Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Different Factors Considered by the Consumers during Purchase of Green Products

Bhavini B. Patil, Suma Hasalkar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4431145

Environmental pollution is one of the most serious problems experienced by humanity and other life-forms on the earth today. Going green means leading lifestyle that’s not just more beneficial for people who do it, but for their surroundings as well. The study The study aimed at determining the green products purchased and the factors considered while purchasing green products. The exploratory research design was adopted to conduct the study. The data was collected from 300 educated consumers from the urban areas of Dharwad and Belagavi district. The data was analyzed by using frequency, percentage and Garrett raking technique. The results revealed that majority of the consumers (43.00%) belonged to 22-29 years age group, more than half of the selected consumers (57.67%) were graduates, more than one third of the consumers were students (32.67%), and had medium family income of 7,380-51,780 per month. Majority of the urban consumers (76.33%) purchased food products from the retail shops. The consumers perceived health, quality and taste as the major factors influencing them to purchase green products in urban locality. The study concluded that Young consumers seem to have high level of health and environmental consciousness. They are even ready to buy green products if available easily. At the same time, they are concerned about product price and are ready to pay premium for the green product only when there is an additional benefit associated with it. Government can also play key role in this aspect by encouraging consumers and promoting firms to go green. Green marketing should not be considered as a new strategy to make better profits for the marketing firms, it has to be pursued with much greater vigor, since it has a social and environmental dimension to it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Contribution to Household Dependence through Ocimum basilicum L. Cultivation: An Important Plant for Health and Livelihood Security in Kashmir Valley (J & K), India

G. M. Bhat, Huzaifa Majeed, M. A. Islam, Megna Rashid, Nazir A. Pala, Shahnaz Fatima

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4431146

The present study was conducted during the year 2018-19 in the Srinagar and Ganderbal district of Kashmir valley (J & K). The study was aimed to access the collection, consumption and economic contribution of Ocimum basilicum to household income and employment. The study was conducted using a well-structured questionnaire covering various aspects of the study. The total average yield/annum/family of Ocimum basilicum was recorded 3 kg. The average consumption/annum and sale/annum was 0.5 kg and 2.5 kg respectively. The household characteristics influencing the Ocimum basilicum livelihood in the locality averaged for the sample population indicated the preponderance of middle aged persons (55.9), low literate people (2.1) having large sized families (1.76), marginal sized landholdings (1.28), owning 6-10 livestock (1.76) were engaged mainly in agriculture (2.95) with family labour of mostly 3 members (2.45) and earning gross annual income of ₹60704.26 The total average gross income generated  within the sample households was ₹450.00 with the total average net income generation of ₹379.48 and the total average employment of 11.21 man-days by a single household. The structure of household average gross annual income, consisting of all off-farm and on-farm sources among the surveyed population, was ₹60704.26 which was differentiated as horticulture (37.70%) followed by agriculture (26.13%), livestock (21.93%), service (11.31%), business (1.65), basil based cottage industry (0.74%), wage labour (0.41%) and others (0.13%). The livelihood security from Ocimum basilicum L. depends on multitude of various socio-economic factors and cultivation practices and knowledge. The extensive cultivation of this plant may have more positive impact on the livelihood of the local communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxic Metal Contamination of Locally Produced Tobacco in Tamale Metropolis in Northern Region of Ghana

G. E. Sebiawu, N. J. Mensah, E. Amankwah, S. Antwi-Akomeah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 15-25
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4431147

The study was to analyze and determine the toxic metal contamination level of locally produced tobacco sold in the Tamale Metropolis of Northern region. The study was carried out at the Tamale Metropolis of Northern region of Ghana within a period of 12 months. The study focused on the analyses of five (5) toxic metal contaminants in twelve (12) variant locally produced tobacco sold in various spots within the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana. Toxic metals including As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr were analyzed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean recorded concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr were respectively in the ranges of 0.184 ± 0.011 to 0.515 ± 0.015 µg/kg, 0.0420 ± 0.010 to 3.100 ± 0.000 µg/kg, 0.176 ± 0.016 to 0.291 ± 0.009 µg/kg, 1.169 ± 0.019 to 3.195 ± 0.019 µg/kg and 1.600 ± 0.116 to 3.880 ± 0.369 µg/kg. The mean concentrations of As and Pb measured in all samples tested were below their respective WHO permissible limits of 4.00 ppm and 10.00 ppm. In the case of Cd, mean concentrations measured for all locally produced tobacco tested were above the WHO permissible limits of 0.30 ppm. For the metal Hg, levels measured in 75% of tested locally produced tobacco were slightly above the WHO permissible limit of 0.20 µg/kg. Cr levels measured in 30% of tested locally produced tobacco were below the WHO permissible limits of 2.00 µg/kg. The very presence of these metals typically raises health concerns on consumption in the instances where their levels exceeded permissible guideline limits. The study revealed that Cd, Hg and Cr levels in the locally produced tobacco studied were found to exceed the WHO permissible limits for human consumption by plant uptake with As and Pb levels well below their permissible thresholds. The analyzed locally produced tobacco essentially poses a threat of heavy metal toxicity to consumers via bioaccumulation and bio-concentration in human tissues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measuring the Dis-Equilibrium in Acreage Response of Black Gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) in Tamil Nadu – A Vector Error Correction Model

