Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Test Based Micro-Nutrient Application and Its Profitability in Pulse Production: A Micro-Evaluation Study of Bhoochetana Scheme

. Sagar, Mahin Sharif, Murtuza Khan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 27-33
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4231127

‘Bhoochethana’ (Bhoo= soil; Chethana =rejuvenation) scheme was launched by the Government of Karnataka in the year 2009 in technical collaboration with ICRISAT to enhance the yield level of major dry land crops by adopting integrated crop management (ICM) practices.  The primary strategy of Bhoochetana is soil test based nutrient management with a major thrust on micronutrients and bio-fertilizers. In this study, the cost and returns, resource use efficiency and functional analysis of redgram production among the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of Bhoochetana scheme have been reported. The study has been conducted in the Kalaburagi District of Karnataka State which is an economically backward region with large part of the area is under dry land and redgram is the predominant crop. The study found that cost of cultivation of redgram among beneficiaries was marginally higher than non- beneficiaries. But, beneficiaries harvested additional redgram and their returns were also higher. The ratio of MVP to MFC (Resource use efficiency) was also higher among the beneficiaries compared to non-beneficiaries. A significant positive co-efficient of dummy variable indicate that the Bhoochetana beneficiaries realised higher redgram production by 0.38 quintals per farm. Hence, the schemes like Bhoochetana are highly beneficial for the dry-land farmers when they are implemented and monitored efficiently.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Specialist Agriculture Officers towards Agricultural Credit- A Comparative Study between Public and Private Sector Banks in Tamil Nadu, India

C. Muralidharan, R. Senthil Kumar, S. Selvanayaki, R. Gangaiselvi, R. Pangayar Selvi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 34-39
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4231128

This paper attempts to analyse the perceptions of Specialist officers (Agriculture) towards Agriculture credit in public and private sector banks in Tamil Nadu. Among different zones in Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore zone was selected purposively for this study, because of its representation of maximum number of branches and credit activities. Purposive sampling of 150 Specialist officers (Agriculture) from various public sector banks and 51 Specialist officers (Agriculture) from private sector banks were selected for this study. In case of crop loan, about 91.35 per cent of Specialist Officers (Agriculture) from Public sector banks were satisfied with the disbursement of credit based on scale of finance as against 78.42 per cent in case of Private sector banks. About 70.27 per cent of Specialist Officers (Agriculture) from Public sector banks faced lot of hardships to recover agricultural loans. 84.96 per cent of Specialist Officer (Agriculture) employed from Public sector banks perceived that farmers never responded to bank notice and phone calls in case of Special Mentioned Accounts (SMA) and Non Performing Assets (NPA). However, 71.86 per cent of Specialist Officers (Agriculture) employed in Private sector banks perceived that farmers never responded to bank notice and phone calls in case of SMA and NPA. Thus from the above study, following policy implications may be arrived (i.e) Up-gradation of land records and delivery of documents through online and documentation of loan process such as mortgage, issuing of non-encumbrance certificate and verification of patta land can be published through online

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Trends, Growth and Instability in Rice Production in Andhra Pradesh

G. P. Sunandini, K. Solmon Raju Paul, Shakuntala Devi Irugu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 40-46
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4231129

The study has been taken up with the objective of investigating the trends, pattern of growth and the extent of instability in area, production and productivity of rice crop in Andhra Pradesh state over a period of five and half decades from 1959-60 to 2013-14. Compound Growth Rate and Coefficient of Variation were used to calculate the annual growth rate and instability. The area, production and productivity of rice in this period has increased by 25, 201 and 138 per cent respectively. In this period, the districts were categorised and grouped under different groups based on average productivity of rice. During the study period many of the districts moved from very low productivity to high productivity group. During 1960s, 17 districts are under very low productivity group (<1500 kg/ha) and in 2010s 13 districts are under high productivity group (>3000 kg/ha). During the period 2014-19 in the divided Andhra Pradesh contribution of different productivity groups to the states paddy production was calculated and concluded that 3 districts under high productivity group (>6000kg/ha) contributed 52 per cent of the production. During 2010s annual growth rates for area, production and productivity are 4.08, 4.02 and 1.21 respectively. In all the periods in the past five and half decades, production and productivity growth rates are higher than growth rate in area except in 2010s. Instability was higher in production and area than in productivity.  The annual growth rate and the instability of production and area are higher in 2010s. Suitable crop planning is to be initiated, adoption of sustainable management practices are to be intensified to maintain the growth rate and reduce the instability in area and production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Recombinant Coat Protein of Banana Bract Mosaic Virus as a Potential Antigen for Serological Detection of the Virus

