Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Maize to Different Levels of Zeolite and Nitrogen and Evaluation of Soil Chemical Properties as Influenced by Different Levels of Zeolite and Nitrogen

C. H. Ravali, K. Jeevan Rao, T. Anjaiah, K. Suresh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3831090

A pot study was conducted during kharif, 2018-19 in College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, PJTSAU, Hyderabad, with the aim to evaluate the response of maize to different levels of zeolite and nitrogen and to know the influence of zeolite on selected soil properties. The treatments consists of combinations of 3 levels of nitrogen (100, 150, 200 kg ha-1) and 4 levels of zeolite (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 t ha-1) along with a control in which only P and K were applied and they were replicated thrice in a factorial completely randomized design. Results indicated that application of zeolite (7.5 t ha-1) and nitrogen (200 kg ha-1) individually had significant effect on N, P, K contents in maize at 30, 60, 90 DAS and at harvest. N and P contents in maize was significantly higher in N200Z7.5 (Nitrogen @ 200 kg ha-1 + Zeolite @ 7.5 t ha-1) however, there was no significant interaction with respect to K content. At harvest, the available P and K were significantly higher in the treatment receiving N100Z7.5.

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Identification and Analysis of Iron (Fe) Transporters in Various Plant Species

Akula Dinesh, Ramya Rathod, M. Sreedhar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 14-23
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3831091

In plants, Iron is an important micronutrient which is required for various processes like photosynthesis, respiration and for balanced redox potential. Iron has a significant role in human nutrition. Therefore, increasing the Fe content of economical parts through conventional, Molecular and/or Transgenic breeding will have dramatic impact on human health. Therefore, this study was aimed to identify and characterize homologues of OsIRT1, OsIRT2, OsVIT1, OsYSL2, OsYSL15 and OsYSL18 in 21 different plant species. The study revealed that, a total of 51 putative Fe transporter proteins homologues were identified which could be characterized with 555 to770 amino acids sequence length with 61 to 84.8 kDa molecular weight and pI of 8.2 to 9.4 having basic nature with 9 to15 TMD with an average of 13 TMDs. The sub-cellular localization of putative Fe transporters was predicted as the plasma membrane and all the identified Fe homologues contained oligopeptide transporter (OPT) domain proteins which play a significant to role in Fe transport and homeostasis. Further, the analysis led to identification of highly conserved residues in the putative Fe sequences which could be used as potential motif signatures in identification of new Fe transporter. The interactome analysis for oryza sativa OsYSL15 transporter showed putative interaction with NAS2, NAS1, DMAS1, OsJ_32857, IRT1, IRO2, IDEF1, IRT2, IDI2 which are found to be directly involved in Fe transport from roots to grain. This study, elucidates the valuable theoretical knowledge about the Fe genes, protein features and assist in molecular manipulation of Fe transporters in various plants for developing high Fe in economical part.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Genetic Variability and Diversity in Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines

D. Bhadru, V. Swarnalatha, B. Mallaiah, D. Sreelatha, M. V. Nagesh Kumar, M. Lavakumar Reddy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 31-39
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3831093

The present investigation was aimed to generate adequate knowledge and understanding of the genetic parameters and genetic diversity among the eighteen maize inbred lines which are important for assessing breeding strategies and predicting hybrid performance. A wide range of variability was noticed among the inbred lines under study. Traits like plant height, ear height, grain yield per cob, cob length and number of kernels per row recorded medium to high range of PCV and GCV estimates, heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean. Hence, these traits are important for selection of genotypes to improve maize yield. The cluster II recorded maximum intra cluster distance (60.49) followed by cluster I (43.81). The clusters III, IV, V and IV are solitary clusters. The highest inter cluster distance of 386.89 was observed between the clusters IV and V, followed by cluster I and IV (326.90), clusters I and VI (309.98), cluster II and V (297.76), cluster III and V (239.32) and Cluster I and III (252.68). To develop high heterotic hybrids in maize select of inbreds as lines from cluster I and testers from Cluster III, IV and VI and also from cluster II and clusters III and V will be rewarding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Vacuum Packaging on Quality of Pomegranate Arils during Storage

