Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Anisotropy on Natural Convection in a Vertical Porous Cavity Filled with a Heat Generation

Degan Gerard, Sokpoli Amavi Ernest, Akowanou Djidjoho Christian, Vodounnou Edmond Claude

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 12-27
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531049

This research was devoted to the analytical study of heat transfer by natural convection in a vertical cavity, confining a porous medium, and containing a heat source. The porous medium is hydrodynamically anisotropic in permeability whose axes of permeability tensor are obliquely oriented relative to the gravitational vector and saturated with a Newtonian fluid. The side walls are cooled to the temperature  and the horizontal walls are kept adiabatic. An analytical solution to this problem is found for low Rayleigh numbers by writing the solutions of mathematical model in polynomial form of degree n of the Rayleigh number. Poisson equations obtained are solved by the modified Galerkin method. The results are presented in term of streamlines and isotherms. The distribution of the streamlines and the temperature fields are greatly influenced by the permeability anisotropy parameters and the thermal conductivity. The heat transfer decreases considerably when the Rayleigh number increases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Project Design on Sustainability of World Vision Community Development Projects in North Rift Kenya

Agneta Chepchumba Pkassan, Geoffrey Kiptum Kimutai

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 28-38
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531050

Sustainability of the funded projects is of utmost importance if the impact of funding these projects is to be realized. Despite project feasibility studies being done prior to commencement of the projects, sustainability is still not guaranteed. Thus, the main purpose of the study was to identify the effect of project design on sustainability of World Vision community development projects in North Rift Kenya. This study was guided by systems theory. The research used cross sectional survey design. The target population was 1500 respondents’ four County project managers, 20 project officers, 40 project coordinators, 20 accountants, 240 CDF facilitators and 240 community members. The researcher adopted stratified, simple random and purposive sampling technique to select respondent. The sample size was 316 respondents comprising of four County project managers, 11 project officers, 22 project coordinators, 11 accountants, 133 CDF facilitators and 133 community members to participate in the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics included frequencies and percentages. Regression was used to test the hypotheses. Descriptive statistics included frequencies and percentages. Regression was used to test the hypotheses. Project design had a significant influence on sustainability of World Vision community development projects (β1=0.403, p<0.05). To improve Kenya’s rating on sustainability, the government needs to focus on the training of beneficiaries on sustainability so that they can take full control of the project when the financial support has come to an end. In addition, incorporation of sustainability into project design, and provision of support beyond the project completion is critical in ensuring that World Vision projects are sustainable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Analysis of the Ethanolic Extract of Rosehip Seed Press Cake

E. B. Tanor, R. P. Matamane, I. Hapazari, S. Magama

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 57-67
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531054

Aims: Rosehip seed press cake is a waste material in the industrial extraction of rosehip seed oil using cold press process. The current study seeks to evaluate the phytochemical profile, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract of rosehip seed press cake using standard methods and DPPH assay.

Study Design:  This is an experimental laboratory report on the phytochemical properties and antioxidant potential of the ethanolic semi-solid extract (ESE) of rosehip seed press cake in order to assess its commercial viability as a food supplement.

Place and Duration of Study:  The work was conducted in the Department of Chemistry, National University of Lesotho, from August 2019 to March 2020. 

Methodology: Ethanol was used for the extraction of the semi-solid extract (ESE) from the rosehip seed press cake. The ESE was analysed for phytochemical constituents using standard methods. In vitro antioxidant activity of the ESE was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. For data analysis, mean and standard deviation were computed for each parameter that was quantitatively determined.

Results: Presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, sterols, glycosides, reducing sugars, proteins, amino acids, fatty acids, phenols and polyphenols in the ESE was confirmed. Total phenolics and flavonoids content were found to be 134.44 mg GAE/g DW and 73.23 mg QE/g DW, in the range of 200 to 3000 µg/ml respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract was found to be in the range 10.32±3.89 and 76.06±3.48% within the concentration range and was very close to the scavenging activity of DPPH at concentrations ≥ 1500 µg/ml. The ESE showed an IC50 value of 1367.06 µg/ml relative to that of the positive control, ascorbic acid, being <200 µg/ml.

