Open Access Original Research Article

Level of Knowledge and Challenges Associated With Practice of Dental Implants among Dental Practitioners in Selected Hospitals in South East, Nigeria

Samuel Chinonyerem Okoronkwo, Peter Chidiebere Okorie, Marcus Ikechukwu Onyemobi, Chidinma Sonia Obiekwe, John Emaimo, Raphael Onyejiaka Azubuine, Esther Chinwedu Okoronkwo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 27-35
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4531157

Aim: This study is aimed at ascertaining the level of knowledge and challenges associated with the practice of dental implants among dental practitioners in selected hospitals in South East, Nigeria.

Study Design: the study employed cross sectional study design.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out within six months (September 2018 to March 2019) in selected hospitals and clinics in South-East, Nigeria.

Methodology: Data were collected using structural pretested questionnaire administered to 117 purposefully selected consenting respondents (Dental Professionals). Data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially using SPSS version 20. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance and data generated were subjected to percentage findings presented by the use of tables. Data collected were analyzed and discussed.

Result: the result affirmed female respondents were more than male with 59.0%, indicating Dental Therapist as majority in proportion with 64%. On quality of implant shows 64.9% and 56.4% on comfort and function which indicates it as a good quality, 64.9% poor availability and 49.6% awareness and knowledge. While inferentially, using Pearson Chi-Square showed a significant relationship of 177.552; df = 16 @ P=0.05 between profession of respondents and knowledge of dental implant materials/devices types while using ANOVA showed a significant relationship with F =42.147; df =4 @ P=.05; knowledge of dental implant materials and assessment of dental implant to aesthetics on oral cavity, F =77.760; df =4 @ P=.05 and  knowledge of dental implant materials and assessment of dental implant to retention on oral cavity, F =54.985; df =4 @ P=.05.

Conclusion: from the results obtained, accredited dental implant as an appliance capable of obviating most of dentures shortcomings which depends on contra-indication and indication of it, and its challenges in the profession. Although there are challenges associated with dental implant awareness and application in Nigeria. Recommendations and tips on successful further studies were given.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil and land Suitability Assessments towards Sustainable Rice Production in the Northern Zone of Ghana

Prince M. Gyekye, Enoch Boateng, Adams Sadick, Justice Ankomah Baffoe, Bernard T. Kabutey, Samuel O. Mensah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 36-51
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4531158

Rice has become the second most important cereal crop and a primary staple food in Ghana. However, domestic rice production falls below its demand, resulting in over 50% rice import per annum. The Government of Ghana has responded by introducing policies to intensify domestic rice production, especially in Ghana's northern zone, where over 50% of local rice is produced. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify and classify soils within the catchment areas of Lonto, Sabonjida, Buntum, Djadema and Wiesi towns in Northern Ghana. The soils were then evaluated for their suitability for valley rice production, under irrigation. The study identified eight soil types (Lima, Lima-variant, Sirru, Lapliki, Kpelesawgu, Changnalili, Kasele and Wenchi series) in the selected study areas. Lima series was the most extensive soil type and was found at all the sites except Djadema site. The soils were generally rated moderately suitable for rice, with the most suitable soils being Sirru and Lapliki series. Groundwater lateritic soils of Changnalili and Kasele series were rated not to be suitable. The general fertility of the soils was low, which calls for sound soil nutrient and water management. The study is expected to serve as baseline information to help guide decisions of improving per capita rice yield and reducing household food insecurity and poverty levels in Northern Ghana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Current Issues in Water Supply Systems and Implications for Sustainable Urban Water Management in Limbe, South West Region of Cameroon

Baba Adamu, Ndi Humphrey N., Balgah Sounders N.

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 52-74
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4531159

Water supply system has played a significant role in the growth, development and wellbeing of cities. Until now, meeting the need of city residents in terms of availability, reliability, and access to a good quality water supply is a major challenge facing many denizens of the 21st Century due to unprecedented urban growth and urbanization rates. This study is out to examine the current issues and challenges to water supply systems in Limbe. The study adopted the mix method approach which involves triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. Primary data were obtained from field observations, interviews and the administration of 383 questionnaires to households and stakeholders. Secondary data were obtained from relevant official documents, published and unpublished sources relevant to water supply systems. Satellite imageries and ArcGIS were used to describe the pattern of growth in built-up areas between 1986 and 2019. Data from the questionnaire were entered using Epi Data Version 3.1, analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science Standard version 21.0 and Microsoft Excel and presented in the form of tables, figures, plates and maps. Findings revealed that, although the water supply accessibility by utilities has improved significantly, the reliability, distribution, flow frequency, supply, price and quality are still low. The inaccessibility and unreliability in the water supply have turned most households to alternative sources with poor quality. Unsustain urbanization and urban growth are occurring through infills in city remaining open spaces and ‘out spill’ and expansion at the outskirt without a concurrent increase, upgrading or extension of water supply infrastructural systems resulting to congestion, conflict over allocation, long-distance trekking to source water, deterioration of basic social services, pollution, inaccessibility amongst to ensure efficient water supply systems and sustainable urban water management. The paper, therefore, calls for the rehabilitation and renovation of dilapidated water supply structures, extension and upgrading basic services, limit urbanization and urban growth, encourage the construction and use of alternative water sources, community participation amongst others for sustainable urban water supply management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender-based Genetic Variability of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb, Populations Using, RAPD, ISSR and SCoT Markers