Alice P. Sujeetha, R. Meenatchi, Paulin Patricia, Aditi Negi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 40-46
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3831094

Development of advanced lifestyle increased consumer preference towards preservative free, nutrient rich and ready to eat fresh fruits. Vacuum packaging increases shelf life of fresh produce, reduces quality deterioration by preventing from aerobic spoilage. Safety and quality assurance of packaged fruits/fruit products has concerns world-wide due to quality deterioration and increase in endogenous enzymatic reaction during storage. Minimally processed, ready to eat pomegranate arils are in great demand that satisfy the consumer requirements such as convenient, freshly available, healthy food, and saves time and labor. This study aims to extend the shelf life of pomegranate arils (Punica granatum L.) by vacuum packaging. Two different packaging materials such as LDPE and HDPE were used and the vacuum packed arils were stored under ambient and refrigerated conditions. The quality changes & physicochemical properties such as colour, physical weight loss, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, total anthocyanin content and microbial load were analyzed. Results indicated that the shelf life of normally packed pomegranate arils were up to 8 days whereas vacuum packed arils were extended to 22 days under refrigerated condition. HDPE has minimal effect on physicochemical properties of arils as compared to LDPE.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Calcium Carbide Treatment on Ripening Time and Physicochemical Properties of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Variety “Kent”, Côte d’Ivoire

Mohamed Cissé, Yardjouma Silue, Moctar Cissé, Akoua Dorine Sabrina Kouadio, Charlemagne Nindjin

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 24-30
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3831092

Aims: this study aims to find out appropriate method of application and the optimum dose of calcium carbide required to initiate ripening of mango var. “Kent”.

Study Design: The experimental set-up was of a completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was performed in the Department of Genetic and Biochemistry, at the Laboratory of Food Biochemistry of University Peleforo Gon Coulibaly, Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire, May 1, 2020.

Methodology: Seventy uniform, mature green and healthy mangoes were bought from a local company and divided into five groups. The groups were divided into different calcium carbide levels as follows: 0 (control), 1 g/kg and 3 g/kg, CaC2 per fruit; 1 g/L and 3 g/L, CaC2 in distilled water to induce ripening at room temperature. The physicochemical analysis was carried out on both the unripe and ripened fruits.

Results: The results obtained revealed that calcium carbide reduce significantly fruit ripening time from 6 days (naturally ripened fruit) to 3 days (3 g/kg) and 4 days (1 g/kg). The present study showed also that calcium carbide by spraying is not effective on mango ripening time. The physicochemical analysis indicated that CaC2 may induce negative changes on some quality parameters like firmness, pH, acidity, total soluble solids (3 g/kg, CaC2 per fruit) and vitamin C. However, the fruits subjected to 1 and 3 g/kg, exhibited an increase of skin brightness and yellowness whereas 1 g/kg increase slightly in TSS when compared to the control.  Moreover, the study established that the ripening time and changes in quality parameters are dose and method dependent.

Conclusion: The present investigation showed that the artificial ripening using calcium carbide could not keep quality physicochemical characteristics intact.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combining Ability Effects for Various Agro-Morphological Traits in Rice under Temperate Conditions

Asma Majid, G. A. Parray, N. R. Sofi, A. B. Shikari, Showkat A. Waza

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 47-58
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3831095

