Open Access Original Research Article

Educational Level and Financial Status: Decisive Factors for Level of Spirituality and Psychological Well-being among Elderly

Ritu Singh, Manisha Mehra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4631181

Aim: The present study aims to assess the level of spirituality and psychological well being among institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly across their educational level and financial status.

Sample: For the current study, a total of 200 elderly including institutionalized elderly (n1 =100) and a comparable sample of non-institutionalized elderly (n2 =100) were drawn through census and lottery methods respectively.

Sample Selection: The institutionalized elderly were selected from Society Registration Act (SRA) recognized old age homes of Uttarakhand and non-institutionalized elderly were drawn from the nearby localities adjacent to the old age homes.

Tools: Level of spirituality and psychological wellbeing of the respondents was assessed using Spiritual Belief Scale by Deshmukh and Deshmukh (2012) and Psychological Well Being Scale by Sisodia and Choudhary (2012) respectively.

Results: Analysis of level of spirituality among elderly across educational qualification revealed that spirituality increased significantly with higher education. Graduate elderly were significantly more spiritual than those less educated and post graduates were observed to be even significantly more spiritual than graduates. Same trend was observed on psychological well being component. Graduate elderly were significantly more psychologically well than those less educated and post graduates were observed to be even significantly more psychologically well than graduates. Comparison across financial status revealed that elderly with fixed regular income had higher spirituality and psychological well being as compared to those with no fixed regular income.

Conclusion: Socio-economic factors like educational level and financial status are strong determinants of level of spirituality and psychological well being among elderly. Spirituality and psychological well being both pave way for smooth ageing. They provide support for counterbalancing the inefficiencies caused by ageing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morpho-physiological Changes in Chilli under Drought and Heat Stress

V. Rajeswari, D. Vijayalakshmi, S. Srinivasan, R. Swarnapriya, S. Varanavasiappan, P. Jeyakumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 68-77
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4731187

Drought spells and heat stress have become quite common and agricultural production would experience a lag in near future. The combined effect of heat and drought stress is expected to cause negative impact on crop growth. Hence, an experiment was framed to assess the morphological and photosynthetic characters of chilli under combined drought and heat stress. Three different genotypes of chilli viz., K1, TNAU chilli hybrid CO 1, Ramanathapuram gundu were subjected to seven drought and temperature treatments. The experiment was designed in factorial completely randomized design (FCRD) at temperature controlled Open Top Chambers (OTC) and drought stress was gravimetically assesed. The results showed that, morphology and photosynthetic characters were affected irrespective of genotypes. The maximum reduction in plant height and leaf area was observed when plants were grown under 40% pot capacity and temperature of + 5°C from the ambient condition. The study also revealed that, the reduction of gas exchange parameters at 40% PC and A + 5°C with yield reduction of almost 76 per cent irrespective of genotypes. Stress treatments reduced the fruit length, fruit diameter compared to control in all genotypes. Stress Tolerence Index was calculated to study the physiological basis under combined drought and heat stress. The optimum level of stress by STI of 0.501 in 60% PC and A+ 3°C was standardized to study the basic physiological functions of chilli.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Development of Self-Propelled Power Unit for Cono Weeder

B. Krishna Kanth, A. K. Shrivastava, Jitendra Bairwa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4731182

Weeds are the major reason for economic losses in paddy production. Despite advances made in weed control, they continue to cause serious crop losses. Presently in India, majorly weeding in machine transplanted paddy fields was done by manually operated cono weeder which is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The objective of this research was to design and develop a self-propelled unit for manually operated cono weeder. A self-propelled power unit is developed at the workshop of CAE, JNKVV, Jabalpur, with the power by the Honda engine of 1.3 (hp) petrol engines. It is a compact low weight machine, self-propelled with a positive drive system by using a chain and sprocket transmission system. The working width of the developed weeder was 150mm. It was found that the self-propelled power unit with cono weeder has a field capacity of 0.033ha/h with 73.92% weeding efficiency and 89 % field efficiency. Similarly, for manually operated cono weeder has a field capacity of 0.0202 ha/h with 76.68 % weeding efficiency and 86 % field efficiency. Among the two weeders, man-hours are required for a hectare field is 30.35 man-h/ha for a self-propelled unit with a cono weeder as compared with a manually operated cono weeder i.e., 49man-h/ha. The operational cost of weeding was maximum in manually operated cono weeder of 1531.25 Rs/ha as compared with self-propelled unit cono weeder of 1403.43 Rs/ha.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Social Background of Kaibarta Community in Assam

Poli Konwar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 21-26
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4731183