R. Sangeetha, K. R. Ashok, P. Asha Priyanka

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 26-36
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4431148

The study has observed an increasing trend in pulses production, driven mainly by yield improvements. The contributions of area expansion and prices to black gram growth have been erratic, suggesting that these cannot be the sustainable sources of black gram growth. Further, farmers’ area allocation decisions to pulses are not price-dependent, but depend on non price factors, mainly rainfall. However, the growth in pulses production in the long-run must come from technological changes. Numerous past studies on black gram cultivation in Tamil Nadu is criticized for using the weaker Nerlovian Partial Adjustment models and for analytical interpretation through Ordinary Least Square (OLS) creating spurious results for time series data. This problem can be avoided if Econometric technique of co-integration is used. It is for the present paper measuring the dis-Equilibrium in acreage response of black gram by using a vector error correction model. Our unit root analysis indicates that underlying data series were not stationary and are all integrated of order one, that is I(1). The Johansen co-integration approach indicates the presence of a co-integrating relationship in the acreage response model. Black gram acreage is significantly influenced by relative price of black gram, and other competing crops such as groundnut whenever resourceallocation is concerned famers preferred to allocate irrigated land to other competing crops which are more remunerative and high yielding than black gram crop. The black gram supply elasticity’s are found to be inelastic both in the short-and long-run. The long-run and short run price elasticity’s were 0.41 and 0.28, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Single Row-Low Horse Power Tractor Operated Vegetable Transplanter

Mattaparthi Lakshmi Durga, A. Srinivasa Rao, A. Ashok Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 37-44
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4431149

Mini tractor (18 hp) operated single row vegetable transplanter was developed for Tomato and Brinjal crop transplanting. A simple rotating magazine type metering system was attached to the transplanter. The performance evaluation was done in was 20× 10 m at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 km/h. But at low speed i.e 1.0 km/h the results were in acceptable range. The main parameters of the developed transplanter were planting angle and missing percentage. Planting angle was 3.02 and 2.45º, similarly missing percentage was 9.5 and 8.78 % for Tomato and Brinjal respectively. The field-capacity and transplanting-efficiency were obtained 0.05 ha h-1 and 83.3% respectively. Breakeven area obtained as 0.42 ha and payback period was 44.71 h.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relative Economic Benefits of Conjunctive Use of Water over Surface and Ground Water in the Cauvery Command Area

M. N. Venkataramana, L. Muralidhar, A. D. Ranganatha, B. Gururaj

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 45-51
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4431150

In command areas, overutilization of surface water led to deleterious effects, viz. water logging, salinization, alkalinisation of soils results into lower crop productivity and deficit water supply at the tail ends. As consequences, tail end a farmer heavily depends on groundwater will lead to emptying the aquifer and the low-quality water is pumped from deep wells. So, overuse of both the sources of water would leads to imbalance in water management as results into unsustainable water management. Thus, Conjunctive use is a single input to address the physical and economic scarcity of surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) and it offers the solution to a large extent to hurtful effects of SW and GW. The present study was carried out in Mysuru and Mandya of Cauvery command area with 180 farmers of which 60 each from surface water (SW) groundwater (GW) and conjunctive use regime (CU). The results imply that significant difference in productivity level and gross returns for selected crops at 5 per cent significance. The conjunctive irrigation practicing sugarcane farmers realized higher gross returns over GW and SW to the extent of 24 percent and 5 percent respectively. There exists a positive relationship between net return and water use efficiency with correlation coefficient of 0.78 in case of maize and ragi crops. The higher water use efficiency found in CU water for all selected crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of 390 nm Light on Surface Microbes of Cut Carrots

Alka Mishra, Subir Kumar Chakraborty, Manoj Kumar Tripathi, Nachiket Kotwaliwale

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 52-57
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4431151

Aims: To reduce the microbial load on cut-carrot surface using 390 nm Light Emiting Diode ( LED) illumination

Place and Duration of Study: Agro-Produce Processing Division, ICAR Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, India between August, 2017 to November, 2019

Methodology: Samples were collected from local market from India and LED treatment was given to samples and microbial analysis was conducted using spread plate method.

