animal drawn plastic mulch laying machine was developed at the SV College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, IGKV, Raipur and was evaluated for its performance by conducting field trials. The average field capacity and average field efficiency was found to be 0.115 ha/h and 71% respectively. The average speed of operation was found 1.35 km/h for developed machine and 0.226 km/h for traditional method of mulch laying. The cost of operation was found to be Rs.1343/ha. Energy requirement of developed machine in mulch laying operation was found 187.34 MJ/ha it was found very less than the energy requirement 754.60 MJ/ha of traditional method of mulch laying. This machine will avoid the wages of labours used for laying plastic mulch and covers the plastic mulch with the soil on its either side edges. Using the mechanical system, the accuracy and ease during plastic laying was achieved.

Open Access Original Research Article

Silica –Gel Drying an Effective Preservation Technique for Value Addition of Orchid Flowers

K. M. Jeevitha, Veena S. Jadhav

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831194

Aim: Demand of dry flowers is cumulative day by day equally in national and international marketplace, as dried flowers have a prodigious potential as substitute of fresh flowers. This study aims to know the effect of Silica-gel drying technique on the quality of Orchid flowers.

Study Design: The experimental research design was adopted and flowers were subjected to Silica-gel drying technique.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was during October 2017- November 2020 in the Department of Family Resource Management, College of Community Science, Dharwad.

Methodology: White and Purple Orchid were selected and collected from local growers. Moisture loss, time taken for drying, Effect on Qualitative parameters were statistically analyzed. Dried flowers were added value through application of color. Dyed flowers were used in development of products such as frames and potpourris. Cost of each product was estimated and 30 consumers selected randomly assessed the products for consumer acceptability.

Results: The results reveal that in Silica-gel drying technique Orchid has taken 5 days to dry completely. Maximum moisture loss was 81-83 per cent. Color of Orchid had faded and appearance became lusterless. Hence value addition of color was required for these flowers. The most suitable value addition was Fabric paints, Oil and Spray paints. Some value added products were prepared from dried orchids such as frames and potpourris. The consumer acceptability of these products was extremely acceptable.

Conclusion: The existing technology has the prospective to employ thousands of people especially to unemployed youths, Schools and College drop-outs, housewives and rural women’s as limitless aesthetic products can be shaped using dry flower technology, it can start up a small scale industry from their householdscan perform exceptionally to begin new markets. There is a necessity to generate adequate consciousness about the potential of this technology by workshops and seminars etc.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Status of Irrigation Water of Kaleshwaram Project Command Area of Nizamabad District in Telangana State

V. Prasad, T. Anjaiah, K. Pavanchandrareddy, P. Laxminarayana, T. L. Neelima

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 34-42
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831195

The present study represents the quality of ground water from Kaleshwaram project command area of Nizamabad district of Telangana state, India during year 2019-2020. Total 72 ground water samples from bore wells were collected randomly from Nizamabad periodically in two seasons i.e. pre-monsoon season (May, 2019) and post-monsoon-season (January, 2020). The ground water samples were analyzed for quality parameters viz., pH, EC, cations, anions, boron. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio and Residual Sodium Carbonate were also calculated for these ground water samples. The results found that all ground water samples from Nizamabad district were neutral to alkaline in reaction and having pH 7.02 during pre-monsoon and 7.48 during post-monsoon season respectively. EC of these water were 1.23dSm-1 and 1.53dS m-1 during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons respectively. Among 72 water samples as per salinity classification 2.8, 23.61, 69.44 and 4.17 per cent water samples during pre-monsoon and 0, 1.4, 90.30 and 8.33 per cent water samples during post-monsoon  were categorized in class C1, C2, C3 and C4, respectively. Among all the cations in ground water Calcium was dominant. Whereas anions CO3-2 + HCO3- are dominant. The boron concentration of ground water was ranged from 0.48 to 0.67 ppm during pre and post-monsoon, respectively. According to sodicity classes, i.e. SAR and RSC of ground waters were 100 and 47.22 per cent during pre-monsoon, 100 and 26.40 per cent during post-monsoon are suitable for irrigation. The positive significant correlation was observed between EC, cations of ground water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Classification of Soils of Harve-1 Microwatershed of Chamarajanagar District, Karnataka, India

Rajendra Hegde, M. B. Mahendra Kumar, K. V. Niranjana, K. V. Seema, B. A. Dhanorkar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 43-54
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831196

Aims: The detailed survey of the microwatershed was carried out by using digitized cadastral map as a base. The objective of the investigation was undertaken to characterize and classify the soils of Harve-1 microwatershed of Chamarajanagar district, Karnataka.

Place and Duration of Study: soil survey was done and soil samples were collected from Harve-1 microwatershed of Chamarajanagar district in the year 2016. The laboratory characterization and soil classification work was done at National Bureau of soil survey and land use planning, Regional centre Hebbal, Bangalore, Karnataka.

Methodology: Using Cartosat-1 and LISS-IV merged satellite data at the scale of 1:7920 were used in conjunction with the cadastral map as a base. Soil profiles were exposed and location of soil profiles was recorded using GPS and studied from each landform for describing morphological characteristic as per the guidelines given in USDA soil survey manual (Soil Survey Staff 2014). Based on the soil-site characteristics, ten soil series were identified using the method employed by Reddy (2006). Horizon wise soil samples were collected, processed and analysed for various properties by adopting standard procedure.

Results: The study showed that, the soils were moderately shallow to moderately deep in depth. The colour of the soils varied from dark red to dark reddish brown. Texture of the soil varied from sandy loam to sandy clay loam in surface and sandy clay loam to sandy clay in subsurface. The structure was weak medium sub-angular blocky to moderate medium sub-angular blocky throughout the profile in all series. The consistency of majority of the soils were friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic in surface and friable, moderately sticky and moderately plastic in subsurface. Soil reaction varied from slightly acidic to alkaline (5.70 to 8.18) in nature. Organic carbon content of the soils was low to high (0.20 to 1.24 per cent). Calcium and magnesium are dominant exchangeable cations followed by sodium and potassium. The CEC of the soils ranged from 3.17 to 25.76 cmol (p+) kg-1. Major proportion of soil series in the microwatershed belonged to the order of Alfisols (Paralitic Rhodustalfs, Typic Rhodustalfs, Typic Haplustalfs and Rhodic Paleustalfs) except Honnenahalli (HNH) series belong to the order of Inceptisols (Typic Haplustepts).