Shabnam Bano, Sumaiya Ansari, Meena Choudhary, U. K. Tomar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 75-83
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4531160

Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. is an economically important and multipurpose dioecious tree species of India, mainly used for fodder and timber. Gender-based genetic diversity of five populations of two sites (Jodhpur, Rajasthan and Deesa, Gujarat) of A. excelsa was assessed. A total of 42 RAPD, 20 ISSR and 23 SCoT primers were screened for DNA amplification of 232 individuals. Out of which only 25 primers (13 RAPD, 6 ISSR and 6 SCoT) were found polymorphic. The SCoT markers were showed the highest value for PIC, MI, Rp value, Nei’s gene diversity and Shannon’s index, as compared with the other two markers. Female individuals in all five populations had slightly higher genetic diversity as compared with male individuals. A high level of genetic diversity (55%) was detected within the populations of male and female individuals. High gene flow (6.70) and low genetic differentiation (0.069) values were found between Jodhpur and Deesa sites. Principal component analysis for all populations were accounted for 48.7% of the genetic variation. The Mantel test showed significant correlation (R = 0.178, P = .01) between genetic and geographic distances. The present study showed that SCoT markers were best for genetic diversity assessment in A. excelsa over RAPD and ISSR markers. High gene flow and low genetic differentiation in A. excelsa indicates its poor population fragmentation despite long geographic distances.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Small Scale Material Handling Machine for Automated Storage and Retrieval System (ASRS)

Saif Ullah Iqbal, C. B. Yeo, Umar Nirmal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 84-105
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4531161

The current works deals with the design and development of an Automated Storage and Retrieval System (ASRS) machine for Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). The work involved investigating ASRS machine features and operating procedures, evaluating related hardware, software and communication modules for the machine. The work explored on the different options of hardware and software modules offered in the current market and further selected the suitable one for the ASRS machine development. Several design considerations and the limitations faced during the process of the project development and implementation are given. Arduino was used as the coding system for the Arduino UNO board while stainless steel 305 and aluminium was used as the main frame in fabricating the ASRS machine. Lastly, a final working prototype of a fully-developed ASRS machine with dimensions of: 80cm by 73cm by 94cm (length by width by height) is presented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic Sources on Biological Properties of Vertisols in Cotton

Manchala Santhosh Kumar, S. M. Bhoyar, Leena Dajurao Karangami, G. Ranjith Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 106-113
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4531163

A field experiment was conducted at the farm of Cotton Research Unit, Central Research Station, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, during kharif season 2015-16 to study the effect of organic cotton on biological properties of vertisols. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 10 treatments comprising organic sources viz. (T1 – Farm yard manure (FYM) @ 5 t ha-1, T2 -  vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1, T3 - FYM @10 t ha-1, T4 - vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1, T5 - In-situ green manuring with sunhemp, T6 - Castor cake @ 500 kg ha-1, T7 - FYM (source of 15 kg P2O5) + green manuring with  sunhemp, T7 - FYM (source of 15 kg P2O5) + green manuring with  sunhemp, T8 - Neem cake @ 500 kg ha-1, T- FYM 5 t ha-1 + Neem cake @ 500 kg ha-1 and  T10 - Absolute Control). Results revealed that application of FYM @ 10 t ha-1 recorded significantly highest bacterial, fungal population during flowering and boll bursting stages of cotton. However, highest actinomycetes population was recorded by the application of vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 at flowering stage and FYM @ 10 t ha-1 at boll bursting stage of cotton. Significantly highest seed cotton yield was obtained with the concentrated organic manure i.e.  Neem cake @ 500 kg ha-1 and remained at par with Castor cake @ 500 kg ha-1, FYM 5 t ha-1 + Neem cake @ 500 kg ha-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Food Security and Nutritional Availability of Farmers in Tribal Areas of India: The Complexity and Challenges

Sankar Dayal Mahato, Swagata Ghoshal, Arindam Ghosh, Monirul Haque, Anwesha Mandal, S. K. Acharya, Amitava Biswas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 114-124
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4531164

Aims: The major objectives of the study are to estimate and elucidate health, nutrition and calorie Intake of farmer in their perspectives of relation and interaction, the general status of the operating factors of the research locale in terms of nutrition and food accessed by the target respondents, the variables as well as factors, in the forms of dependent and interdependent variables and interaction amongst and between them.

Study Design: The locale was selected by purposive as well as simple random sampling techniques and the respondents following cultivation had been interacted and were selected by the simple random sampling method.

