Open Access Original Research Article

Understanding the Nutritional Status of Farming Community in Rural Areas of India: An Empirical Interpretation with Policy Implication from Socio-Economic and Gender Perspective

Swagata Ghoshal, Monirul Haque, Kabita Mondal, Samrat Sikdar, S. K. Acharya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431032

Aims: In this empirical study an attempt is made to examine the relative importance of some socio-economic and demographic variables that affect the nutrition of farming community. This empirical study has been carried out for farmers and farm women separately and also for both combined to understand both ecological and gender dimensions. The major objective of the study is to conduct a series of participatory exercises to generate a micro level response data, which are primary in nature under the canopy of the title.

Study Design: The locale was selected by purposive sampling technique and the respondents were selected by the simple random sampling method.

Place of Study: Four gram panchayats namely Sihar, Deshra Koalpara, Lowgram and Kotulpur of the Kotulpur block of Bankura district in West Bengal were purposively selected for the study.

Methodology: In this study 50 farmers and 50 farm women have been interacted and are selected by the simple random sampling method. A preliminary interview schedule has been administered to understand the knowledge, perception and attitude of the people towards nutritional concept, communication and extension system, malnutrition. The gathered data had been put into multivariate analysis. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences V20.0 (SPSS) of IBM was used for analyzing the correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, step-down regression analysis, path analysis, canonical covariate analysis and artificial neural network analysis.

Results: Several independent variables like age (x1), functional literacy (x2), family size (x4), no of farm activities (x5), working hour per day (x6), distance of work place from residence (x7), wages received (x8), duration of employment (x9), per capita income (x12), per capita expenditure (x13), deviation of blood pressure (x15), pulse rate (x16), dizziness (x17) and status of drinking water (x18) have been identified as strongest determinants to characterize output variable nutrition (y).

Conclusion: The present study has uniquely landed on the value of some important empirical revelation. It can be concluded that farmers, having low income, are suffering from malnutrition most due to low calorie intake. Ensuring pure drinking water for all in rural areas is still a distant dream. A lot of farm women are suffering from dizziness and anemia due to lack of balanced diet. Malnutrition is still prevalent at significant levels especially in rural areas and the most vulnerable are children, women and elderly especially of lower income groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Augmenting in vitro Shoot Multiplication by Growth Regulators and Photoperiod in Vigna mungo L. (Hepper.)

Soumya Sucharita Singh, Cinmaya Pradhan, Dhaneswar Swain, Gyana Ranjan Rout

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 36-45
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431035

An efficient in vitro protocol was developed for the mass multiplication of Vigna mungo vars. PU30 and PU31, an important legume crop through apical meristems and cotyledonary nodal explants. Both apical meristems and cotyledonary nodal explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS, 1962) medium fortified with 0.5 – 1.50 mg/L 6- benzyl aminopurine (BA) or Kinetin and 3 % (w/v) sucrose. The rate of multiplication was higher when the cultures were incubated under continuous light (24h) than the 16h photoperiod. The average number of multiple shoots per culture was enhanced from 2.43 to 5.46 in the case of var. PU30 and 3.12 to 5.82 in the case of var.PU31 within 4 weeks of culture under 24h photoperiod. The multiplication rate was enhanced till 5th subculture declined thereafter. Rooting was readily achieved upon transferring the shoots to half-strength MS basal semisolid medium supplemented with 0.1– 1.0 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 2% (w/v) sucrose after 2 weeks of culture.  The average number of roots per explants ranged from 3.12 to 5.76.  About 80% of regenerated plantlets were hardened in the greenhouse and successfully established in the soil. There is no morphological variation among the regenerated plantlets. This protocol can be used for genetic transformation study for crop improvement of black gram.

Open Access Original Research Article

Deltaic Expansions of the Mahanadi Tri-delta and the Chilika Lagoon: Geospatial Approach

Binod Kumar Sethi, Siba Prasad Mishra, Kabir Sethi, Kamal Barik

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 46-65
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431036

Prelude: The major river deltas are sinking, shrinking which accommodate ≈40% of global population. The Mahanadi tri-delta along the east coast of India consists of three river deltas i.e. the Mahanadi, the Bramhani and the Baitarani. The tri-delta encompasses many ecological hubs and the 2nd largest lagoon of Asia, the Chilika Lagoon lies in the southern corner of the delta. Presently the Mahanadi tri-delta and its coastal environments are under threat due to coastal vulnerability, population growth, urbanization and industrialization but the expansion of the delta towards south is observed.