Rice is one of the most consumed food crops in the world and therefore possesses huge socio-economic relevance. Combining ability estimates provide the basis for selection of suitable parents in breeding programmes for rice improvement. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the combining ability effects for various agro-morphological traits in some genotypes of rice. Thirty-four male parents were crossed with the four CMS lines in line × tester matting design and 136 cross combinations were obtained. For most of the traits, SKUA-7A showed desirable GCA effect among the female parental lines; while RL-1, RL-2, RL-11, SKUA-497, SKUA-494, SKUA-496 and SKUA-420 showed desirable GCA effect amongst the male parents. Cross combinations SKUA-7A × RL-3 and SKUA-11A × RL-5 revealed desirable heterosis for most of the traits viz., grain yield, number of effective tillers plant-1, panicle length and number of spikelet panicle-1. These cross combinations also possessed desirable values of SCA effect. In general, the cross combinations showing desirable specific combining ability effects also reveal better per se performance for the respective traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Optimization of Growth Parameters for Mass Multiplication of Actinobacteria

B. S. Nalini, R. Muthuraju

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 59-69
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3831096

Aim: To isolate, characterize and optimize the growth parameters for mass multiplication of Actinobacteria.

Place and Duration of Work: The study was carried out in Department of Agricultural Microbiology, GKVK, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore during 2019-20.

Methodology: Actinobacterial isolates were characterized morphologically and screened for optimization of growth parameters viz., pH, temperature, salt concentration and utilization of carbon source for their mass multiplication.

Results: Forty actinobacterial isolates were enumerated from rhizosphere soil of finger millet, cowpea and also from different organic manures. Color of aerial mycelium in most of the actinobacterial isolates were white, grey or cream with dry, cottony or powdery appearance. All forty isolates were Gram positive, non-acid forming and motile. During optimization of growth parameters, results showed that all the actinobacterial isolates growth was observed good at 30℃, pH 7 and 2 per cent NaCl concentration. Starch was confirmed as the best carbon source for all the actinobacterial isolates during carbon source utilization ability.

Conclusion: Based on the results, it is showed that all the actinobacterial isolates enumerated were aerobic, spore-forming, Gram positive bacteria, non-acid forming and motile. Maximum growth of Actinobacterial isolates was obtained at temperature of 30℃, pH 7 and 2 per cent NaCl concentration with the ability of growing on ten different carbon sources during the optimization of nutritional and cultural characterization studies. Among the different carbon sources, starch was confirmed as the best carbon source for all the isolates during the study of carbon source utilization ability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Power Weeder in Sugarcane Crop

S. Sai Mohan, G. Sanjana, D. Avinash, M. Rohitha, D. Anil Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 70-81
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3831097

Weeding is an important and labour intensive agricultural operation and about 1/3rd of the cost of cultivation is accounted towards weed control operation alone. Any delay and negligence in weeding operation effects the crop yields up to 30-40%. Today the agricultural sector requires non-chemical weed control that safeguards consumers demand for high quality food products and pay special attention to food safety. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the performance of power weeder by evaluating the energy consumption and cost economics of power weeder in sugarcane crop. The evaluation was conducted at soil different moisture contents at 30,45 and 60 days after sowing (DAS) at different speeds of weeder. The bulk density decreased from 0.84 to 0.65 g cm-3 with increased soil moisture content from 7±1 to 12±1 per cent. The field capacity of power weeder varied from 0.0347 to 0.137 ha h-1 when operated with 3 forward speeds at 30, 45 and 60 DAS. The weeding efficiency of power weeder is in the range of 98.74 to 91.22% at 0.584 km h-1, 96.80 to 84.93% at 1.35 km h-1 and 94.67 to 73.72% at 4.153 km h-1. The minimum and maximum plant damage is observed at a forward speeds of 0.584 km h-1 and 4.153 km h-1. When operated at lower speeds the plant damage will be minimum whereas operating at high speeds will result in maximum plant damage. Field machine index of the weeder is observed as 0.83, 0.82 and 0.864 for 30, 45 and 60 DAS. The cost of weeding per hectare is calculated as Rs.3,878 ha-1 and Rs.8000 ha-1 for mechanical and traditional weeding, respectively. It can be started and operated by farmer or any unskilled labour with ease. Also working with power weeder in between the rows is easy with a very less maintenance cost.