Darsana Dilip, Vimi Louis, Pallavi Sabharwal, H. S. Savithri, P. M. Namitha, K. Anita Cherian

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 47-60
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4231130

Banana bract mosaic disease caused by Banana bract mosaic potyvirus (BBrMV) is reported to instigate heavy loss in banana and plantain across Asia. Almost all the cultivars of banana succumb to the disease resulting in malformed bunches weighing less than half of normal ones. In the current study the coat protein (CP) gene segment present at the 3’ terminal region of the viral genome amplified by RT-PCR was cloned into expression vectors, pRSET-C and pGEX-4T-2 to use it for raising polyclonal antiserum which in turn will aid in developing assays to detect the virus. Recombinant BBrMV CP (rCP) in pRSET-C when expressed was insoluble whereas, it was in the soluble fraction when expressed from pGEX-4T-2. The GST-fusion protein was purified by GSH sepharose affinity column chromatography and western blot analysis was performed using anti GST antibodies. 360 µg/ml of protein was purified from 1 l of culture. The GST tag was cleaved from the purified protein by incubation with thrombin at 25°C overnight.  The rCP was characterized using ultracentrifugation, fluorescence spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The tagless monomer failed to assemble to virus like particles (VLPs) in vitro which was substantiated by fluorescence spectroscopy. This study will be first step towards deciphering structure and functions of Banana bract mosaic virus coat protein.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Urban Expansion on Welfare of Expropriated Peri-Urban Communities of Hossana Town, Southern Ethiopia

Sara Shikur, Jema Haji, Tekle Leza

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 81-93
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4231132

As demand for land increased over time, urban centers have been physically expanding their boundaries to surrounding rural and peri-urban areas by including additional land where people did base their lives in agriculture. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of urban expansion on welfare of expropriated peri-urban communities of Hossana town, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia by using propensity score matching method. Household survey research design with semi-structured interview schedule for a sample of 369 households (clustered in to 148 expropriated and 221 non-expropriated) was conducted. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from primary and secondary sources. In addition to household interview schedule; focus group discussion, key informant interview, transect walk, case story and personal observation were used as data collection tools. After propensity score matching, the per capita income of non-expropriated households is significantly greater than expropriated households. Therefore, urban expansion has significant impact on welfare of expropriated peri-urban local communities. Hence, it was suggested that rehabilitation programs should be developed to support the expropriated households to enable them appropriately use their cash compensation and remaining asset and prepare them for the new environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interaction Pattern of Buffalo Farmers with Information Providing Stakeholders in Haryana

Kamal Kumar, Mahesh Chander, V. B. Dixit, Hema Tripathi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4231124

The present study was carried out in two agro-climatic zones of Haryana. A total of six blocks were studied from which a total of twelve villages constituted the study area. Ten farmers from each village were selected randomly. A total of 120 buffalo farmers constituted the sample for the present study. An ex-post facto research design was used for the study. The research was planned to study the interaction pattern of the buffalo farmers in Haryana. The study mainly concerns with 'symbolic interaction' i.e., reactions on the basis of behavior and giving meaning to it. It was hypothesized that farmers’ antecedent variables affect their interaction pattern. The existing and desired level of interaction of farmers amongst themselves and with different stakeholders was determined by eliciting their response on a four-point continuum. Modes used by farmers for interaction with various stakeholders were milk cooperative meetings, panchayat meetings, training, buffalo melas, clinical camps, milk recordings, demonstrations, infertility camps, vaccination campaigns and a visit to university. The results thus suggested that there was a significant difference in existing and desired level of interaction of farmers amongst themselves and with different stakeholders. Farmers had the highest existing interaction amongst themselves while they desired maximum interaction with input agencies. Interaction between the farmers and stakeholders needs to be increased through their desired modes to benefit the buffalo farming community, by enhancing their technical knowledge as well as guiding them towards augmenting the animals’ productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Plant Densities and Nitrogen Levels on the Performance of Popcorn Hybrid

