Open Access Original Research Article

Comparing Correlation Coefficients and Path Analysis in Different Populations of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Anjani Kumar, D. N. Singh, Krishna Prasad, Avinash Pandey

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3731082

This study performed to determine the correlation, their comparison and path coefficients of yield and yield contributing characters by using F2 (BPT-5204 /IR-64Drt1) their two parents separately and the joint parental populations. In this study, the computations for testing the significance of the difference between the 15 traits of different populations of rice determined from 324 F2, 9 IR-64Drt1 (P1), 9 BPT-5204 (P2) and 18 joint parental population. Results showed that the correlation of F2 indicated that the number of total tillers per plant, number of panicles per plant, plant height, panicle length, biomass, harvest index and yield per panicle were positive and significant association with yield per plant. Correlation of IR-64Drt1 stated that the plant height, panicle length, biomass and harvest index were positive and significant association with yield per plant. Correlation of BPT-5204 shown that the secondary branches per panicle and hundred-grain weight exhibited positive and significant association with yield per panicle. Correlation of the joint parent indicated that the plant height, panicle length, grain length, grain width, hundred-grain weight, biomass, harvest index and yield per panicle had exhibited positive and significant association with yield per plant. Path coefficient analysis indicated that harvest index had the highest direct positive effect (0.582) on yield per plant in the F2 population. However, the panicles per plant had the highest direct positive effect (1.481) on yield per plant IR-64Drt1 population. The total tillers per plant had the highest direct positive effect (1.821) on yield per plant in BPT-5204 population. In the joint population of BPT-5204 and IR-64Drt1, path analysis of yield components revealed that the biomass had the highest direct positive effect (0.658) on yield per plant. Information obtained in this study revealed that traits, the harvest index, biomass and panicles per plant are suggested as selection indices for grain yield improvement at segregating populations of rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-Ecological Correlates of Attitude towards KVK Functioning: A Multivariate Analytical Approach

S. K. Acharya, Arindam Ghosh, Mrityunjoy Mahato, Monirul Haque, Debashis Mazumder, Swagata Ghoshal, Amitava Biswas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 23-31
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3731084

Krishi Vigyan Kendra was established initially to impart training to the different stakeholders of the farming community as a method of technology delivery system. As the time passed by this grass root institution has undergone a tremendous change, starting from technology generation, testing, verification and ultimately onwards transmission to the end users for the enhancement of the productivity in particular and for the overall socio- economic development of the rural people in general with its mandated programmes.  The work was conducted with 10 independent variables and one dependent variables- Attitude towards KVK activities (y).Purposive as well as simple random techniques were adopted for the study. For selection of state & district purposive sampling techniques and for block & villages simple random technique were employed for selection of respondents. Among 50 adopted KVK farmers of the selected villages only 22 adopted farmers have been randomly selected and more 22 non adopted farmers and thus altogether 44 farmers have been randomly selected for the study. Analyzing the data using the statistical tools range, mean, coefficient of variation, coefficient of correlation, regression analysis, path analysis, factor analysis, canonical discriminate (Unstandardized) Function results were obtained. So it is clear that KVK is an institutional project of ICAR to demonstrate the application of science and technology input of agricultural research and education in the farmers field in the rural areas and today KVK stands as a bridge between the research laboratories and application of modern agricultural science in rural India through the technology the development and delivery system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of SSR Markers Linked to Regions Associated with Protein Content in F2 Population of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

D. Sravani, C. N. Neeraja, V. Ravindrababu, M. Rajendar Reddy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 32-37
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3731085

Improvement of rice proteins is important in rice breeding for high nutritional quality. The objective of this study was to identify protein associated regions in the chromosomes in F2 population of the cross derived from swarna and Mahamaya, Parental polymorphism survey between Mahamaya and Swarna was studied using 24 SSR markers. Out of 24 markers, 4 (16%) were polymorphic, 185 F2 plants were assayed individually for protein content and genotyping. Total grain protein content ranged from 4.12 to 12.0 per cent in F2 population. The strategy of selective genotyping was carried out with the F2 plants. The results showed that these three markers RM1369 on chromosome number 6, RM263 on chromosome number 2 and RM337 on chromosome number 8 were unlinked among themselves. Since for mapping a minimum of two markers per locus are required, the data obtained for this study were analyzed by Recombination frequency. Recombination frequency values revealed the association of markers, RM1369 (Chromosome-6) with high protein content (Recombination frequency=0.41) and low protein content (Recombination frequency=0.25), RM263(Chromosome-2) with high protein content (Recombination frequency =0.37%) and low protein content (Recombination frequency =0.33%) and RM337 (Chromosome-8) with high protein content (Recombination frequency =0.22%) and low protein content (Recombination frequency =0.18). This trial study reveals that the above markers can be utilized for identification of regions associated with protein content in rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Market Arrivals and Prices of Paddy in Major Markets of Telangana State

