Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Stability of Basmati and Non-basmati Rice Export in India

M. Udhayakumar, K. R. Karunakaran

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4031107

International trade plays an important role in the economic development of a country. India stands as a world's largest producer and exporter of basmati rice. During 2017-18 the country has exported globally about 40.56 Lakh tonnes of Basmati Rice and 86.48 Lakh tonnes for Non-Basmati rice, the worth of  268.70billion and  229.68 billion respectively. India is the leading exporter of the rice as there is a strong demand for Indian rice in the international markets. So, the present study isto assess the trend and instability in terms export of basmati and non-basmati rice in India. The study has revealed that Indian rice exports performance during the study period 1980-81 to 2017-18. Further, the study period will be divided into three sub-periods. In overall period, the basmati rice export value is highest (16.45 per cent per annum) when compared to the export quantity (8.35 per cent per annum) and unit value (7.48 per cent per annum). In overall period, compound growth rate shows positive growth rate for quantity, value, and unit value of non-basmati rice with 1 per cent level of significance. The compound growth rate total rice shows positive growth rate for quantity (11.06 per cent), value (17.87 per cent), and unit value (6.13 per cent) of total rice with 1 per cent level of significance. Based on the result of the analysis, the instability index was found to be higher for export quantity (51.86%) of basmati rice than its value (88.07%) and unit value (31.23%). Overall, the rice export analysis indicates positive signals for the export of basmati and non-basmati rice from India. Which is confirmed through increasing growth in III period after 2010 and also having stability in the rice export price both basmati and non-basmati rice in the international markets.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Logit Analysis of the Factors Affecting Cage Fish Farming Adoption Decisions in the Southwest Coast of India

N. Aswathy, Imelda Joseph

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 29-34
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4031109

Aims: Cage fish farming is an emerging aquaculture technology in India. The successful cage farming demonstrations is the open sea and coastal waters by the ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) led to the popularization of the technology in different maritime states of the country. The aim of the study was to analyse  the factors contributing the adoption decisions of cage fish farming in Kerala, Southwest coast of India

Study Design:  The data were collected from 100 respondents consisting of 50 each from adopters and non-adopters of cage fish farming in Ernakulam district of Kerala for analyzing the factors driving the adoption decisions.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Ernakulam district in the Southwest coast of India during October to December, 2019

Methodology: Factors contributing the adoption decisions of cage fish farming was analyzed using logistic regression model

Results: The results of the analysis revealed that access to institutional credit, education of the farmers, off farm income and training received were the key drivers of technology adoption decisions of fish farmers in Kerala. The odds favouring education increased by 5.90 times for the respondents. The access to institutional credit increased the odds of adoption of cage farming by 3.945 times. The availability of off farm income increased the odds of adopting cage farming technology by 3.257 times.

Conclusion: Cage fish farming being an emerging aquaculture technology, the results throw light on the necessity of adequate provisions for credit support and capacity development programmes by the institutional agencies for accelerating the technology adoption process. Since the education of the farmers and trainings were significant factors on adoption decisions, the technology could be effectively utilized and linked with employment generation schemes for the educated youth for augmenting fish production and livelihoods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Resource Recycling for Farm Productivity and Profitability in Integrated Farming System under Rainfed Situation in Odisha, India

Hemanta Kumar Sahoo, Amit Phonglosa, Basudev Behera

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 44-50
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4031111

The present investigation was carried out in 0.8 ha rainfed farm from April 2010 to March 2013 with two sources of water i.e. no pond/rainfed and pond/irrigated in five different blocks viz., Khajuripada of Kandhamal district (North Eastern Ghats Zone), Dhenkanal Sadar and Odapada of Dhenkanal district (Mid Central Table Land Zone), Golamunda and Narla of Kalahandi district (Western Undulating Zone) of Odisha. The 0.8 ha Integrated Farming System (IFS) model farm recorded 31.92 q Rice Equivalent Yield (REY) which was 7.4 times higher productivity than conventional rice-greengram system. The net return in IFS model was Rs. 1,61,148/- as compared to Rs. 11,631/- in conventional rice-greengram cropping system. The recyclable wastes of 3.3 t paddy straw, 3000 kg pond silt, 2129 kg poultry excreta and 13 t mushroom spent in IFS model were used as input by other units. Due to efficient recycling of wastes, the productivity and profitability of IFS models were higher compared to conventional cropping system. Thus, almost no waste was left to pollute the environment or to degrade the resource base where as the wastes in conventional system were not utilized effectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chemical Manipulation on Growth, Yield and Fiber Traits of Compact Cotton

B. Rakavi, C. N. Chandrasekhar, M. Kumar, L. Arul, N. Manikanda Boopathi, P. Jeyakumar, D. Vijayalakshmi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 61-69
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4031113

Crop management is one of the most important factors in modern agricultural activity. Studying the balance of growth stages and supplying optimal quantities of mineral nutrients and hormones to growing plants is essential to improve yield in short duration cotton varieties. In recent years, several approaches have been tried to break this yield plateau. The present investigation was intended to study and improve the yield of newly released variety Co 17 (compact cotton) by foliar application of nutrients, growth hormones, growth retardants and nutrient consortium. The treatments are mepiquat chloride (0.015%), potassium silicate (0.5%), Potassium schoenite (0.5%), borax (0.3%), salicylic acid (0.01%), calcium silicate (0.5%) and TNAU cotton plus (1.25%). Foliar application of different treatments at peak vegetative and flowering stage significantly influenced the leaf traits, root traits, and yield. Nutrient consortium (TNAU cotton plus – 53% over control) and growth retardant (mepiquat chloride- 42% over control) increased the seed cotton yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption of Cloud Computing Technology for Effective University Administration in Nigeria