Scope: Present research is ubiquitous to know the quantity of sinking, shrinking and subsidence of the Mahanadi tri-delta under congregation of different geological setting, damming, LULC changes, soil erosion, regional sea level rise, and anthropogenic pressure. Also geospatial geomorphic changes in the anastomosis of  the rivers and drainage channels are studied along with expansion of the delta to its southern fringe

Methodology: The causes of vulnerability of the delta are estimated from sediment inflow and marine transgression is evaluated. The land use and land cover changes has been evaluated and analyzed by using satellite imageries, remote sensing, GIS tools and ERDAS softwares.

Results: The study revealed that due to effect of relative sea-level rise, paucity of sediment influx @ 66.7% to the delta are the main causes for the delta vulnerability accompanied by geo-mining and urbanization. The extention of delta to the south is due to emergence of the Makara river system which carries more flood flow than the existing Daya river. Prominent changes in LU & LC are observed from the satellite imageries of two different period. Changes in the LU &LC of the tri-delta has shown the  extension of the Mahanadi tri-delta towards south and shifting of deltaic boundary from 20 m to 50 m contour line in l landward direction during last four to five decades (recasted).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of ‘Revamped’ Crop Insurance Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) among Paddy Farmers in Tamil Nadu, India

Asha Priyanka Paulraj, Nandakumar Easwaran

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 66-77
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431037

Agricultural sector in India employs more than 50% of the workforce, making crop insurance essential. Crop Insurance in India has continuously evolved for nearly half a decade with various names. With the past knowledge, Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) was implemented during 2016 in a mission to overcome the lacunas in its predecessors. The scheme was revamped during 2020. In this context, a study was conducted to analyse the performance of the scheme among Paddy farmers in the state of Tamil Nadu during 2019 prior to revamping. Thus, this paper has attempted to evaluate the proposed changes in revamping with relevance to the issues faced by various stakeholders of crop insurance. Among the insured farmers, claim not triggered and delay in settlement were the major problems faced in the scheme. Among un-insured farmers, credibility was the major issued for non-enrolment. The study also has collected the response of Agricultural Officials towards the operation of the scheme in the study area. From the results, it was found that the recent revamping is grounded and well planned to make an impact in the crop insurance arena. However, the increase in awareness activities is highly necessary to increase the cover of farmers and to stabilise the numbers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Economically Viable Cropping Systems for Vertisols of Northern Telangana Zone

Firdoz Shahana, M. Goverdhan, S. Sridevi, B. Joseph

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 98-106
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431040

A field experiment was conducted during 2016-17 at AICRP on Integrated Farming Systems, Regional Sugarcane and Rice Research Station, Rudrur to diversify existing rice-rice cropping system with less water requiring crops under irrigated dry conditions for vertisols of Northern Telangana Zone. The experiment was laid out with twelve cropping systems as treatments in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The twelve combinations of cropping systems tested during kharif and rabi seasons were rice – rice (check), maize + soybean (2:4) – tomato, maize + soybean (2:4) - rice, maize - sunflower + chickpea (2:4), maize - chickpea, Bt cotton + soybean (1:2) on broadbed – sesame + groundnut (2:4), Bt cotton - sesame + blackgram (2:4), soybean – wheat, soybean – sunflower + chickpea (2:4), turmeric – sesame, turmeric + soybean (1:2) on flat bed – bajra and turmeric + soybean (1:2) on broadbed – sesame + blackgram (2:4).

On system basis, significantly higher productivity in terms of rice equivalent yield (REY) of 23830 kg ha-1 was recorded with turmeric+soybean (1:2) BBF– sesame+blackgram (2:4) turmeric – sesame cropping sequence. However it was on par with turmeric – sesame and turmeric + soybean (1:2) on flat bed – bajra crop sequence with productivity of 23332 kg ha-1 and 21389 kg ha-1 respectively. Lower productivity was recorded with rice-rice cropping system (10725 kg ha-1). Significantly higher system net returns were recorded with Bt. cotton – sesame + black gram (2:4) on BBF (Rs222838 ha-1) closely followed by Bt Cotton + Soybean (1:2) (BBF) - Sesamum + Groundnut (2:4) (Rs221160 ha-1) and Maize+soybean (2:4)–tomato (Rs212909 ha-1). Lower system net returns were recorded in conventional rice-rice system (Rs88179 ha-1). Bt. cotton – sesame + black gram (2:4) and Bt Cotton + Soybean (1:2) (BBF)- Sesamum + Groundnut ((2:4) and Maize+soybean (2:4)–tomato were economically superior with REE of 152.71%, 150.81% and 141.45%. Rice- Rice cropping adopted by majority of farmers is less productive and economically inferior indicating wider scope of diversifying existing rice- rice cropping system with high productive, economically viable cropping systems in vertisols of Northern Telangana Zone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability Analysis of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes with High Grain Zinc in Five Different Locations of Eastern Uttar Pradesh