Conclusion: The soils of the microwatershed were comes under the order of alfisols and inceptisols. This generated information can help the researchers, farmers and planners to manage the natural resources for future planning and also to achieve sustainable productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids for Economic Heterosis under Different Soil Moisture Regimes at North Eastern Plain Zone of India

Ashok Singamsetti, J. P. Shahi, P. H. Zaidi, K. Seetharam, Kartik Madankar, J. P. Verma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 55-67
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831198

The present experiment was conducted to understand the effect of soil moisture status on the economic or standard heterosis in fifty maize hybrids for grain yield and flowering traits.  The trials were planted at Agricultural Research Farm, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi in alpha-lattice design with two replications. The analysis of variance revealed the significant differences for grain yield and flowering related traits such as days to 50% anthesis, days to 50% silking and anthesis-silking interval under all the moisture conditions including optimal, managed drought and managed waterlogging conditions. Significant amount of heterosis was observed over the selected check P3502 for all the traits under study; however, the magnitude and direction varied with traits and with soil moisture level. For days to 50% anthesis, hybrids ZH17192, VH112926, VH123021, ZH114250, ZH16929 and ZH16930 were showed significant negative heterosis under all the moisture conditions that explained earliness under both moisture-stress and normal conditions. Among the tested hybrids, VH123021 and ZH16929 were recorded significant negative standard heterosis for flowering traits; and significant positive heterosis for grain yield under all the three moisture conditions. Six hybrids under drought, seven hybrids under optimal and two hybrids under waterlogged condition showed positive standard heterosis for grain yield. Further evaluation of these hybrids at multi-locations and multi-year is advisable to confirm the promising findings observed in our study. This study could be valuable for development of climate-resilient maize hybrids.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Economics of Marketing of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) in Nadia District of West Bengal

Mridul Mondal, Hasrat Ali, Bimal Kumar Bera

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 89-95
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831203

The study on marketing of brinjal conducted in Nadia District of West Bengal discerns that the marketing of brinjal in the study area is completely dominated by the intermediaries depriving farmers to get the remunerative prices for their products and consumers are also paying higher prices. Three dominant marketing channels through which more than 70% of the total production are disposed of have been selected for the present study. Price spread of the three marketing channels taken for the study are estimated to be Rs.675.5/q, Rs.1780.00/q and Rs. 2472.10/q for channel-I, II and III respectively in which the share of net marketing margin retained by the producers /intermediaries for their services 83.65, 67.07 and 62.32 per cent of the price spread in the same sequence., i.e. the amount of price spread increases with the increase in the length of the channel. The producer’s share in the consumer’s rupee are estimated to be 81.77, 62.37 and 54.41 per cent in the same sequence indicating that the channel-I is the most efficient compared to the remaining two channels and channel-II is more efficient than channel-III. Marketing efficiency measured by applying three available methods, namely, conventional, Shepherd’s and Acharya’s are recorded to be 6.12, 3.18, 2.65; 5.49, 1.66, 1.19 and 4.49, 1.74,1.20 for the corresponding three methods for all the three channel which reaffirm the previous observation based on producer’s share in consumer’s rupee. As an efficient marketing system is supposed to safeguard the interest of all involved, a combination of traditional and modern marketing networks equipped with forward and backward linkages may be helpful in protecting the interests of all the competing stakeholders in marketing process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Use Pattern of Zero Budget Natural Farming in Rice Production in Visakhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh State

S. Shrine, K. Umadevi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 111-115
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831207

The study examined the energy use pattern of zero budget natural farming (ZBNF) in rice production. Operation wise energy usage in rice production was calculated in this study. From the results, natural fertilizers and manures were found to be the dominant source of energy and the lowest is seed energy in rice production. The energy use efficiency shows 4.83 MJ per ha output energy utilised per 1 MJ ha-1 input energy. The net energy was found to be 54645.75 MJ per hectare rice production in the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Zinc Nanoparticles and their Antifungal Activity against Alternaria burnsii Causing Blight of Cumin

S. B. Sawant, R. G. Parmar, G. B. Patil, Monil Mankad, Rutul Patel, K. D. Parmar, N. M. Gohel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 116-123
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831208

Zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) produced was evaluated against Alternaria burnsii to see the inhibitory result of the ZnNPs on the growth of fungal mycelium. Physical characterization of synthesized ZnNPs was 68.04 nm in size, Pdi- 0.263, Keps-252.4. Among the twelve treatments, the best treatment was synthesized ZnNPs with concentration (750 ppm) evidenced most in effect with 86.17 per cent mycelial growth is inhibited. The next treatment was synthesized ZnNPs with concentration (250 ppm) giving 79.26 per cent growth inhibition. Followed by treatment commercial ZnNPs with concentration (1000 ppm) giving 53.46 per cent growth inhibition. The next effective treatment was commercial ZnNPs with concentration (500 ppm) giving 44.69 per cent growth inhibition. Followed by treatment of carbendazim 50 WP with concentration (500 ppm) giving 11.51 per cent growth inhibition. The least effective treatment was commercial ZnNPs with concentration (100 ppm) giving 3.22 per cent growth inhibition. There is directly proportional relationship between increased concentration of the ZnNPs and inhibition of per cent mycelial growth of the pathogen is directly proportional. Further, methylene blue staining was done and the physical changes were studied. The hyphae lost their softness, bulges out followed by reduction in the distance between two hyphae. Branched conidia turned round and conidial development was suppressed. On the basis of this result it can be concluded that ZnNPs inhibited the fungal growth by causing physical damage to the fungal mycelium.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-Depth Quantitative Analysis of Saharanpur Wood Handicraft Industry on the Specific Issues of Availability and Supply of Raw Material

Poonam Dubey, S. P. Singh, Vartika Singh, Sunny Dhiman, Ashish Saini, Monika Devi, Pradeep Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 136-144
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831210

The study was undertaken with the objectives to survey the source and chain of procurement process of the various types of wood being used in the market, assess their requirement of the kind of suitable wood preferred for a particular item of woodcraft for marketing in the particular countries and to explore the potential of alternate wood species which can be adopted by an artisan with existing technology/up-gradation of technology. The study was conducted through the collection of secondary data and primary data. The primary data was collected through a preliminary survey, a standardized questionnaire survey of various components of stakeholder’s namely (a) manufacturers and exporters, (b) commission agents/brokers, (c) traders, and(d) artisans. The present study revealed that 58% of manufactures and exporters and 86.38% of craftsmen agreed that the raw material procurement chain starts from the farmer’s field to Middleman then Commission agents and goes to the Craftsman. The majority of stakeholders responded that the middleman is the most important in the supply chain of the wood procurement process. The survey indicated that there is 0-5% incremental cost in every stage of the raw material procurement process and the approximately total incremental cost of wood is between 5-10% due to the existing supply chain. The data analysis related to a sequence of most demanding wood species for wood carving work indicated that 60% of commission agents/brokers responded for the sequence of Mango>Shisham>Poplar>Other, whereas 56.50% manufacturers and others. 83.33% commission agents/brokers, 85.71% manufacturers, and exporters, 97.87% traders, 98.26% craftsman responded negatively to the existence of imported wood species in the Saharanpur wood market.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Nitrogen Levels on Physiological Response, Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes

Rajesh Kunta, Ramesh Thatikunta

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 145-152
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831211

A field experiment was conducted during 2011-12 to evaluate the efficiency of varying nitrogen fertilizer rates on growth and yield parameters, along with nitrogen use efficiency with two nitrogen levels 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 as main treatments and twenty six rice genotypes as sub treatments. Application of appropriate level of nitrogen fertilization is a major objective to increase nitrogen use efficiency by rice varieties. Among the genotypes, MTU-1001 recorded the maximum grain yield of 5021 kg ha-1 even under application of 60 kg N ha-1 with maximum NUE (Nitrogen Use Efficiency) in 60 kg N ha-1 (83.68) and minimum in 120 kg N ha-1 (45.53). NUE did not increase linearly with the amount of nitrogen application and higher nitrogen levels showed significantly lower NUE values. Maximum yield can be attributed to maximum SCMR (SPAD Chlorophyll meter reading) values, more photosynthetic rate, more tillers and panicles, more number of grains hill-1, maximum filled grain percentage and minimum spikelet sterility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Bedroom Design in Elderly Housing

R. Unesha Fareq, T. Neeraja

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 162-168
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831213