Results: The effect of 390 nm LEDs on cut-carrot surface has been evaluated in this study. The effect of dosage was found significant (p<0.05) for reducing bacterial and fungal load. Significant bacterial and fungal reduction was observed from 20 min of treatment till 3 h. Maximum inactivation of 28.4 % of bacteria and 24.1 % of fungus were detected at 3 h of exposure. These results demonstrated the potential of 390 nm LEDs as surface decontamination technology for cut-fruits and vegetables.

Conclusion: 390 nm LED illumination can be a suitable and eco-friendly novel technology for surface decontamination of cut fruits and vegetables in the food industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Mass – Size Particle Reduction Operations Postulates Using Empirical – Analytical Approaches

O. Antia, Orua

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 75-81
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4431153

Aims: This paper attempts to utilize empirical and analytical approaches to develop equations and postulates for energy and power requirement in mass – size reduction operations.

Study Design:  The study is based on a combination of analytical approach and empirically  existing energy model obtained in a study of milling palm nut shells into fragments using static nut cracker.

Place and Duration of Study: The empirical model used in this study was developed in 2014 in the University of Benin, Nigeria and the analytical approach employed for the study to obtain mass – size particle reduction models and postulates were achieved in September, 2020 in the University of Uyo, Nigeria.

Methodology: In this task, the crushing efficiency, mechanical efficiency, energy and power requirements were considered based on fundamental principles coupled with the usage of the empirically developed minimum energy model for mass –size reduction operations.

Results: The Equations (59), (60), (61), (62) and (63) were developed. Equations (59), (60) and (62) are in the form of bond’s energy equation but may differ in the value of the constant. This may be because the properties (density, thickness or diameter of the particle) of material and machine efficiency might easily be obtained and used to evaluate; and likely achieved an improved assessment of mass – size reduction of a given material.

Conclusion: Further analysis has led to the development of postulates presented in the conclusion part of this paper which may govern the mass – size reduction operations of particle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Composting – A Solution to the Industrial Solid Waste Management

C. Malarvizhi, P. Doraisamy, M. Maheswari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 82-89
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4431154

Environmental pollution is the major problems associated with rapid industrialization, urbanization and rise in living standards for people. Gelatin industry solid waste contains plant nutrients and organic matter, which could enhance the availability of nutrients, enrich the soil organic matter and ultimately increase the crop growth. Hence, the study was conducted to convert gelatin industry solid waste with nutrient-rich materials such as cow dung, poultry waste and coir pith with microbial cultures for the production of nutrient-rich value-added manure. Composting of GISW along with coir pith, cow dung and poultry waste recorded the desirable C/N ratio of 12.4:1 and highest nutrient contents (1.85, 3.85 and 1.24% of N, P and K, respectively). Also, the composted gelatin industry solid waste (CGISW) was subjected to various maturity tests and phytotoxicity assay.  The indiscriminate disposal and accumulation of solid wastes generated by gelatin manufacturing industries are the cause for concern. Hence an attempt has been made to convert these gelatin industry solid wastes (GISW) into bio-manure by blending with other organic wastes such as poultry waste, coir pith and cow dung with suitable microorganisms.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Climate Change and its Impact on Agriculture in India

Shivani Kumari, Shruti Grace George, M. R. Meshram, D. Beulah Esther, Prateek Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 58-74
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4431152

Agriculture sector is of the utmost importance to the economy of a country and incidentally it is also most vulnerable to global climate change. Climate change is taking a toll on India’s agricultural production and productivity. Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) has projected that by the end of 21st century temperature in India is likely to increase by 3-4°C which would lead to a loss of 3-26% in net agricultural revenues. Aggravated climatic factors will ultimately decline plant productivity, which will result in increased prices and unaffordable rates for the common population. The absence of mitigation and adaptation measures may result in lower farm income by 12-40% in the coming years. This issue is an important concern for livelihood, economic development and ensuring food and job security of an agrarian nation like India. The causes that ultimately are contributing to increase in greenhouse gases, deterioration of soil and water ecology must be identified and rectified. Crop productivity in the countries of southern hemisphere is expected to decrease by as much as 20 per cent, with less developed countries suffering the greatest negative effects according to IPCC report 2007. Hence, adaptation to current agricultural scenario must be undertaken at once to avoid the risks incurred and tackle complications arising due to global climate change. How quickly Indian farmers are able to adjust in their farming practices to adapt to climate change and what policies or technologies will enable rapid adaptation are issues that merit attention of everyone. However, a rapid adaptation is less possible in a developing country like India, where availability to information and capital is limited among the majority of farmers.