K. Solomon Raju Paul, G. P. Sunandini, Shakuntala Devi Irugu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 56-60
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3731088

The study was conducted to investigate the price behaviour of paddy and the relationship between market arrivals and prices in Suryapeta and Tirumalagiri markets of Telangana. In view of this the present study was undertaken by collecting monthly wholesale prices and arrivals of paddy in both the markets of Telangana for a period of 5 years (2015 to 2019). The seasonal price index provides a measure of the month to month variation in paddy prices. The price indices were lowest in the month of November in suryapeta markets where as Tirumalagiri market in price indices were lowest in the month of December. The study concluded that there was an inverse relationship between market arrivals and the prices.

Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Placement and Foliar Application of Urea, KCl & Zn (Supplementary Nourishment) on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) under Guava (Psidium guajava L.) based Agri-horti System

Sonu Dey, Sant Prasad, A. R. Chichaghare

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 61-67
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3731089

Aims: To investigate the effect of the placement and foliar application of Urea, KCl & Zinc on growth and yield of cowpea under guava based agri-horti system in Vindhyan region, India.

Study Design:  RBD with nine treatments and three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Agricultural Research Farm, Barkachha, Mirzapur (UP), India during kharif season (June-Oct) of 2017.

Methodology: This experiment consisted nine different treatments viz; Control (T1), 2% Urea spray (T2),  30 kg KCl ha-1 (T3), 2% KCl spray (T4), 2% Urea spray + 2% KCl spray (T5),  5 kg Zn ha-1 (T6), 2% Urea spray + 5 kg Zn ha-1 (T7), 30 kg KCl ha-1+ 5 kg Zn ha-1 (T8),  2% Urea spray + 2% KCl spray + 1.5% Zn spray (T9). Various growth parameter, yield attributes, N, P, K and nutrients contents were recorded and compared.

Results: Significantly higher growth parameters like  plant height-1, no of branches plant-1, fresh weight-1 and dry weight-1, yield attributes like number of seeds pod-1, pod length, pod yield plant-1, green pod yield were recorded in 2% Urea spray + 2% KCl spray + 1.5% Zn spray (T9). Maximum N, K and protein content in straw and seed also observed in T9.

Conclusion: foliar spray of 2% Urea + 2% KCl spray + 1.5% Zn spray was best method for supplementary nourishment of cowpea under guava based Agri-horti system. The experiment should be reported for one to two seasons more in order to reach final conclusion.

Open Access Original Research Article

FTIR Spectroscopy and Optical Density Characterization of Humic Substances Extracted from Reclaimed Alkali Soils under Different Tillage and Management Practices

Shiva N. Suman, Nayan Ahmed, Vipin Kumar, Samar C. Datta, K. M. Manjaiah, Rajesh Kumar, Vandana Kumari, Ranjan Laik, T. K. Das

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 12-22
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3731083

In the present investigation, different tillage and management practices interventions were assessed to note the changes in the composition of humic substances using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques, optical density (E4/E6) measurement and elemental composition of humic acid. One uncultivated and four reclaimed alkali surface (0-0.15 m) soil samples after adoption of four years different tillage and management practices were collected from Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal. Optical density (E4/E6) of fulvic acid was higher than that of humic acid. This was due to the more condensed and more matured nature of humic acid than fulvic acid. The trend of E4/E6 ratio was farmers practices in rice-fallow-wheat cropping system with puddled rice and conventional tillage wheat without crop residue addition (FP in R-F-W) > integrated crop and resource management in rice-wheat-mungbean cropping system (ICRM in R-W-M)> futuristic and diversified (CA) based system of maize-wheat-mungbean cropping system (FDCA in M-W-M) >UnK> Conservation agriculture (CA) based system in rice-wheat-mungbean cropping system (CA in R-W-M). The highest stability was recorded in CA in R-W-M and the lowest in FP in R-F-W. Elemental composition of extracted humic acid revealed that carbon content in humic acid varied from 47.53% in uncultivated soils to 51.32% in ICRM in R-W-M. The nitrogen content in humic acid varied from 4.38% in FDCA in M-W-M to 4.89% in CA in R-W-M. Soils having the lowest C/N value was observed 10.03 in CA in R-W-M and the highest C/N ratio of value 11.72 was recorded in FDCA in M-W-M. Wave no.  (cm-1) & proposed functional group of extracted humic acid revealed that FTIR peak at 1507-1508 cm-1 in CA in R-W-M, aromatic -C=C- peak was absent in FDCA in M-W-M and in FP in R-F-W it was replaced by aliphatic C-H stretch.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Processing and Fermentation on Functional Properties and on Anti-nutritional Factors in Horse Gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum)