The study aimed to know the factors contributing to the design of a bedroom in elderly housing. Sixty elderly women in the age of sixty and above who were able to perform their daily tasks independently were chosen for the study. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to draw the sample from the randomly selected study locations. Ex post facto research design was adopted for the study. The area selected to conduct the study was Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh. The study was conducted in the year 2019-2020.The design guidelines for bedroom in elderly housing proposed by various organizations and authors served as a base for identifying the features to measure the existing bedroom in the elderly houses. An interview cum observation schedule was designed for collecting information about the existing bedroom in elderly houses. The elderly houses were physically observed by the researcher. The existing bedroom features were measured in terms of above the recommended guidelines, exactly as per the recommended guidelines, below the recommended guidelines with scores 3,2 and 1 respectively. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for the existing bedroom features. Analysis of Variance was done to find out the relationship between independent and dependent variables of the study and Regression analysis was performed to know the factors contributing towards bedroom design. The clearance spaces in the bedroom between was found to be satisfactory in slightly more than half of the study sample. The Significant mean difference was found between the existing bedroom and (i)type of house and (ii)family income. The two major variables that contributed to designing a bedroom as per the design guidelines were the ‘Type of the house’ followed by ‘Family income’ of the elderly people.

Open Access Original Research Article

AMMI Biplot Analysis for Genotype X Environment Interaction and Stability for Yield in Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Under Different Production Seasons

K. Rukmini Devi, V. Venkanna, N. Lingaiah, K. Rajendra Prasad, B. Satish Chandra, Y. Hari, P. Jagan Mohan Rao

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 169-175
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831214

The aim of the study was to determine the genotype x environment interaction and stability performance of fifteen rice hybrids in three different production seasons during 2016, 2017 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Warangal, Telangana.  Data was subjected to the additive mean effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis, results indicated that significant genotype x environmental interaction (GEI) influenced the relative ranking of the hybrids across the seasons. It was evident from AMMI analysis that first two principal components accounted for 94.09%, which is enough to explain the variability among the hybrids. The hybrids, G9 (WGRH 18), G8 (WGRH-17) and G12 (WGRH-22) and G3 (WGRH-10), exhibited high grain yield. The AMMI 2 biplot revealed that the rice genotype, G15 (WGL-14), close to the origin indicated non sensitive nature of this genotype with the seasons and highly stable genotype across the environments with low yield potential when compared to hybrids. Whereas the rice hybrids, G9 (WGRH-18), G8 (WGRH-17), G3 (WGRH-10) and G5 (WGRH-14), were also close proximity to origin and have limited interaction with the seasons. The rice hybrid, G9 (WGRH-18), has high mean yield with stable performance over three environments being the overall best can be considered for the release after through conformation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of DTPA Extractable Micronutrients in Soils of Central Telangana Region of Telangana

M. Ram Prasad, P. Ravi, K. Surekha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 189-194
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831220

Forty soil samples from ten pedons of the Central Telangana region, Telangana were studied for the vertical distribution of DTPA extractable. Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn and their relationship with some soil properties. Soil pH, CaCO3,, organic carbon and particle-size distribution had a strong influence on the distribution of these micronutrients. The content of the micronutrient increased with the an increase in organic carbon and decreased with an increase in pH and CaCO3. There was a decreasing trend for the distribution of these micronutrients with respect to depth. As per the critical limit prescribed for Zn, and Fe, 55 and 12% of the soil could be rated as deficient in available zinc and iron, respectively. Copper and manganese were found to be adequate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Piglets in North East India

Hosterson Kylla, Tapan Kumar Dutta, Parimal Roychoudhury, Prasant Kumar Subudhi, T. C. Tolenkhomba, Rajkumari Mandakini, . Lalhruaipuii, Lallianpuii Kawlni

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 195-205
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831221

Aim: The research is aimed to study the antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR) of Escherichia coli from fecal samples of pre-weaned piglets in North Eastern states (NE) of India.

Materials and Methods: A total of 457 fresh fecal samples were collected from pre-weaned piglets of organized (n=225) and unorganized (n=232) farms of 4 North Eastern states of India, namely, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland state. Samples were collected from diarrheic (n=339) and non-diarrheic (n=118) piglets in different seasons during the study period. The samples were processed for isolation of E. coli and detection of their putative virulence genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results: A total of 1286 E. coli were isolated. Forty-two isolates (3.26%) were found to be atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) and thirty isolates (2.33%) belongs to shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC) in which 28 isolates were positive for stx2 gene and two isolates possessed hlyA gene. All the 1286 isolates showed wide variation (0.15-78.69%) in resistance pattern against the 15 antimicrobial agents; of which there is higher resistance against cefalexin (78.69%), amoxycillin (77.13%), ampicillin (72.31%) and enrofloxacin (60.73%). The isolates showed low resistance to imipenem (0.15%), ceftriaxone (8.32%), ciprofloxacin (8.39%) and streptomycin (8.94%). Higher prevalence of AMR to numerous antimicrobials in this study was observed in isolates of organized farm compared to unorganized farming system.

Conclusion: The present study exhibited variation in AMR in different NE states of India as well as in different farming system which indicate that drug consumption and resistance are closely related.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of River Valley Project in South Pennaiyar Catchment of Tamil Nadu, India

S. Manivannan, O. P. S. Khola, K. Kannan, B. L. Dhayani, V. Kasthuri Thilagam

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 225-236
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831225

Aims: The impact of comprehensive interventions in erosion control, improving water availability, development of agro-forestry, sustainable management of natural resources, enhancement of agricultural productivity and socio-economic aspects of the farmers was studied. Assessment of effectiveness of watershed development programme, identification of major issues and lacunae in project implementation across the watersheds also has been studied.

Study Design: Multistage stratified sampling technique was adopted in selection of study watersheds (secondary sampling unit-SSU), farmers (primary sampling units-PSU) and structures for detailed surveys.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in South Pennaiyar catchement in Dharmapuri, Salem, Villupuram, Vellore, Thiruvannamalai districts of Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted for three years period during 2012-14.

Methodology: Sample based before and after project evaluation approach, employing budgeting techniques. By employing stratified random sampling method 15 study watersheds (SWS) were selected and the benchmark data collected by the project implementing agency (PIA) at the time of project planning were used for the study. All the collected data were analyzed through budgeting techniques or appropriate statistics. The cash flow table was developed which were further aggregated along with other miscellaneous costs of the project to generate total cost and benefit stream of the project.

Results: The evaluation study reveals that runoff reduction of 8 to 10 percent and soil loss varies in the range of 1.1 to 1.9 t ha-1yr-1 after the project compare to 4.1 to 4.9 t ha-1yr-1 before the project shows the reduction of 3 t ha-1yr-1. Gully control structures made their impacts in terms of arresting silts at the rate of about 10.1 cum yr-1 in one watershed and stabilized the gullies. Increased water table in the range of 0.32 and 0.93 m with increased duration of water availability in wells for more than 9 months and increased recuperation rate (1.8 to 6.5 per cent) were observed. An additional surface storage capacity of 26.4 ha - m per watershed was created due to watershed interventions. The Net Present value of the project is about Rs. 52,238 lakhs without considering intangible benefits. The economic soundness of the project is also amply indicated by BCR (1.65:1) and IRR (53%) and the whole investment made in the project can be recovered within seven years. The NPV of the project further improved by inclusion of monetary value of the nutrient due to reduced soil erosion. The value of NPV was more than Rs. 63,968 Lakhs with 1.72 BCR and 65.5 % IRR.