Conclusion: The ESE from the rosehip seed press cake was found to be very promising as a food supplement since 50% of the 16 screened phyto-constituents were present in high concentrations; 6.25% were detected in moderate concentrations and another 6.25% were present in low concentrations. Furthermore, the ESE exhibited antioxidant properties. Further studies are recommended to obtain more information on its composition and suitability additive in animal feed or as a food supplement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints in the Production and Marketing of Cabbage in Khandwa District of Madhya Pradesh

B. S. Rathod, R. K. Narvariya, A. Shrivastava

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 78-82
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531056

Cabbage is one of the most popular winter vegetables grown in India. It is cultivated in 0.245 million hectares with the total production of 5.617 million metric tonnes and average productivity of 22.9 metric tonnes/hectare. Cabbage is used as salad, boiled vegetable and dehydrated vegetable as well as in cooked curries and pickles. A multi-stage random sampling technique was adopted for data collection. The study was conducted in block Pandhana district of Khandwa (M.P.) where cabbage is an important cash crop. observed constraints in production of cabbage, High cost of quality seed (86.66%), Lack of labour (78.33%), Costly and irregular supply of electricity (75%), Costly irrigation due to higher electricity charges (73.33%), Lack of knowledge about insect, pest and diseases (63.33%), Lack of capital (60%), Costly equipments (51.67%), Lack of knowledge about seed treatment (41.66%) and High wages of labour charge (30%) were the major constraints reported and the proper correction, amendment or allocation requires to be observed as indicated in resource use productivity analysis, per hectare higher returns of cabbage as well as higher return ratio over per rupee invested cost shows better prospect for area expansion and production of cabbage cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Insight into Digital Education in India during COVID-19 from the Lens of Students

G. Padmini Devi, Sirisha Deepthi Sornapudi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 83-94
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531057

Aim: To identify infrastructure facilities used by the students for digital education as well as to find out the significant difference in knowledge and skills of various online tools before and after lockdown.

Study Design:  Exploratory design.

Place and Duration of Study: Students from the government, aided colleges, and state agriculture universities in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana were administered the questionnaire in May 2020.

Methodology: A total of 315 students (age range under 20-40 years) actively participating in online classes were chosen.

Results: The majority of the students possessed mobile phones even before lockdown and used them for digital learning. Students reported an increase in the amount spent on internet connectivity per month (50%), increased usage of data (70%), and increased recharge amount (46%). Since the overall mobile data usage of the students has greatly increased, consequently the amount spent on the internet also has increased after lockdown. Although most students (90.48%) were aware of online education, only 30.79% were enrolled in online classes before lockdown. Three fourth of the students were using smartphones for accessing online classes and more than fifty per cent of the students were spending two to three hours per day in the digital learning process. When it came to knowledge up-gradation, 48.89% of the students have not made use of any e-learning platform, only 21.27% used the Swayam e-learning portal, and 12.06% used UGC MOOCs. During the lockdown, students were actively participating in the online classes, which could be gleaned from their knowledge of various apps. There was a significant difference in the students’ usage of various applications before and after lockdown. There exists a significant difference between students’ knowledge of usage of apps, data, the amount spent, and time spent in the digital learning process during Covid-19. Students who were active in the online classes inadvertently consumed more amounts of mobile data, which gave them continuous network coverage enabling them to finish assignments, attend webinars, and in turn improved their knowledge.

Conclusion: Despite hardships, the students were actively engaged in digital learning during the lockdown period imposed due to Covid-19 by adapting to the new normal mode of online education.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parametric Strategy for Composite Cement Concrete Blended with Fly Ash & Glass Fiber

Madhurima Das, Siba Prasad Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 162-176
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531065

Coping with population growth, houses are built to meet the hike. The prerequisites for concrete and steel reinforcements have surged up globally since last 3 to 4decades. Shortage of natural building materials, increased wastes from coal based industries to augment carbon foot print has worried the engineers to reuse their wastes (such as fibres, powders, granules, etc.) as building materials ingredient. Glass fibre has improved flexural capabilities with fly ash dosages in cement concrete and alternately helps in restricting environmental degradation. Present research aims at investigating the impact of glass fiber (at 1%, 2% and 3% addition) and fly ash (dosages of 10% and 20% over the existing fly ash in PPC). The ingredients and microstructure of composites are found by either X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy or scanning electron microscope. Experimental evaluation results of the blended composite concrete parameters of RCC are experimentally evaluated and compared have shown that concrete with 10% cement substitution with fly ash and 3% fibre showed optimum compressive strength performance than the concrete without fibre and fly ash and also chemically resistant against commonly used M-20 grade of Concrete.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chaos Suppression in a Pendulum Equation through Parametric Excitation with Phase Shift for Ultra-Subharmonic Resonance