B. H. Sarvani, V. C. Suvarna, K. Harish Kumar, P. Ranadev, H. C. Girisha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3731086

Aim: The study was conducted to understand the Effect of processing and fermentation on functional properties and on anti-nutritional factors in Horse Gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum).

Place and Duration of Work: The study was carried out in Department of Agricultural Microbiology, GKVK, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore during 2019-20.

Methodology: Horse gram seeds were procured from National seed project, thoroughly cleaned and were subjected to different processing methods (soaking, roasting, cooking and germination) and ground into flour. Then, the processed flours were analyzed for altered functional properties like bulk density, water and oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity and stability etc. The raw seeds were directly milled into flour without any processing and used as control. Further, all processed flours were subjected to fermentation and compared with non fermented flours for reduction of antinutritional factors (tannins and phytates).

Results: The functional properties of unprocessed (raw) horse gram flour was recorded with values of 0.95 g / g (Bulk density), 1.87 g / mL(water absorption capacity),1.45 g / mL(oil absorption capacity), 7.56% (foaming capacity) and 70.78% for foaming stability. Whereas, the processing significantly altered the functional properties. When it comes to antinutritional factors, unprocessed flour recorded with 7.9 mg / g of tannins and 0.96 mg / g of phytates. The processing in combination with fermentation facilitate further reduction of antinutrients compared to processing alone (without fermentation). Among them, fermented germinated flour and fermented cooked flour proven their efficiency in reduction of tannins (61.3 and 62.5%) and phytates (54.1 and 46.8%) compared to other processed flours.

Conclusion: Based on results, it is evidenced that processing altered functional properties of horse gram effectively. However, processing combined with fermentation yielded higher reduction in  antinutritional factors compared to processing alone. Further, germinated flour and cooked flour on fermentation were found to yield significantly higher reduction in antinutritional factors thereby enhancing its utilization in functional foods as main / partial ingredient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Minimum Performance Standards of Tillage Implements

Maan Singh, Mukesh Jain, Vivek R. Kamat, . Aman, Manoj Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 46-55
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3731087

This article focuses on formulation of minimum performance standards (MPS) for tillage machinery such as rotavator, disc harrow and cultivator. The required minimum performance standard of different tillage machinery under sandy loam soil condition is discussed further in this paper and recommended in order to ensure availability of quality tillage machinery to the farmers. The minimum performance standards for minimum depth of cut, minimum depth of puddle, minimum area covered per meter working width, minimum field efficiency, maximum fuel consumption per meter working width, minimum puddling index and maximum PTO power requirement per meter working width is 6.50 cm, 14 cm, 0.23 ha h-1, 76%, 3.0 l h-1, 77% and 11 kW respectively. The minimum performance standards for minimum depth of cut, minimum area covered per meter of working width, minimum field efficiency, maximum fuel consumption per meter of working width, maximum draft per meter of working width and maximum drawbar power per meter of working width of disc harrow is 8 cm, 0.43 ha h-1, 70%, 3.0 l h-1, 213 kg-f and 4.0 kW respectively. Similarly, minimum performance of the cultivators were recommended based on the analysis of results of different parameters such as minimum depth of cut, minimum area covered per meter of working width, minimum field efficiency, maximum fuel consumption per meter of working width, maximum draft per meter of working width and maximum drawbar power per meter of working width is 9 cm, 0.41 ha h-1, 75%, 2.0 l h-1, 244 kg-f and 3.4 kW respectively. Along with the performance parameters, other requirements like safety, dimensions, label, material of construction and breakdowns are discussed and recommended.