Conclusion: River valley project in South Pennaiyar catchment of Tamil Nadu is economically viable and recommended to be taken on priority for sustainable agricultural growth in the river / reservoir catchments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Rhizobium and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Inoculation on Growth and Yield Performance of Lathyrus (Lathyrus sativus L.) in Chhattisgarh Plains

Balram Sahu, Anup Kumar Singh, Anand Kumar Chaubey, Ravindra Soni

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 237-247
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831226

The study was conducted at the College of Agriculture and Research Station, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidylaya, Janjgir- Champa (Chhattisgarh), during the year 2017-18 Rabi Season to Study the Influence of Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the performance of field-grown Lathyrus (Lathyrus sativus L) under climatic conditions of Chhattisgarh plains. In the present investigation total of 8 treatments T1 -Control (No inoculum no fertilizer), T2- Recommended Dose of Fertilizer RDF(N:P: K::20:40:20), T3- Rhi.HG-25   (Std.) +  PSB-H-27 (Std.), T4 Rhi.HG-25 +  Korba PSB-118,  T5 - Rhi.L-3 Lathyrus   +  PSB-H-27,  T6 Rhi.L-3 Lathyrus   +  Korba PSB-118,  T7- Rhi.L-11 Lathyrus +  PSB-H-27 , T8 Rhi.L-11 Lathyrus +  Korba PSB-118. Recommended Dose of Fertilizer (RDF) T2 recorded maximum and significantly higher value of plant height over rest of the treatments at 45, 60 DAS and at maturity except T7 (Rhi.L-11 Lathyrus + PSB-H-27) treatment which was statistically similar at maturity. A general perusal of the data of the fresh plant reveals that T2 (Recommended Dose of Fertilizer, RDF) recorded the maximum and significantly higher value of fresh weight over the rest of the treatments at a later stage of crop growth i.e 60 DAS and at harvest. A critical perusal of the nodule count data revealed that treatment T8 (Rhi.L-11Lathyrus+ KorbaPSB-118) was found superior over all the treatments showing the superiority of combined use of local strains over other strains and RDF. In case of grain yield the maximum grain yield were observed in 1451.39 kg/ha due to application of T8 (Rhi.L-11Lathyrus+ KorbaPSB-118) followed by T2 RDF 1415.28 kg/ha, T4 (Rhi.HG-25 +KorbaPSB-118)1388.89 kg/ha, T7 (Rhi.L-11 Lathyrus+ PSB-H-27)1344.44 kg/ha, T6 (Rhi.L-3 Lathyrus­ + PSB-H-27)706.94 kg/ha, 12.77 kg/ha, T5 (Rhi.L-3 Lathyrus+ PSB-H-27) 1216.67 kg/ha, T3 (Rhi.HG-25 + PSB-H-27) 1219.94kg/ha. Maximum grain yield was observed due to the application of effective local strains of rhizobia and PSB which also enhanced the nodulation activity due to an increase in the available soil phosphorus. The maximum and significantly higher value of grain yield straw yield (1118.06 kg/ha) was observed due to treatment T8 (Rhi.L-11 Lathyrus+ Korba-PSB-118) which was statistically superior over all the treatments except T2 RDF.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extent of Adoption of Recommended Practices of Cotton Cultivation by the Farmers

B. Savitha, G. Ravi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 248-255
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831227

An attempt was made to assess the adoption behaviour of the cotton growers about the recommended practices and in-situ incorporation of cotton stalks by the respondent farmers. The study was conducted in four villages of Sadashivpet mandal of Medak district of Telangana purposively and a total of 120 farmers at the rate of 30 from each village were selected by following the simple random sampling technique. An interview schedule was prepared for collection data pertaining to the adoption of recommended practices and in-situ incorporation of stalks by the respondents. From the study, it could be concluded that, with respect to the adoption, majority of the farmers (70.00%) fell under medium category of adoption followed by low (17.50%) and high (12.50%) categories. With regard to the practice wise adoption, seeds and sowing, plant protection measures, land preparation and inter cultivation operations were adopted by more than eighty percent of the respondents. Among the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents except age all other factors posed significant positive association with the extent of adoption of the recommended practices of cotton. The study also revealed that, only 35.83 per cent of the farmers were aware about the in-situ incorporation of cotton stalks in to the soil and cent percent of the farmers were aware of using the stalks as fuel/fire wood for cooking purpose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Putative Molecular Markers Associated with Nut Weight and Kernel Weight and Four Growth Traits in Cashew

E. Eradasappa, G. S. Mohana, J. D. Adiga, Siddanna Savadi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 262-274
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831229

Aim: To identify putative molecular markers linked to some useful traits in cashew using SSR markers in the F1 population.

Place and Duration of the Study: Study conducted at ICAR-Directorate of Cashew Research, Puttur, Karnataka, India during 2013-17.

Methodology: Population for the study comprised of 83 F1 plants developed through crossing tall variety Ullal-3 as female parent with dwarf accession NRC-492 as male parent which was planted in the field at 6m x 6m spacing during the year 2009. It was phenotyped along with parents during the year 2017 for the 13 growth and yield related traits and genotyped using 32 polymorphic SSR markers from cashew, almond, pistachio and mango. Single marker analysis was deployed to identify the markers linked to traits by SPSS software.

Results: results revealed three markers such as AL 29, IM 31 and IM 28 to be significantly associated with some traits. Marker AL 29 from Almond species was linked to traits stem girth, nut weight and kernel weight with an explained phenotypic variance of 7.9%, 5.6% and 5.4%, respectively. Marker IM 31 from mango species was associated with stem girth, kernel weight, tree height, mean tree spread, nut weight and presented phenotypic variance of 17.6%, 5.7%, 8.2%, 4.5, 4.2% in that order. While the marker IM 28 from mango species showed linked with stem girth and intermodal length with phenotypic variance of 7.6%, 7.5%, 10.4% correspondingly.

Conclusion: The present study has identified three markers AL 29  (from Almond) , IM 28 and IM  31 (from Mango) linked to six traits viz., stem girth, tree height, mean tree spread, intermodal length, nut weight and kernel weight with the limited polymorphic markers using Single Marker Analysis. However, further studies are aimed to validate the linked markers prior to using them in marker assisted selection in cashew.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Standard Heterosis for Yield, Quality and its Attributing Characters in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Hybrids under Aerobic Cultivation

P. Madhukar, S. Vanisri, P. Senguttuvel, Ch. Surender Raju, S. Narender Reddy, M. Sheshu Madhav

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 275-285
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831230

Field experiments were conducted for development and evaluation of aerobic rice hybrids during2015-16 to 2016-17 years. In the first experiment sufficient amount of variability was observed for grain yield per plant and its components among 125 genotypes evaluated in aerobic condition. Among these eight genotypes were the top ranking yield in aerobic conditions and good restorers tested by Test Cross Nursery and Rf3, Rf4 fertility restorer gene screening. Than 32 hybrids were produced involving 4 CMS lines (CMS23A, CMS59A, CMS64A and IR68897A) and 8 testers (SVHR-3005, NH-12-103R, KMP-128, MTU-1001, KMP-175, SV-315-081R, RNR-21280 and MTU-1075) and evaluated along with three checks (viz., hybrid check, KRH-2, inbred checks, MTU-1010, MAS-946) under aerobic situation and  carryout standard heterosis analysis, to identify best heterotic hybrids over local checks. CMS23A x SV-315-081R manifested high heterotic effects (>20%) for grain yield per plant over the standard checks, besides for important components. Few more CMS59A x KMP-175, CMS59A x RNR-21280, CMS23A x MTU-1001, IR-68897A x MTU-1075 and CMS23A x MTU-1075 were also identified as potential hybrids in view of higher amount of heterosis. For quality, CMS64A x RNR-21280 (hulling percentage, milling percentage, head rice recovery and kernel elongation ratio) and CMS23A x SV-315-081R (head rice recovery, kernel length, L/B ratio and Kernel length after cooking) were best heterotic hybrids. Two crosses viz., CMS59A x SVHR-3005 and CMS64A x SVHR-3005 expressed negative heterosis for kernel breadth and positive heterosis for kernel L/B ratio which was desirable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Indian Mustard Germplasm on the Basis of Morphological Traits and SSR Markers