Assam is well-known as the land of heterogeneous population with ethnic diversity. The society in the ancient days was predominantly a non-Aryan society in Assam.  The people of Assam can be divided broadly into tribal and non-tribal categories from another angle. It is to be noted that the non-tribal category are included into three major groups such as the General Caste (GC), the Scheduled Castes (SC) and the Other Backward Classes(OBC). There are sixteen SC, twenty seven Scheduled Tribes (ST) and twenty nine communities are listed as OBC in Assam. The people of all communities are basically honest, truthful, straightforward and trustworthy in Assam. They are more interested to maintain social peace and harmony in Assam. They have moved away more or less from their traditional social life style after independence in Assam. The members of the Kaibarta community are playing a very important role in social development of Assam. The culture of the Kaibarta community is very rich in Assam. In this context, the present study is an attempt to discuss about the social background of Kaibarta community in Assam.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exceeding Potassium and Zinc Application Rate above Farmers Practiced Rate Improves Dry Matter Partitioning, Photosynthetic Attributes, Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Dryland Condition

Subhradip Bhattacharjee, V. M. Bhale, Pramod Kumar, Sheilendra Kumar, Deepak Kumar, Bhagchand Bairwa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 35-44
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4731185

Aims: This field experiment was conducted to compare the combined application of different rates of potassium and zinc application against the standard farmers practised application rate based on dry matter distribution, net photosynthesis, transpiration rate, sub stomatal C02 concentration, stomatal conductance, grain yield and quality attributes (protein and carbohydrate content and yield). 

Place and Duration of Study: This short-term field trial was conducted on the Agronomy Research Farm of Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, Maharashtra, India on the Kharif (Post monsoon) season of 2016.

Methodology: The experiment was conducted in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with two factors i.e., potassium and zinc, each having three levels. The experiment was replicated thrice. The three potassium levels were 30, 60 and 90 kg K2O ha-1 while the zinc was applied 20, 30 and 40 kg ZnSO4.7H2O ha-1 as three distinctive levels.  A short duration dwarf maize cultivar Ravi-81 was used for the experiment.

Results: Perusal of experiment results confirmed that potassium and zinc have positive interaction even in short duration crop under dryland condition. The higher dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate, photosynthetic attributes, yield, protein content, protein yield, and carbohydrate yield has been recorded with the application of potassium at a rate of 60 kg K2O ha-1 along with zinc application of 30 kg ZnSO4.7H2O ha-1 which has been found to be statistically superior over farmers adopted practice (30 kg K2O ha-1 along with zinc application of 20 kg ZnSO4.7H2O ha-1).

Conclusion: Combined application of potassium and zinc has positive interaction on each other, and the increased rate is needed to meet the demand for short duration high yielding maize crop for enhanced growth, yield and quality attributes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimizing the Community’s Supports in Counter-Terrorism Operations: A Sticks – Carrots Game Theoretic Model

M. O. Oladejo, I. J. Udoh, A. O. Abam

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 45-67
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4731186

A terrorist group’s (TG) ability to withstand attacks and recovered from sudden high strength depreciation after a major counterterrorism operation, as well as the Security Agencies’ (SA) ability to execute successful credible counter-terrorism operation is a function of both their individual bureaucratic structures and the level of community’s supports each organization is able to optimize within the period of operation. To study the security implications of undermining a given community’s optimal supports, we present and analysed a two-person two-periods evolutionary game theoretic model for an interaction between the SA and the TG; each playing either the “Sticks” or the “Carrots” or mixed strategies to win the community’s optimal supports. In the symmetric game variant, the result of the analysis shows that if the operational cost drops by 80%, then the SA playing the “Stick” may enjoy 50:50 chance of winning the community’s optimal supports. But if the cost rises by at least 30%, then SA playing the “Sticks” would be at-most 33.3% advantageous, while the “Carrots” approach would yield at-least 66.7% advantage. In the asymmetric variant, if the operational cost drops by 80%, then SA playing the “Sticks” would enjoy 100% chance of winning the community’s optimal supports, while the “Carrots” would yield at most 20% advantage. But if the cost rises by at least 30%, then SA playing the “Sticks” would enjoy 50:50 advantage. Comparatively, the TG would enjoy 50:50 chance of winning the community’s optimal supports by playing the “Sticks” if the cost of operation drops by 90%. But if the cost rises by at least 20%, then TG playing the “Sticks” would enjoy at most 33.3% while the “Carrots” would yield at least 66.7% advantage. Thus, the cost of operation is the major determinant of either player’s strategic approach. Under the mixed strategy, if the benefit of operation exceeds its cost, then SA playing the “Sticks” is an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS), otherwise, combining the “Sticks and Carrots” simultaneously would yield an ESS. Summarily, the SAs’ stake in terrorism prevention and control using the “Sticks” approach is proportional to its operational cost and vice versa. Therefore, considering the capital intensive as well as the intelligence deficient characteristics of the “Sticks” approach, the SA cannot prevent/control terrorism using the “Stick” instruments only. Rather a viable “Carrots” approach or its combination with credible “Sticks” instruments would be necessary and sufficient to win the community’s optimal supports for effective terrorism prevention and control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transfer of Technology through Social Media in Pandemic Perspective