Place of Study: Villages Sidpur and Gobindapur of Purulia-1 block of Purulia district in West Bengal were purposively selected for the study.

Methodology: In this study 60 respondents following cultivation have been interacted and are selected by the simple random sampling method. A preliminary interview schedule has been administered to understand the knowledge, perception and attitude of the people towards nutritional availability concept, communication and extension system, challenges faced due to food insecurity. The collected data had been put into multivariate analysis. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences V20.0 (SPSS) of IBM was used for correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, step-down regression analysis and path analysis.

Results: Independent variables family size (x3), family income (x5), family expenditure (x6) and health hazards (x7) have been found to exert strong and determining contribution to estimate dependent variable self-consumption of rice production (y) and the set of economic and ecological variables as selected for the study.

Conclusion: The present study has envisaged the nutritional availability and intake of calories and it should be conceived as one of the most important predicted factor and to be estimated through a set of predictor factors like family capability, home food access, personal resources etc. A nutrition professional advisory should be made to advice individuals, families, and groups on how to improve diet, lifestyle, and attitude to promote optimal health. These problems can be overcome by effective planning and allocating more funds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation between Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia and Serum Magnesium and Copper Levels in Dhaka City

Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Md. Ekramul Islam, Ashik Mosaddik, Md. Saiful Islam, Md. Nazmul Huda, Md. Quddusur Rahman, Firoza Begum, Sk. Mizanur Rahman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 125-131
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4531165

Background: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a condition when a newborn has an excessive amount of bilirubin in the blood and is one of the most prevalent problems in   neonates. Many studies reported that copper and magnesium play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to find out the correlation between the level of magnesium and copper with hyperbilirubinemia.

Methodology: Serum bilirubin was assayed with colorimetric method by the use of diazotized sulfanilic acid reaction. A photometric automated method was used to determine the levels of magnesium and copper in the serum of neonates in both controls group (162) and cases group (220).

Results: In the present study a significantly higher levels of Mg was found in hyperbilirubinemia of newborn infants when compared with control groups (23.67 ±2.33 mg/L versus 19.74 ±2.18 mg/L respectively and p value <0.001 which was significant) and correlation between hyperbilirubinemia and magnesium also significant (p value <0.001). Copper levels was significantly higher in hyperbilirubinemia of newborn infants (0.74 ±0.08 mg/L) compared with control groups (0.41 ±0.12 mg/L), where p value was <0.001, which was significant and correlation between hyperbilirubinemia and copper also significant (p value <0.001).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that current study showed the concentrations of magnesium and copper levels were found to be significantly greater than control groups and may have a correlation with neonatal jaundice.

Open Access Review Article

Current Status of Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Different Traits and Marker Assisted Breeding in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) – A Review

Aswini Nunavath, Venkatraman Hegde, K. Gopala Krishna Murthy, V. Venkanna

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4531155

Chickpea is one of the most important pulse crops having estimated genome size of 738 Mb. The crop is affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses causing significant yield reduction. During the recent past, some biotic stresses like fusarium wilt, ascochyta blight, botrytis grey mould and abiotic stresses like drought, heat and salinity were found to reduce the productivity, thereafter, these demands for development of high yielding early maturing chickpea varieties with resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Due to the advent of molecular techniques and availability of highly polymorphic and co-dominant microsatellite and other molecular markers, development of genetic maps for chickpea has progressed significantly. Molecular markers are now considered better than morphological and physiological characters for being stable, unaffected by environmental influences and easily detectable irrespective of their growth and development stages. The mapping of genes / QTLs for various traits like flowering time, yield and yield related traits, resistance to fusarium wilt, ascochyta blight, BGM, drought, salinity, heat may be useful in developing improved varieties of chickpea besides deeper understanding of genetics underlying the inheritance of the characters. The knowledge on mapped genes / QTLs for various traits of interest could help in integration of genomics-assisted breeding through various approaches like Marker Assisted Back Crossing, introgression of superior alleles from wild species through Advanced Backcross QTL, Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection and Genome Wide Selection for improving chickpea.

Open Access Review Article

Review on IoT Based Precision Irrigation System in Agriculture

S. Vinod Kumar, C. D. Singh, K. Upendar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 15-26
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4531156

Precise irrigation plays an essential role in agricultural production and its management. Based on current conditions and historical records, profitability in the farming sector depends on making the right and timely operational decision. For the last two decades, especially in India, climate change, groundwater depletion, and erratic variation in rainfall have affected crop production significantly.  Due to advancements in technologies and reduction in size, sensors are becoming involved in almost every field of life. Agriculture is one such domain where sensors and their networks are successfully used to get numerous benefits from them. In this paper, a review of the scope of smart irrigation using IoT has been discussed. The scarcity of agricultural workers in irrigation can be compensated by the Internet of Things (IoT) platform. The various parameters, such as soil moisture, soil temperature, humidity, and pH, have been collected using the Internet of Things (IoT) platform, equipped with sensors and wireless communication systems (WSN).