Narendra Singh Rajpoot, M. K. Tripathi, Sushma Tiwari, R. S. Tomar, V. S. Kandalkar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 300-311
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831234

The genus Brassica is one of the most important oil seed crops in India with high degree of genetic diversity. In present study, genetic diversity was studied in forty germplasm lines and eight cultivars of Indian mustard using morphological traits and SSR markers. Morphological characters were taken for days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), length of main raceme (cm), number of primary branches/plant, number of secondary branches/plant, number of silique per plant, number of seeds per silique, 1000 seed weight (g) and seed yield per plant (g). Total 50 SSR markers were used for characterization of these lines, out of which 7 SSR markers were highly polymorphic between all the germplasms of mustard. An UPGMA phonogram was constructed for all 48 Germplasms and the similarity coefficient ranged from 0.00 to 0.91. Number of alleles ranged from 3 to 4, genetic diversity ranged from 71% to 65% with average value of 67%, heterozygosity raged from 20 to 10% with average of 12% and PIC value for markers ranged from 0.65 to 0.59 with mean PIC value 0.61. All seven SSR primers showed PIC value above 0.5 (50%) indicating high genetic diversity in the studied plant material.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cluster Front Line Demonstration Evaluation Programme on Bengal Gram (Cicer arietinum L.) Variety (NBeG-3) in Nizamabad District of Telangana

M. Suresh, R. V. T. Balazzi Naaiik, B. Kranthi Kumar, P. Vijaykumar, M. Swetha, D. Vijayalaxmi, B. V. Rajkumar, M. Bhavya Manjari, C. Padmaveni

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 312-317
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831236

The present study was conducted under Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Rudrur operational area during 2017-18 to 2019-20 in the rabi seasons with 150 frontline demonstrations across twenty three villages, seven mandals of Nizamabad district of Telangana. The results of demonstrations showed that farmers could increase the Bengal gram productivity notably by switching over to improved variety and adoption of improved production technology. In front line demonstrations, it was observed that the improved Bengal gram variety NBeG-3 recorded the higher yield (2078 kg/ha) compared to the farmers' practices variety (1775 kg/ha). The demonstration yield was increased over farmer’s practices was 12.11%. Technology gap and the technology index values were 422 kg/ha and 1689, respectively. The yields were noticeably low in local practices with old variety. Adoption of improved technology including new variety, timely supply of critical inputs with proper guidance by the scientist, frequent monitoring visits to diagnose the problems and take applicable corrective measures, field days etc., might be the causative factors for high yield with good quality in all demonstration plots.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative Assessment of Health Apps: An Emerging Market Study

Garima Goyal, Sonika Sharma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 318-325
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831237

Aims: Increased usage of health apps has led to need for their quality assessment for safeguarding interest of various stakeholders. This study attempts to undertake qualitative assessment of health apps in an emerging market, India.

Study Design: Health apps were evaluated by the experts and secondary data was used for rating of the health apps. Indian food data base was used for evaluating content accuracy.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Community Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, between January 2019 and August 2019.

Methodology: Top 10 health apps, identified from response of 400 users, are assessed qualitatively by expert raters using App Quality Evaluation Questionnaire. Content accuracy in terms of macronutrient measurements is assessed using Mean Absolute Percent Error (MAPE). Relationship between average user ratings and various aspects of qualitative assessment is explored using linear regression.

Results: Majority of the apps performed well in terms of functionality, interactivity, security and aesthetics. Relatively poor performance is observed in terms of accountability, behavior change techniques and scientific coverage. Regression analysis indicate that Functionality (p=0.035) and engagement (p=0.024) features significantly influence user ratings and overshadow scientific coverage and accuracy (p=0.798). MAPE values indicate considerable variations from Indian food data base across the apps especially in terms of protein and energy.

Conclusion: Quality assessment of top 10 health apps, in Indian scenario, indicates that the apps are proficient on functionality. At the same time, the apps fair poorly in terms of scientific content and accountability. There is a pertinent need for statutory regulations as well as voluntary efforts for improving the scientific content. Collaborative efforts of app developers with scientific institutions should be promoted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Soil Fertility Attributes in Selected Districts of Bundelkhand Region of Central India

Mahendra Prasad, Sonu Kumar Mahawer, Prabhu Govindasamy, Sunil Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 326-334
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831238

An observational study was carried out to assess the soil fertility attributes of three districts (i.e. Jhansi, Datia and Tikamgarh) of the Bundelkhand region of central India. Soil samples were collected randomly from 0-15 cm soil depth using a soil auger with a diameter of 5 cm and followed the standard protocols for assessing the soil fertility attributes. A total number of samples were 58 (randomly selected sites). The soil reaction was neutral to strongly alkaline (pH 7.28-9.71) in nature.  The electrical conductivity (EC) values were low (0.01- 0.89 dS m-1) indicating that of no harmful effect on crop growth. Most of the soils were found under low category of soil organic carbon (SOC), available nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The available potassium (K) and sulphur (S) were found in the range between 68.32 to 781.76 kg ha-1 and 7.97 to 273.24 kg ha-1, respectively. With respect to DTPA extractable micronutrients i.e. copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were in sufficient range but boron (B), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) were in low category. Based on the Soil Nutrient Index (SNI), the soils of the study area were found in low fertility status for N and P and medium in SOC and K. The SNI for S was ranging from medium to high fertility category. Thus, SOC, N, P, K, B, Fe and Mn were the key soil fertility constraints in the Jhansi, Datia and Tikamgarh districts of the Bundelkhand region. The balanced use of chemical fertilizers and micronutrients (B, Fe and Mn) based on the soil test results along with the combination of bio-fertilizers and organic manures as an integrated nutrient management (INM) approach could greatly help in maintaining the soil fertility and sustainable crop production in Bundelkhand region of central India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Soil Fertility and Yield of Kharif Greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] in Bundelkhand Region

Sandeep Sahu, Narendra Singh, A. K. Chaubey, Aniket H. Halhapure, Gaurav Shukla

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 345-351
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831242

An agronomic investigation was conducted during Kharif season 2019 at the research farm of Banda University of Agriculture and Technology, Banda (U.P) to study the effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on soil fertility and yield of Kharif Greengram (Vigna radiata L.) in Bundelkhand region. An experiment was laid out in randomized block design replicated thrice with 10 treatments comprised with application of organic and inorganic fertilizers and their combinations. Application of Rhizobium culture @ 25 g/kg of seed along with Vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1; FYM @5 t ha-1and 100% RDF was found to be responsible for highest availability of nitrogen (233.90 kg ha-1), phosphorous (21.19 kg ha-1) and potassium (239.20 kg ha-1) in soil after harvest of crop. It was also resulted in higher grain yield (11.41 q ha-1), straw yield (27.45 q ha-1) as compared to other combinations and control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Analysis and Fabrication of High Clearance Self- Propelled Foliar Applicator