S. K. Singh, Partha Pratim Behera, D. K. Singh, Mounika Korada, Sonali Vijay Habde, Amrutlal Khaire

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 123-135
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431042

Rice is a major energy source food crop and a staple food for more than half of the world’s population. The knowledge of mean performance and stability of high grain Zinc rice genotypes  from a multi-location trial is a way to assess the genotypes so as to achieve food and nutritional security. The present research was conducted to study the stability of 21 high grain Zinc rice genotypes for thirteen yield and yield attributing traits in RCBD with 3 replications in five different locations of Eastern Uttar Pradesh using the Eberhart and Russell stability model. Based on the environmental index, Bhikaripur village is identified as the most favourable environment. The inspection of stability and ANOVA revealed that there were significant linear G x E interactions for most of the characters studied expect plant height, spikelet fertility % and total effective tiller number which implied that there were significant variations among the genotypes. The environment + (genotype x environment) was significant for most of the traits except grain L/B ratio representing specific nature of environments and G x E interaction in morphological expression. Based on the stability parameters none of the genotypes could be identified as stable for any traits over the five environments but, IR 97443-11-2-1-1-1-1 –B and Local check (HUR3022) showed stability for high yield in all the environments. The genotype, IR 97443-11-2-1-1-1-1 –B having stability for grain yield per ha with higher mean and short duration, is also stable for grain yield per plant, grain weight per panicle and spikelet fertility % and could be used as high yielding cultivar and can be used as a parent in future breeding programs. The genotype, IR 95044:8-B-5-22-19-GBS is having the highest grain Zinc content. High grain zinc with higher yield was reported in BRRIdhan 64 and it is stable for grain zinc content and can be used for Zinc bio-fortification breeding programs to minimize malnutrition to ensure food and nutritional security. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Detopping on Fodder, Grain Yield and Economics of Rainfed Maize (Zea mays L.)

M. Mohamed Amanullah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 136-142
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431043

Field experiments were conducted at Maize Research Station, Vagarai, Palani Taluk, Tamilnadu during rabi 2018-19 and 2019-20 to find out the influence of detopping on green fodder, grain yield and economics of rainfed maize (Zea mays L.). The experiments were laid out in a factorial randomized block design with three stages and three heights of detopping. Three stages of detopping viz., D1-10 days after 50% silking, D2 -20 days after 50% silking and D3-30 days after 50% silking were tested with three heights of detopping viz., L1 - detopping tassel + 2 leaves, L2 - detopping tassel + 4 leaves and L3 - detopping tassel + 6 leaves with a control (No detopping) replicated thrice. The results of the experiments revealed that detopping 10 days after 50% silking with tassel + 6 leaves recorded higher green fodder yield Regarding grain yield, among the days of detopping, detopping 30 days after 50% silking and detopping 20 days after 50% silking recorded higher yield which were comparable with control (no detopping) (6460 kg / ha). Among the number of leaves, detopping tassel + two leaves recorded higher yield followed by tassel + 4 leaves and both were comparable. Among the treatment combinations, higher grain yield was recorded under detopping 20 days after 50% silking with tassel + 4 leaves followed by detopping 30 days after 50% silking with tassel + 4 leaves and detopping 30 days after 50% silking with tassel + 2 leaves. Regarding economics, higher net return and BC ratio were recorded under the treatment combination of detopping 20 days after 50% silking with tassel + 4 leaves followed by control and detopping 30 days after 50% silking with tassel + 4 leaves.

Open Access Original Research Article

Micro Level Search for COVID-19, Bhubaneswar: Odisha, India

Siba Prasad Mishra, Kumar Chandra Sethi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 143-163
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431045

Outlines: Severe acute respiratory syndrome; coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging virus from 16th Dec 2019, has created virulent pandemic situation over 217 major countries and territories including USA, India, and Brazil etc. There are multiple pharmaceuticals available for treatment. Although no vaccine yet available in the world but few Indian and Russian vaccine results are promising. The treatment procedure is compelling for lock downs and confinements. The COVID-19 is still on the trot from March 24th, 2020 in India so also Odisha and its capital Bhubaneswar killing 87 people and suffering 33454 people and accompanied by ill health, job losses, domestic violence, poverty, food scarcity and loss of mobility.

Scope: To manage the pandemic need good governance, leadership and health-care upgrading, public private partnership, public awareness, risk communication with improvising continuous supply of foods, goods, service systems. Many dynamic epidemic models i.e. SIR and SIS and SEIR and SEIRS are suggested, but the Ganjam practical field model has been observed successful in Odisha like Kerala, Bhilwara (Rajasthan) and Dharabi (Mumbai) models are popular in India. However the present focused areas is Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation which is worst affected hotspot areas for COVID19 in Odisha.