Katiki Srikar, K. Raghavendra Chowdary, M. Tejaswini

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 78-84
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4731188

Currently the entire world is passing through a crisis situation caused by corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). All activities are shuttered during lockdown but not the primitive activity i.e. Agriculture. Due to Pandemic, the extension professional contact is more digital than physical contact. In recent past extension professionals are using social media as an effective tool for transfer technology due to the enormous penetration of the internet and Smartphone’s among the majority of rural India. The present study was conducted with an objective to focus on the change in usage of social media during pandemic by extension professionals. A structured questionnaire was developed to interview the Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) extension professionals under ATARI, Kolkata (zone- 5) through Google forms. The usage of social media was studied with few indicators viz., time spent on social media, the purpose of using social media and individual trend of using social media in comparison with general and pandemic conditions. The result from the study revealed that extension professionals had a significant positive change in the time spent on social media during the pandemic situation. A drastic change was observed in the time spent categories of 4-6 hours and more than 6 hours (increased by 11.21%) due to lockdown situation. Extension professionals started to reach more participants during pandemic through social media platforms. The majority of the respondents (increased by 15.88%) justified that they could reach 100-500 farmers during pandemic with the help of social media. Positive improvement was observed in the purpose of using social media like sharing knowledge to farming community, using social media for discussion, and to promote new technological advances with the overall raise of 26 percent. More than fifty per cent (60.74%) of total respondents felt that their trend in using social media was at a medium level and only 18.69 percent of respondents felt a high trend in social media usage. From the study we can justify that the extension professionals had a positive change in the usage of social media platforms in a productive way to transfer the technology to the farming community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlates of Available Livelihood Options among Rural Youth in Hills of Uttarakhand State, India

Divyata Joshi, S. K. Kashyap

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 85-90
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4731189

Uttarakhand state has an immense opportunity for agriculture-based livelihood options yet the out-migration has not reduced. One reason behind may be the lack of awareness among youth hence, a study was conducted to compile the possible agricultural occupation for the area and identify the level of awareness among the youth about these livelihood options. The young people of the study were found to have low level of awareness for majority of the ventures particularly for those not being practiced traditionally in the area. This paper discusses the relationship between profile characteristics of youth and their level of awareness. The data was collected through multistage sampling and analyzed using SPSS software. The results revealed that majority of the respondents were young, females, educated up to higher secondary level, and belonged to medium size family. Majority of the respondents belonged to farming background, were students and unmarried. All of them owned television and majority of them owned mobile phones. They had medium level of mass media exposure, information seeking behaviour and cosmopoliteness and low level of extension agency contact. Among the socio-economic, personal, communication characteristics; age, extension agency contact and information seeking behaviour had a significant positive correlation with awareness about selected livelihood options related to agriculture in hills of Uttarakhand. A communication strategy can be formulated to facilitate contact of extension agencies with youth and more number of need-based trainings should be initiated for youth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fertigation and Mulching on Growth and Yield of Guava under High Density at Various Stages of Growth in Coastal Odisha

Lakshmi Poojitha Challa, B. P. Behera, P. C. Pradhan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 91-97
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4731190

An experiment was conducted on Guava with four treatments and viz., three levels of fertigation i.e., 100%, 80%, 60% of Recommended Dose of Fertilizer (RDF) with mulching and the control refers to drip irrigation with 100% RDF in soil application. The variety used in experiment is Cv Arka Amulya with a spacing of 3 m× 2.5 m. For fertigation purpose, water-soluble fertilizer of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium is used. The results showed that vegetative growth parameters viz., plant height, girth, number of primary branches were significantly affected and canopy spread was non-significantly affected at various stages of the plant growth. The maximum plant height (2.89 m), canopy area (2.16 m2), girth (19.78cm), number of branches (6) found in 100% RDF through fertigation with mulching at the harvesting stage of the crop. The interaction effect of mulching and fertigation showed significant effect on both the vegetative and yield parameters.

Open Access Review Article

A Hybrid Cryptographic Scheme for Improving Cloud Security Using ECC and TDES Algorithms

Simranjit Kaur, Lokesh Jain

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 27-34
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4731184

The evolving cloud technology is capable of accommodating volumes of business processes. This feature attracts many individuals and organizations to store their data over cloud. But there are many security issues that require a deep insight. In this research, articles and surveys on cloud security have been reviewed to identify the issues. Efforts have been made to increase cloud data security by devising a hybrid cryptographic algorithm namely Hybrid Elliptic Curve Cryptography -Triple Data Encryption Standard (ECC-TDES). The hybridized algorithms make data more secure and immune to malicious attacks. The proposed algorithm was applied to database of a cloud-based web application and tested with audio, video, image and text files ranging between 10-100 kb file sizes to record performance metrics such as: encryption time, decryption time and accuracy. The recorded parameter values were compared with individual ECC and TDES algorithms. The findings indicated that ECC-TDES takes more time to encrypt/decrypt files but gives highest accuracy with 0.01% error rate.