Pankaj Malkani, Sunil Kumar Rathod, K. R. Asha, Tapan Kumar Khura, H. L. Khuswaha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 367-378
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831245

In this paper Finite element method (FEM) for design and development of self- propelled foliar applicator is presented. Foliar application is a method for feeding nutrients directly to plants for enhancing nutrient use efficiency through foliar applicator. The major components of the foliar applicator were engine (3.5 kW), gearbox (4F+1R), chassis (1.2 x 0.96 m2), sub-frame assembly, spraying diaphragm pump (Model-SFWP1-055-070-31, capacity 20 lm-1 at 4.4 bar), fertilizer storage tank (225 l). The main objective of this FEM simulation analysis is to find out the stress, deformation and strain induced in chassis and sub-frame assembly of foliar applicator for given boundary condition.  A Computer Aided Design of foliar applicator was developed using Creo-parametric 1 software and then analyzed in FEM mode by using Creo simulation1 software. FEM static analysis resulted in maximum von mises stress 200.750MPa and182.638MPa, maximum deformation 2.81 mm and 1.29 mm and max strain 0.001047 and 0.000636 for chassis and sub-frame assembly respectively. Maximum stresses in both didn’t exceed the respective yield points which signified designs, can be used for fabrication.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Perceptions, Attitudes and Adaptions towards Climate Change in Selected Semi-Arid Districts of India: Implications from an Adaptation View

K. Ravi Shankar, K. Nagasree, G. Nirmala, C. A. Rama Rao, B. M. K. Raju, C. N. Anshida Beevi, Jagriti Rohit, P. K. Pankaj, D. B. V. Ramana, I. Srinivas, S. Vijaya Kumar, K. Sindhu, Ch. Srinivasa Rao

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 379-395
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831246

The effects of climate change on agriculture are being witnessed all over the world. Rainfed agriculture is likely to be impacted severely in view of its’ high dependency on monsoon, the likelihood of increased extreme weather events due to aberrant behavior of south west monsoon. Anantapur, Akola, Solapur and Bijapur districts in India were selected for the study because, rainfed area is more than irrigated area and rainfall is the most critical factor affecting crop production in these districts. Major perceptions of climate change in the four rainfed study districts were prolonged dry spells, rise in temperatures, and delayed and shorter rains. Major adaptation measures towards climate change in four study districts were insurance, change in planting dates and cropping pattern. Majority of farmers positively agreed with attitude towards climate change statements which augurs well for current and future adaptation actions. As farm-level adaptation becomes an increasingly important across the world, policies at all levels will need to be accounted for appropriate factors, including perceptions and how perceptions affect human behavior and adaptive actions. Adaptation through transformation (in the present study diversify to livestock and work as labor) has the potential to become an inclusive, engaging and empowering process that contributes to alternative and sustainable development pathways which needs to be encouraged. The present findings contribute to research on climate change adaptation decision making both as a function of intra-individual processes such as knowledge, attitudes; and extra-individual factors like policies, infrastructure, information, forecasts etc. along with socio-economic contributory factors which deserve due attention in the light of scaling up adaptations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-Chemical Properties of Palmyrah (Borassus flabellifer L.) Natural and Value Added Products

M. Chandra Surya Rao, D. V. Swami, P. Ashok, D. R. Salomi Suneetha, R. V. Sujatha, V. Sekhar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 396-401
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831248

Palmyrah palm has great economic potential and every part of the palm is useful in one way or the other.The palm is found growing widely in southern states of India. The palmyrah products like tender fruit endosperm (nungu), neera, jaggery and tuber flour are not commercialised as the value addition in palmyrah is not standardised. Even though palmyrah is an economically important palm, it has not received proper attention from the agricultural research workers, probably on account of the fact that it is very slow growing palm found mostly in the wild state. In this context knowing of physico chemical properties and development of value added products and popularizing the same is essential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on the Action of Herbicide Combinations with Varying Irrigation Regimes for Control of Grassy Weeds in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Kairovin Lakra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 415-423
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831253

Phalaris minor and Cynodon dactylon is the very problematic grassy weeds of wheat crop are responsible for significant yield reduction. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted at CSAUAT, Kanpur during Rabi season 2017-18 and 2018-19 in split-plot design with four replication having four irrigation regimes in main plot viz. irrigation at CRI and active tillering stage (I1), irrigation at CRI + jointing + booting (I2), CRI + active tillering + booting + flowering stage (I3) and  irrigation at CRI + jointing + booting + flowering + milking stage (I4), and eight factors of weed management (W1-weedy check, W2-two hand weeding at 20 and 40 days after sowing (DAS), W3-sulfosulfuron 25 gha-1at 35 DAS, W4- pendimethalin (pre-em) fb WCPL-15, 400 gha-1at 35 DAS, W5- broadway (carfentrazone ethyl 20% + sulfosulfuron 25%WG) 100 gha-1at 35 DAS, W6- halauxafen + penxasulam 23.5%, 75 gha-1at 35 DAS, W7- halauxafen - methyl 1.21% w/w + fluroxypyr at 35 DAS and W8- clodinafop- propargyl 15% + metsulfuron 1%, 400 gha-135 DAS) were allocated to sub plots for assessing the effect of these treatments on grassy weeds. Irrigations at crown root initiation (CRI) and active tillering stage (I1) significantly reduce the density and weight of grassy weeds with highest WCE and crop resistance index (CRI) over other irrigation regimes. However, I4 irrigation recorded highest weed effectiveness (WE) and crop dry matter yield (CDMY) followed by I3. All the weed management options are significantly superior over weedy check. Among herbicidal treatments, lowest weed density and their weight, WE and the highest WCE, CRI, WPI and CDMY was recorded with the application of broadway (W5) followed by W8. Reducing irrigation frequency and the post emergence application of broadway are the best option for managing grassy weeds in wheat, but for higher CDMY more number of irrigations required.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Scale to Measure the Attitude of Famers towards Backward and Forward Linkages in Cotton Cultivation

K. Raghavendra Chowdary, S. V. Prasad, P. V. Satya Gopal, G. Prabhakara Reddy, G. Mohan Naidu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 424-429
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831254

The aim of this study is to develop an attitude scale to measure the attitude of farmers towards backward and forward linkages in cotton cultivation. It has been a long time need for a proper scale to measure the attitude of farmers towards backward and forward linkages in cotton cultivation, it was thought necessary to construct a scale for the purpose. Keeping this in view, an attempt has been made to develop a scale for measuring the attitude of farmers towards backward and forward linkages in cotton cultivation. Method of summated rating scale, by Likert [1], was used. Twenty four statements were selected from 45 statements for which ‘t’ values were worked out, whose values were highest i.e., with t-values more than 1.75.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Post-Harvest Treatments on Physiochemical Properties of Indian Jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) during Ambient and Cold Storage Conditions

Jitendra Singh Shivran, L. N. Bairwa, M. R. Choudhary, R. K. Jat, Asha Jat, Mahendra Yadav

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 430-438
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831255

The effect of post-harvest application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and gibberellic acid (GA3) on physiochemical properties of ber fruits were studied. Mature ber fruits cv. Umran were dipped in aqueous solutions of calcium chloride (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) and gibberellic acid (20, 40 and 60 ppm), for 5 minutes and packed in netlon bags for storage under ambient and cold storage conditions. Ber fruits treated with 1.5% CaCl2 could be stored for longer duration in both storage conditions with higher retention of physiochemical quality of the fruits. Results revealed that physiological loss in weight, fruit weight, palatability rating, titratable acidity showed a declining trend with advancement of storage period and other parameters i.e. total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, and total sugars showed an increase up to 9 days in ambient storage condition and up to 12 days in cold storage condition, but after 9 days in ambient storage condition and after 12 days in cold storage condition, a decline trend was observed in these parameters respectively. Storage life was extended to 9 days and 15 days of ber fruits treated with 1.5% CaCl2 under ambient and cold storage conditions, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Double Hybrid of Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) Fed on Leaf Raised under Different Fertilizer Schedules

Naveena Nazim, M. R. Mir, M. F. Baqual, . Noor-ul-Din, Farida Akther, S. A. Mir, Sameera Qayoom

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 439-444
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831256

Aim: The present study was aimed to see the performance of silk worm (Bombyx mori L.) double hybrid fed on leaf raised through splitting the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers.