Xianwei Chen, Xiangling Fu, Jintao Tan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531048

Under ultra-subharmonic resonance, we investigate the chaos suppression of pendulum equation by using Melnikov methods, and get the conditions of suppressing chaos for homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits, respectively. At the same time, we give some numerical simulations including the bifurcation diagrams of system and corresponding phase diagrams, and observe that the chaos behaviors of system may be suppressed to period-n(n ∈ Z+) orbits by adjusting the value of Ψ. Although our results are only necessary, not sufficient. Numerical simulations show that our method is effect in suppressing chaos for this case.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tax and Pandemic; Curbing Carbon Burden of India’s Blue Sky

Siba Prasad Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 39-56
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531053

Out line: Carbon dioxide is one of major signatures of Anthropocene. Energy sector contribute maximum to CO2 emission. Reaching 1.4billion population, India must strides to provide affordable, riskless, secure, uninterrupted and cleaner energy with energy security prioritized. The CO2 emission in India was 2201.865 MT CO2 e in 2019 matched to 2172.19 MT CO2e in the previous year. The apocalyptic pandemic of COVID19 have shut down the cities and forced people to migrate to native places as a result the carbon dioxide level has reduced in the sky.

Methodology: After carbon tax implementation from 2010 and post Paris Agreement surge in Carbon tax in India’s climate from 2015 there was slow decline of CO2 level in the ever rising global grey sky. The carbon tax had raised faster rate but its effect was slow. Lockdowns, closures and confinement during the pandemic COVID-19 from March 2020 in India is the real-life experience explaining the additive control of carbon level of polluted air along with the burden of carbon tax globally including India.

Discussion: The socio-economic impact of shutdowns of all industrial units, power generation and transport sectors along with immediate migration of all workers to their native place have dropped carbon level in air and initialized the concept of blue sky thinking. The present apocalyptic complex pandemic without vaccine has forced the government machinery to be utilized for life, neglecting livelihood. Presently after 4 stages of lock downs, the uplift of restrictions in 5th stage is allowed for lively hood and socio-economic sustenance.

Conclusion: As post pandemic measures under economic bankruptcy, the Indian government should initiate strategic plans to restore the socio-economic normalcy and relax the heavy carbon tax on Indians as the carbon level is reduced as a major impact of COVID-19 during 2020.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Moderation Effect of Resource Implementation Factors on Performance Contracting and Public Service Delivery in Huduma Centres in Kenya

Wesonga Justus Nyongesa, Samson Ntongai, Charles Ondoro

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 68-77
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531055

The Kenyan Government has pressures from its citizens to improve on service delivery and be responsive to citizen’s needs. Attempts such as privatization, voluntary early retirement and restructuring failed to improve the service delivery. Performance contracting was introduced to address the decline and is now being used together with Huduma Centres. The centres serve 30,000 customers daily against a target of 60,000 customers. On revenue, the centres collect Kshs 12 billion annually against a target of Kshs 30 billion according to a Government report of 2020. Focus from previous studies in resolving this around performance contracting have majorly been case studies and not surveys. Further from reviewed literature, performance contracting influence service delivery, performance and accountability. However other studies reveal that it does not result in increased customer care activities, effectiveness and efficiency and reduction in the number of customer complaints. These are mixed findings from case studies, an indicator of a moderation effect yet to be tested. Additionally, reviewed studies show that resource factors influence service delivery. The purpose of this research was to establish the moderating effect of resource implementation factors on the relationship between performance contracting and service delivery in the Huduma Centres of Kenya. The study was anchored on Vroom’s Expectancy Theory and Goal Setting Theory and utilized correlational survey research design. The target population was 276 workers at the 5 Huduma Centres in Western Region in a census survey. Pilot results (N=10) revealed 20-item instrument overall mean reliability α=0.898. Validity was checked and confirmed by expert review. Results revealed proportion of variance in the Service delivery explained by the resource implementation factors (∆R2=0.088; p=0.000) positively and significantly moderated the relationship significantly implying the interactive effect of resource implementation factors improved service delivery levels by 8.8%. The study concluded that performance contracting practices are significant predictors of service delivery levels; resource factors has a positive moderating effect (B= 0.197, p=0.000) on the relationship between performance contracting and service delivery. Recommendations were that firms should continue enhancing performance contracting practices by providing resource implementation factors as these efforts enhance service delivery in Huduma Centres in Kenya. The study’s significance is in contributing new literature and in government policy formulation by isolating resource implementation factors as key variables for improving public sector service delivery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Association of Morpho-physiological Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Puneet Kumar, Y. P. S. Solanki, Vikram Singh, . Kiran