Y. Siva Lakshmi, D. Sreelatha, T. Pradeep

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4231125

A field experiment was conducted at the Maize Research Centre, Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during the rabid seasons (15 October to 15 January) for two years to study the effect of plant densities and nitrogen levels on growth parameters, yield characteristics, yield and economics of the newly published popcorn hybrid BPCH-6 by Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agri-6 (Previously Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University). Three plant densities (P1–1,11,111 ha-1 (60 x 15 cm), P2–1,11,111 ha-1 (45 x 20 cm) and P3–83,333 ha-1 (60 x 20 cm) and four levels of nitrogen (N1–80 kg ha-1, N2–120 kg ha-1, N3–160 kg ha-1 and N4–200 kg ha-1) were taken in a randomised block configuration with three repeated factorial principles.  Significantly higher plant height with a population of 1, 11,111 ha-1 (45x20 cm), significantly higher leaf area index with a population of 1, 11,111 ha-1 (60x15 cm) and significantly higher dry matter production (g plant-1) with a population of 83,333 plants ha-1 (60x20 cm) was observed as per pooled mean over two years.  Yield attributes like cob girth, number of rows cob-1 and 100 seed weight were not influenced significantly whereas cob length and number of seeds row-1 were significantly superior with optimum plant density of 83,333ha-1. A plant density of 1, 11,111 ha-1 (60x15 cm).  recorded significantly higher cob, grain fodder yields.

When a population of 1, 11,111 plants ha-1 (60x15 cm) was maintained, gross and net returns and profit cost ratios were higher. The use of 200 kg of nitrogen ha-1 resulted in slightly higher growth parameters, yield characteristics and yield, but it was equal to 160 kg of N ha-1  and both were greater than 120 and 80 kg of N ha-1.. Application of 160 Kg N ha-1 recorded higher gross and net returns and benefit cost ratio compared to 200 Kg N ha-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System and Profitability Analysis of Leafy Vegetables under Polyhouse

A. Kishore, Y. Siva Lakshmi, Nithin Deshai, R. Savitha Rathdo, J. Surya Prakash

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 20-26
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4231126

The present experiment on Performance evaluation of drip irrigation system and profitability analysis of leafy vegetables under polyhouse was conducted to study the performance parameters of the drip irrigation systems relating to crop performance. This was done by taking existing drip tapeline, new drip tape line and new inline drip irrigation system under the Polyhouse at the college of Agricultural Engineering, Kandi, Sangareddy, Telangana during the year 2018. Profitability of five green leafy vegetables viz. Palak, Sorrel, Methi, Amaranths and Coriander was also evaluated. The results reveal that the three drip line systems in-line got more uniform coefficient of 98% followed by new drip tape with 96% and preinstalled drip tape with 95%. Among the five green leafy vegetables methi has recorded highest gross (306000Rs acre-1) and net returns (285833) and benefit cost ratio (14.2) followed by Palak, Sorrel whereas Amaranthus has recorded lowest benefit cost ratio (7.6).  In terms of performance characteristics, drip tape and in line system performed better in maintaining uniformity discharge and the designed drip irrigation operated excellently.  Methi, Palak ad sorrel found suitable and profitable in polyhouse where year- round cultivation of vegetables is feasible compared to open field in which crop establishment was very poor and could not be raised successfully due the heavy rains and growth characters of the leafy crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improved Synthesis of Flavonoids by Simulation of Nargenine Chalcone Biosynthetic Reaction

Mamta Sagar, Pramod Wasudev Ramteke, Ravindra Nath Katiyar, Shameem Ahmad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 61-80
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4231131