Study Design:  Completely Randomized Design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: College of Temperate Sericulture (CoTS) Mirgund, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir (SKUAST-K), during 2017 and 2018.

Methodology: The present investigation was carried out at the experimental farm of College of Temperate Sericulture-Mirgund. Goshoerami a popular variety of mulberry in the region was used for the study. Disease free layings (dfl’s) of the popular double hybrid were obtained from the Germplasm Bank maintained at College of Temperate Sericulture (CoTS) Mirgund. These dfl’s were incubated, brushed and reared up to 3rd instar en masse following the standard rearing procedure. After 3rd moult, 3 replications of 100 larvae in each treatment were maintained. Different larval and Cocoon parameters were recorded during the course of experimentation. Standard procedure was followed to record observations. The data was compiled and analyzed.

Results: T11 recorded the shortest values for total larval and fifth instar larval duration being statistically at par with treatments/ fertilizer schedules T12, T9, T10, T3, T4, T1, T2 and T7. Weight of ten mature larvae was recorded higher in treatment T14 being statistically at par with treatments T13, T16 and T15 respectively. Cocoon yield per 10,000 larvae by number was recorded highest In T14 treatment, which was recorded statistically at par with treatments T13 and T16 respectively. Cocoon yield by weight was more in treatment T14 being at par with treatments T13 and T16. Pupation rate was found higher in treatment T14 being at par treatment T13.

Conclusion: Double hybrid performed better under parameters like- total as well as fifth instar larval duration in case of fertilizer schedule - T11 (N3P2K1), while as in case of larval weight, cocoon yield by number and by weight and pupation rate, the hybrid performed better under T14 (N4P1K2) fertilizer Schedule.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mustard Yield Prediction using State Space Models

Ekta Hooda, B. K. Hooda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 483-494
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831268

Forecasting of agricultural outputs well in advance has always been the focus of numerous researchers due to its direct implications on various areas of the society. This study aims to develop State Space Models (SSMs) with weather as an exogenous input over the commonly used ARIMA and regression analysis for yield prediction for mustard crop in eight districts of Haryana state in India. These models are time-varying parameter models and take into account for changes that are known over time in structure of the framework. SSMs with various kinds of growth trends were tried and model performances were compared using AIC and BIC criteria but the growth trend represented by polynomial splines of order-2 with the weather as an exogenous input was chosen as the most appropriate model for mustard yield prediction in all the eight districts under study. Based on the developed models, post-sample yield predictions for the next three years, i.e. 2016-17 to 2018-19 have been obtained and the deviations from actual values are also calculated which came out to be acceptable in an agricultural setup.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rank correlation of seed and Fibre Yield Characters in Jute (Corchorus olitorius)

Anirneeta De, Anita Hansda, Anita Roy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 503-510
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831270

The present study aimed to explore the Rank correlation of seed and fibre yield characters in Jute (Corchorus olitorius). Jute cultivation availability of quality seed remains a potential factor as it deals with the fibre. Studying the correlation between both seed and fibre characters at the same time in jute is a complex matter since the sowing season, agricultural practices vary in both the cases. Varieties producing high fibre and seed yield are necessary to meet the deficit in seed supply for the jute producing farmers of West Bengal, India. In this study, the experimental material consisted of thirty six jute (Corchorus olitorius L) crosses along with two check varieties. Fibres were harvested at 120 days and the seeds at maturity. The variability in most of the yield (fibre and seed) contributing characters was mainly due to genotype with some extent of environmental influence. To obtain a clear understanding of the inter-relationship between seed and fibre characters a rank correlation was performed instead of simple correlation.  A strong positive correlation was found which helped us in finding lines with both high seed and fibre yield. Furthermore, a fibre quality test was also conducted for estimating the fineness and strength of the fibre.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interrelationship and Cause - Effect Analysis for Yield and Yield Attributing Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes

B. Soundharya, Ramya Rathod, Firdoz Shahana, Y. Swathi, P. Jalender Naik, M. Venkataiah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 511-518
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831272

The basic aim of plant breeders is to improve the yielding potential of existing varieties along with creation of new high yielding varieties. This experiment was carried out to study the association of yield and yield attributing traits along with path coefficient analysis among twenty rice genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed the existence of significant differences in genotypes for all the characters studied. Grain yield had positive significant association with ear bearing tillers/m2 (0.5395**/0.6264**), number of filled grains per panicle (0.5236**/0.5774**) and test weight (0.2575*/0.2560*) and days to 50 percent flowering (0.3294**/0.3648**), It indicates that these characters are important for yield improvement. Path coefficient analysis revealed maximum positive direct effect of number of filled grains per panicle (1.4128/1.8979), test weight(1.1812/1.5927), days to fifty percent flowering (0.2404/0.1669), ear bearing tillers (0.0159/0.1224) and panicle length(0.0710/0.0813). Selection for the traits with positive association and direct effects will be useful for the improvement in yield of rice through breeding programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Character Association and Path-Coefficient Analysis for Yield and Yield-Related Traits in 112 Genotypes of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

S. K. Singh, Pratibha Singh, Mounika Korada, Amrutlal Ratilal Khaire, D. K. Singh, Sonali Vijay Habde, Prasanta Kumar Majhi, Rudresha Naik

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 545-556
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831275

Character association and path coefficients for sixteen different yield and yield-contributing traits were evaluated for 112 rice genotypes at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during Kharif-2019. The experiment was conducted in alpha lattice design and observations were recorded in five randomly selected plants for sixteen traits. The data were analyzed in WINDOSTAT 9.3 ver. for correlation and path analysis. The correlation analysis showed very strong correlation of grain yield per plot with biomass yield per plot. Days to first flowering showed very strong correlation with days to 50% flowering and days to maturity. Days to 50% flowering showed very strong correlation with days to maturity. Spikelets per panicle showed very strong correlation with grains per panicle and grain weight per panicle. Number of grains per panicle showed very strong correlation with grain weight per panicle. Path-coefficient analysis showed that biomass yield per plot, grain yield per plant, grain weight per panicle, grains per panicle, spikelets per panicle, harvest index, days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity and panicle length had a high and positive direct effect on grain yield per plot. Correlation and path coefficient analysis envisaged characteristics such as biomass yield per plot, grain weight per panicle, grains per panicle, spikelets per panicle, first flowering, 50 percent flowering and days to maturity showed positive direct effect and very strong correlation with grain yield per plot, indicating the effectiveness of these traits in selection. Path analysis revealed that traits like biomass yield per plot, harvest index, grain yield per panicle exerted highest positive direct effect on grain yield per plot. Thus, these characters which contribute to the grain yield could be exploited for future breeding programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Effect of Training Systems on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Malini Grown under Protected Conditions