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 95-105
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531059

The experiment was conducted with 60 genotypes of bread wheat. These genotypes were grown in RBD using three replications during Rabi 2016-17 at Research Area of Wheat and Barley Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS HAU, Hisar. To study the variability, correlation and path analysis, data were recorded for yield and its component traits i.e. days to 50% heading, days to anthesis, grain growth rate at 14, 21, 28 days (mg/g/day), plant height (cm), number of effective tillers/meter, flag leaf length (cm), flag leaf width (cm), flag leaf area (cm2), spike length (cm), number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight (g), grain yield per plot (g), biological yield/plot (g) and harvest index (%). ANOVA showed highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits indicating adequacy of material and the traits studied for further assessment of genetic variability parameters. High value of GCV and PCV was recorded for grain yield per plot, followed by biological yield, indicating greater amount of variability among the genotypes. Highest heritability was recorded for days to 50% heading, followed by days to anthesis. Highly significant and positive association was perceived between grain yield and tillers per meter, plant height, number of grains per spike, number of spikelets per spike, flag leaf area, grain growth rate at 14, 21 and 28 days after anthesis, spike length, 1000 grain weight, biological yield and harvest index. The high direct effects were recorded for biological yield, harvest index, flag leaf breadth, number of effective tillers per meter and 1000 grain weight, in order.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio Economic Status of Cabbage Growers in Khandwa District of Madhya Pradesh

B. S. Rathod, R. K. Narvariya, A. Shrivastava

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 116-122
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531062

A study was conducted in 2016-17 for socioeconomic study of cabbage producing farmers in Khandwa district of Madhya Pradesh. Block Pandhana district of Khandwa (M.P.) was purposively selected for the study because of its potentiality on vegetable production. A sample of 60 farmers in the ratio of 20:20:20 was selected randomly. Primary data was collected using interview schedule, direct observation, focus group discussion, key informant interview whereas secondary data was collected from various web reviews, publications and reports of different governmental as well as non-governmental agencies. This indicated that in the study area agriculture farming is basically in the hand of the farmers mostly belonged to backward classes and a few also belonged to general category. It was due to fact that elder farmers fragmented their holding into holdings due to distribution of land among the spouses. It is also apparent that (16.66%) of the cabbage growers were illiterate and got only formal education. The average size of operational land holdings of selected farmers was 1.35 hectare, 3.2 hectare and 6.6 hectare on small, medium and large size farms respectively. The entire land was owned and operated by selected farmers and none have leased out or leased in land for cultivation. Small size farm higher human labour days were a result of sufficient availability of family labour. The entire land was owned and operated by selected farmers and none have leased out or leased in land for cultivation. The average net sown area of small, medium and large size farm was 1.28, 3.04 and 6.27 hectare respectively. Almost entire land holdings were well irrigated. On the basis of above observation it may be conclude that on small size farm higher human labour days was a result of sufficient availability of family labour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analyzing the Effect of Different Levels of Pruning on Growth, Yield and Quality of Psidium guajava L. Cv. Lalit (Guava)

Amrish Kumar, Saket Mishra, Ravi Kumar Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 177-183
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531066