Imran A. Adeleke, Ismail O. Muraina, Kazeem K. Adegbuyi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4031106

Cloud computing is a technology that represents a shift from the traditional ownership of infrastructure and other resources to a more scalable pattern in which computer resources are rented online to organizations on either as a pay-as-you-use basis or by subscription. The researcher is motivated to undertake this study due to cloud computing growing awareness which has led to the increasing adoption of the technology by organizations in Nigeria including educational sector. However, the challenges that comes with the technology slow down the rate of its adoption by many universities in Nigeria and making them unconvinced to entrust into the cloud technology. This work investigates the use of cloud computing technology for effective administration in Nigerian universities. From analysis, the research reveals the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the adoption of cloud technology and points out the concerns and challenges impeding its adoption. It further discusses the enormous benefits the universities stand to gain for adopting the cloud technology and proffers threat mitigation techniques to prevent the occurrence of the impediment towards the cloud adoption. The finding also recommends some cloud platforms as a means of IT delivery services for effective university administration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth, Physiological, Nutrient Uptake, Root and Yield Parameters of Transplanted Lowland Rice

R. Ajaykumar, S. D. Sivakumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4031110

Rice is an important cultivated food crop which feeds more than half of the world's population. Even though the area under rice cultivation is large, the productivity is low due to various interaction factors. The imbalance in usage of fertilizers is one of the main factors responsible for the low productivity and also the continuous use of inorganic fertilizers resulted in declining of soil fertility. An integrated nutrient management practices may be necessary to maintain the sustainability in crop production. Field experiment was conducted at wetland farm of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during kharif season to study the effect of integrated nutrient management practices on growth, physiological, nutrient uptake, root characters and yield parameters of transplanted lowland rice. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications and nine treatments. Rice CO(R) 48 was used as a test variety. Dhaincha, vermicompost, farmyard manure were incorporated before transplanting of rice as per treatment schedule. The results revealed growth parameters (Plant height and number of tillers hill-1), physiological parameters (leaf area index and crop growth rate),  nutrient uptake (N, P and K uptake), root characters (root length, root volume and root dry weight) and yield parameters (Number of productive tillers m-2 and Dry Matter Production) were significantly influenced with application of 100 % NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 6.25 t dhaincha which was comparable with 100 per cent NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 5 t vermicompost and 100 per cent NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 12.5t farmyard manure. This was followed by 100 per cent N through dhaincha + balance P & K through inorganic fertilizers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Dry Matter Partition with Grain Yield in Advanced Breeding Lines of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

D. Dev Kumar, D. Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, P. Raghuveer Rao, M. Sheshu Madhav, V. Gouri Shankar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 51-60
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4031112

The experimental field was laid in RBD replicated thrice with 30 high yielding rice genotypes which includes 26 advanced breeding lines (ABL) (SP-351, SP-352, SP-353, SP-354, SP-355, SP-356, SP-357, SP-358, SP-359, SP-360, SP-70, SP-72, SP-63, SP-61, SP-69, SP-55, SP-80, SP-25, SP-13,  SP-03, SP-02, SP-34, SP-37, SP-08, SP-75 and SP-57) and four checks (NDR-359, BPT-5204, IR-64, Jaya). Seven genotypes showed significantly higher leaf weight over the BPT-5204. Further, leaf weight at panicle initiation stage showed a positive relationship with TDM (Total Dry Matter) (r=0.51**). At the panicle initiation stage, only three genotypes (SP-354, SP-358, and SP-72) were superior to BPT-5204 in leaf weight. The shoot biomass and total dry weight was superior only in one genotype SP-72 as compared to BPT-5204. Similarly, the net assimilation rate at panicle initiation stage was maximum in SP-08 (9.92g m-2 day-1) and SP-72 (9.35g m-2 day-1) as compared to check BPT-5204 (6.47g m-2 day-1). These genotypes maintained higher photosynthetic rate (SP-72) and higher grain yield (SP-08). The relationship between CGR (Crop Growth Rate) and TDM (Total Dry Matter) and grain yield (r=0.61**) was positive and significant at physiological maturity. Genotypes SP-08 and SP-72 showed significantly higher CGR (Crop Growth Rate) over BPT-5204 and hence, yielded higher. In the present study compared to BPT-5204, genotypes SP-72, SP-08 maintained higher lea area index at all crop growth stages. These genotypes maintained higher photosynthetic rate (SP-72) and higher grain yield (SP-08). Positive significant relationship between LAI (Leaf Area Index) and total dry matter at harvest and; grain yield has been observed.

Open Access Review Article

Women Empowerment and Its Impact on Livelihood and Food Security of Households: A Review

Jagruti Das, Ajmer Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 19-28
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i4031108

Rural women in India and several countries of South-East Asia play crucial and significant role in livestock rearing, agriculture and other allied activities, but their contribution has not been incentivized given the due place they deserve. They always remain invisible workers. Increasing demand for milk and animal products in recent years intensifies livestock rearing as profitable enterprise for women. Many development programmes that aim at alleviating poverty and improving investments in human capital consider women’s empowerment a crucial pathway to achieve impact and often target women as their main beneficiaries. Women across the world have often been seen as the primary caretakers in a household. Hence, the intra-household dynamics that determine allocation of resources and their impact on well-being are in a subject of analysis. It has been seen that households do not necessarily act in an unitary manner. While allocating resources, women and men have their preferences for allocating food and nonfood resources and may therefore be involved in distribution of these resources differently, based on their bargaining power within the household. This article reviews the linkage of women empowerment and household food security and ways to measure it for effectively targeting the policies for strengthening the household food security.