D. Shivaraj, P. Prasanth, D. Lakshminarayana, T. Ramesh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 539-544
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831276

The present investigation was conducted during 2016 and 2017 in Greenhouse at Vegetable Research Block, College of Horticulture Mojerla, Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Mulugu to clear the delusion among the farmers on the effect of different training systems on cucumber grown under protected conditions. The experiment comprised of a total of twelve treatments; Three training systems viz., T1 (Single Head Training System), T2 (Umbrella Training System), and T3 (Low Middle Training System) were followed. Training T1 was best in regards to vegetative and yield attributing traits. Among the treatments of training the maximum numbers of fruits per vine (23.08), yield per vine (5.90 kg), yield per hectare (133.08 t/ha), marketable yield (128.02 t/ha) and lowest percentage of deformed fruits (4.01%) were recorded in T1. Data on vine length and leaf area at different intervals of growth phase were recorded and results indicated that they differed significantly for both parameters T1 recorded highest value.  The results obtained showed the maximum output from single head training system (T1) indicating its significance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Potential of Different Dates of Sowing and Varieties on Productivity of Aerobic Rice in Assam

Bidisha Borah, Kalyan Pathak

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 557-565
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831277

An investigation was carried out to determine an optimum micro-climate regimes for different promising varieties of rice for realizing higher yields under aerobic conditions. A field experiment was conducted in the Instructional Cum Research (ICR) Farm of Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam during autumn season of 2017. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. The treatments consisted of four micro-climatic regimes (M) in main plot viz., sowing of seed on 15th February (M1), 1st March (M2), 16th March (M3) and 1st April (M4) along with four different rice varieties (V) viz., CR-Dhan 205 (V1), CR-Dhan 203 (V2), CR-Dhan 204 (V3) and Inglongkiri (V4) in sub plot. The results of the experiment revealed that among the different micro-climatic regimes, the micro-climate associated with 1st April recorded positive effect on micro-climate related and yield parameters in terms of canopy temperature, light intensity, soil moister content, soil temperature, dry matter accumulation, leaf area index, number of effective tillers and grain yield (3004 kg/ha), followed by the micro-climate associated with 16th March sown crop. Among the varieties evaluated, CR-Dhan 203 recorded the highest value in terms of number of effective tillers (187/m2) followed by Inglongkiri, CR-Dhan 204 and CR-Dhan 205. The highest grain yield of 2860 kg/ha recorded in rice variety CR-Dhan 203 was significantly superior to that of other varieties except Inglongkiri. In terms of economics, the crop sown on 1st April recorded the highest net return (INR 51755 /ha) and B:C ratio (2.30) which was found to be the greatest.

Open Access Review Article

The Prospect of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Precision Agriculture for Farming Systems Productivity in Sub-Tropical India: A Review

R. K. Naresh, M. Sharath Chandra, . Vivek, . Shivangi, G. R. Charankumar, Jakkannagari Chaitanya, Mohd Shah Alam, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Prasant Ahlawat

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 96-110
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831205

Agriculture is becoming more integrated in the agro-food chain and the global market, while environmental, food safety and quality are also increasingly impacting on the sector. It is facing with new challenges to meet growing demands for food, to be internationally competitive and to produce agricultural products of high quality. To cope with these challenges, Agriculture requires a continuous and sustainable increase in productivity and efficiency on all levels of agricultural production, while resources like water, energy, fertilizers etc. need to be used carefully and efficiently in order to protect and maintain the soil quality and environment. Consequently, Agriculture needs help in handling the complexity, uncertainty and fuzziness inherent in this domain. It requires new solutions for all aspects of agricultural farming, including precision farming and optimized resource application. Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology helps various industries to improve production and productivity. In agriculture, AI also allows farmers to increase their productivity and reduce negative environmental impacts. AI is changing the way our food is processed, where emissions from the agricultural sector have decreased by 20%. Together with precision agriculture (PA) and other emerging technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) can play a key role in modernizing agricultural practices and achieving the goal of improving the productivity of alternative arable cropping systems. In offering progressive change with advanced approaches, AI's future in agriculture is well ahead. The aim of this paper is to review various agricultural intelligence applications and to reduce the use of colossal amounts of chemicals with the aid of these technologies, resulting in reduced spending, improved soil fertility and increased productivity. With AI tools and machine learning, farmers can improve yields, protect their crops and have a much more reliable source of food.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Drones in Modern Agricultural Applications

Abdulgaffar Doddamani, Sabia Kouser, V. Ramya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 216-224
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831224

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent the technological advance used for precision farming. It provides high-resolution crop images and precise indices are implemented, valuable outputs are generated for farm management decision-making. The current paper review and addresses the different applications of UAVs in agricultural field. This paper provides the brief overview of the current drone technologies for agricultural applications, including crop health monitoring and farm operations. The new regulatory system is also deliberated, and its implications for use in agricultural. Also outlined the potential future directions for technology in agriculture and several instances are provided which are made possible through the use of UAVs in agriculture.

Open Access Review Article

Silver Nanoparticle: Synthesized and Antimicrobial Activity on Target Plant Pathogens

. Shantamma, K. T. Rangaswamy, N. B. Prakash, Raghavendra Achari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 335-344
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831239

The growth rate of agricultural production is reducing worldwide every year due to mainly biotic and abiotic stresses including plant diseases. Various organic and inorganic methods are being used to protect plants from disease causing pathogens. Among them, use of pesticides is the most prevalent one incurring millions of dollars on pesticides globally for control of plant diseases. In recent years, environmental hazards and ill effects caused by indiscriminate use of pesticides have been widely discussed. Therefore, agriculture scientists are finding an alternative antimicrobial compounds such as nanoparticles for the management of diseases with least adverse effect on nature and ecosystem. Herein we reviewed the synthesis, antimicrobial efficacy and compatibility of silver nanoparticles which could help to develop the novel technology for crop protection.

Open Access Review Article

General Overview of Malnutrition under five children in low income countries and solution to mitigate

Caresma Chuwa, Anju K. Dhiman, Deepika Kathuria

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 466-482
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4831266

Malnutrition is a broad concept that includes both under- and over-nutrition. It is the most serious public health problem and the leading cause of child mortality. About a third of children in developing countries are either underweight or stunted. Micronutrient shortages affect more than 30 percent of the world's rising population. Under nutrition, there is a mechanism whose results are routinely spread not only in later lifestyles, but also into future generations. It is a severe problem that affects children under the age of five in developing countries, resulting in stunted growth, muscle weakness, and underweight. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are still common, and they frequently occur in conjunction with a general lack of nutrients. Malnourished children are at risk of developing marasmus, kwashiorkor, anaemia, rickets, and blindness. Malnourished children have a higher risk of dying from diarrhoea, malaria, or pneumonia than children with perfect nutritional status. Effective malnutrition prevention and treatment, including the use of low-cost food available in communities, is urgently needed. These meals contain sufficient nutrients, such as protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals, to combat malnutrition in infants and children in developing countries. The focus of this review article is on promoting low-cost, locally available ingredients in groups to alleviate malnutrition in toddlers and children in low-income countries.