The present investigation entitled „„Effect of different levels of pruning on growth, yield and quality of guava. (Psidium guajava L.) Cv. Lalit” guava plant at the Horticulture Research Field, Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Naini, Prayagraj agro-climatic condition during 2019-20. The data had been statistically analyzed by using Randomized Block Design. In this experiment, seven pruning treatments (control, 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm,40 cm, 50 cm and 60 cm) significantly influenced cropping pattern of guava viz. plant height (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 DAP), No. of flowers / tree, Fruit set (%), Days to first fruit harvest, Number of fruit per tree, Fruit weight (gm.), Fruit diameter (cm), Yield (Kg/Plant), Yield (t/ha.), TSS (%), Acidity (%). The maximum fruit yield was recorded in T4 (30 cm pruning) (13.33 kg) per plant and the minimum yield was recorded in T1 (Control) (8.19 kg) per plant.

Open Access Review Article

Pythium Soft Rot Management in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) – A Review

Sunita Behera, Parshuram Sial, Himangshu Das, Kedareswar Pradhan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 106-115
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531061

Ginger crop is affected by various diseases. Among them rhizome/soft rot is the most damaging one and main production constraint in ginger growing areas. This disease is mainly caused by the Pythium spp. along with association of some others micro-organisms. The severity of Pythium soft rot disease is influenced by different factors related to seed, environment and soil. This study was focused on Pythium soft rot of ginger with special reference to different management strategies. Different cultural measures viz. seed rhizome treatment before storage and sowing, selection of disease free seed rhizome, sowing time, application of soil amendments, good drainage of soil, soil solarization etc. are the important measures for management of ginger soft rot. Seed treatment and soil drenching are the two options of chemical control of soft rot. Seed rhizomes treated with fungicides azoxystrobin 25%, tebuconazole 25.9%, copper oxychloride 50%, carbendazim 50%, propiconazole 25%, metalaxyl-M 4% + mancozeb 64%, metiram 55% + pyraclostrobin 5%, carbendazim 12% + mancozeb 63%, tebuconazole 25% + trifloxystrobin 25% and metalaxyl 8% + mancozeb 64% resulted in effective management. Different fungicide formulations viz. carbendazim 50%, copper oxychloride 50%, metalaxyl-M 4% + mancozeb 64%, metiram 55% + pyraclostrobin 5%, carbendazim 12% + mancozeb 63%, tebuconazole 25% + trifloxystrobin 25% etc. found effective for spraying. Seed treatment and application of Trichoderma spp. found suitable for effective biological management.

Open Access Review Article

Cyber Partner Abuse: Recognizing Patterns and Breaking the Cycle

Ritu Singh, Manisha Mehra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 123-132
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531063

In present era, virtual and real worlds have become profoundly interwoven and cyber-mediated communications have permanently altered the dynamics of every relationship. Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) makes communication process more progressive and dynamic enhancing emotional intimacy and commitment in relationships. But, at the same time they present various threats and abuse. It incites individuals into publicizing their personal lives [especially intimate matters]. This has led to conceptualization of various modes for perpetrating intimate partner violence or in simpler terms cyber partner abuse. This form of abuse involves practices such as stalking, spamming, posting intimate information to embarrass or humiliate the partner and so on. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the existing literature on cyber partner abuse. This review examines the characteristics and conceptualizations in the cyber partner abuse literature as well as the major topics the research has explored. This will help in early detection of such crimes and strengthening of support systems for victims through provision of direct services and policies.

Open Access Review Article

Research Development on Wiper Mechanism in Automotive Application: A Critical Review

A. Sharveswaran, Umar Nirmal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 133-161
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3531064

In this generation, usage of transportation vehicles is drastically increased. It is very important to improve the safety facility in an automobile vehicles. Due to this, many researchers have contributed to research and development on smart wind shield wiper mechanism in automotive. Considering that, the current work compiles a compilation of articles reviewed on smart wind shield wiper mechanism from year 1903 to 2015. Further than that, this work also provides information relating to the varying designs and specifications of smart windshield wiper mechanism. At the same time, the writers also propose potential future research that could be undertaken in relation to the development in wiper mechanism in automotive application, which in turn may allow for new research pathways in this area of interest. Finally, taking into consideration the design and safety factors of the current market trend wiper mechanism, the writes also propose possible windshield washing system for various application.