Metabolic Control Analysis provides a quantitative description of concentration dynamics with the change in system parameters. A metabolic Control Analysis aids determination of the threshold value of metabolites involved in a reaction and also helps to understand the role of various parameters in a reaction. In this work, a metabolic model of a Naringenine chalcone biosynthetic reaction is defined and a time series simulation was carried out based on the law of Mass action. Initial concentration of p-Coumaroyl-CoA and Malonyl-CoA were taken 5.0*10-2 mM 2.2*10-3 mM respectively. This concentration was then simulated over time for 10 seconds to find the steady state. Final concentration of  Naringenine chalcone,CO2, and CoA becomes 8.593946e-004 mM after 5.00 second of simulation at reaction constant 6.587753e-005 mM*ml/s. Steady state solution shows that Initial concentration of Naringenine chalcone was 2.199777e-003 mM which is eventually converted into 2.785128e+013 seconds half-life concentration of product at 7.898e-017 mM/s rate and  0.000000e+000 mM*ml/s  rate constant. Phenylpropanoid pathway was analysed to predict all the enzymes that can maximise and minimise the concentration of  Malonyl-CoA and P-Coumaroyl-CoA which leads to flavonoid biosynthesis. In the Phenylpropanoid pathway four enzymes Phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase, trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase, Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, maximise the flavonoid biosynthesis. This analysis shows that other enzymes minimise the concentrations of  Malonyl-CoA and P-coumaroyl-CoA, these are Cinnamoyl Co A reductase, shikimate O hydroxyl transferase HCT), Oxidoreductase. Furthermore, Protein domain analysis of chalcone synthase mutants ( 1jwx Medicago sativa and 4yjy from Oryza sativa) was done to predict structural features to understand reaction mechanism and structure-based engineering to maximise flavonoid biosynthesis. Natural sequence variation CHS G256A, G256V, G256L, and G256F mutants of residue 256 reduce the size of the active site cavity but quick diversification of product specificity occurs. The threshold concentration of Malonyl-CoA and P-coumaroyl-CoA were predicted, maximisation of this concentration leads to enhanced flavonoid biosynthesis. Inhibition of few enzymes may also maximise the flavonoid biosynthesis if appropriate inhibitors are used and a constant supply of Malonyl-CoA and P-Coumaroyl-CoA is maintained using activator molecules. Chalcone synthase Mutants diversify product specificity that occurs without loss of catalytic activity and any conformational changes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Wind Profile over Wheat and Mustard Canopies under Sole and Intercropped Conditions in Lower Gangetic Plain of Eastern India

Sarika Jena, Pramiti K. Chakraborty, Pintoo Bandyopadhyay, Rajib Nath, Prodip Kumar Chakraborty

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 94-104
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4231134

Aim: Wind profile over a crop canopy affects several physiological processes. The nature of the wind profile above the crop canopy of a single crop has been reported in the literature. However, under intercropping system, the nature of wind profile isn’t well discussed.

Methodology: With this background, a two-year experiment was conducted with five different crop combinations (T1- sole wheat, T2- sole mustard, T3- two wheat: six mustard, T4- four wheat: four mustard and T5- six wheat: two mustard) in  Rndomized Block Design (RBD) of 54 m2 plot size. Wind speed was measured at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m above the crop canopy from 9:30 to 13:30 hour at two-hour interval. The observations were taken from 30 to 80 days after emergence (DAE) at weekly interval.

Results: Results showed that the wind speed gradually increased with the increment of height over the sole wheat. Wind speed sharply declined under intercropping over the wheat canopy. The percentage reduction in T3 was maximal on 58 DAE. The wind speed gradually increased with height for all observations in mustard irrespective of treatment combinations. However, under intercropping, wind speed reduced marginally at 0.5 m above mustard height compared to the sole mustard.

Conclusion: Reduced wind speed over wheat canopy causes reduction of mass and momentum transfer thus reducing the carbon exchange rate which might be one of the reasons for lower biomass production in wheat-mustard intercrop in comparison to sole wheat crop.