Methodology: The search envisages collection of data of Ganjam, Bhubaneswar, Odisha and India day wise and analyzing the data statistically. The work includes preparing the adoptive model for Ganjam district and age wise. The age group and gender wise analysis of the COVID19 data of Bhubaneswar has been done along with finding the peaks of the outbreak curve in Odisha and the districts.

Results: The micro level investigation revealed that male female confirmed case has a ratio of 67%:33%. The number cases is observed higher from age group is 15 to 41 years. Still the virus has proved causing more mortality to age group >60 in Odisha including Bhubaneswar. The children and women are the least prey to COVID19. The ACE 2 receptors are responsible for infection from SARSCoV2 virus. Ganjam model is one among the successful model to combat against COVID19 for the people of Odisha.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design of Microstrip Patch Antenna Array for 5G Resonate at 3.6GHz

Kalsouabe Zoukalne, Abdoulaye Chaibo, Mahamoud Youssouf Khayal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 164-170
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431046

The paper presents design of microstrip patch antenna array with two elements radiating for 5G C-band access point application resonating at 3.6GHz. Proposed antenna is designed on Rogers RO4350(tm) substrate with 3.54mm thickness and dielectric constant =3.66. The designed antenna has three slots, two placed on each radiating elements and one on the power line. Simulated by using HFSS17.02, the gain of the designed antenna is 9dBi and his bandwidth is 200MHz.Microstrip patch antenna

Open Access Data Articles

Identification of Efficient Cropping Zone for Maize in Tamil Nadu

S. Sanbagavalli, M. Jeeva, K. Vikram

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 78-81
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431038

An analytical study was made in the Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore. The study was conducted for finding the identification of potential district of maize in Tamil Nadu based on the area, production, productivity data collected from 1998-1999 to 2015-2016. Based on the data relative spread index (RSI) and relative yield index (RYI) were calculated. The results showed that among 32 districts of Tamil Nadu five districts such as Ariyalur, Coimbatore, Erode, Theni, Tiruppur are very potential districts for cultivating the maize crop. From the analysis, parameters like RYI and RSI are high and these are potential districts and some districts are having RSI more but RYI less which indicates that non-suitability of the crop to that area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Integrated Farming System Model for Resource Recycling and Livelihood Security of Small and Marginal Farmers of Telangana State, India

M. Goverdhan, Ch. Pragathi Kumari, G. Kiran Reddy, S. Sridevi, M. D. Alibaba, K. Chiranjeevi, M. Santhosh Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 17-26
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431033

Integrated farming system (IFS) model comprising the components like crop, horticulture, diary, sheep and poultry rearing was undertaken at All India Coordinated Project on Integrated farming system, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad from 2010-11 onwards. Holistic integration of animals with crops in 1 ha area resulted in a total productivity of 36.4 t REY ha-1 with the benefit cost ratio of 0.85 and net income of Rs.2,97,770/- with the total operational expenditure of Rs.3,48,796/- compared to that of an average farmers’ net income of Rs. 52,000 in Southern Telangana Zone of Telangana state in addition to generation of 602 man days of employment in the system. Out of this total net income, 54.02% returns from crop component including fodder, 10.43% returns from horticulture component and 31.9% from livestock unit, were recorded in the present model of Crop-Livestock-Horticulture along with production of diverse needs of farm family viz., cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fruits, vegetable, milk, meat and fodder for cattle. Through residue recycling and manure production 11.47 t of FYM, 70 kg of LPG equivalent gas and 1.81 t of biogas slurry were generated  which is equal to 91-42-75 kg of N, P and K and saved worth of Rs 12133/-. Continuous use of crop residues and manures through residue recycling over these years helped improving the soil fertility of the unit with perceptible improvement in organic carbon from an initial status of 0.35% in ID block to 0.53%.  Integrated farming system approach recorded 37.7 and 52.2 per cent higher productivity and profitability, respectively over conventional rice-groundnut system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-Chemical Properties of Four Selected Groundnut Varieties

M. Sravani, Sreenivasula Reddy Boreddy, M. Madhava, P. Lavanya Kumari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 27-35
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431034

The physico-chemical properties of four popular groundnut (peanut) varieties namely Trombay-Akola Groundnut-24 (TAG-24), Kadiri-6 (K6), Kadiri-9 (K9), and Kadiri-Harithandra (KH) were determined by following the standard measurement methods. The average geometrical mean diameter (GMD) and sphericity values of peanut pods ranged from 14.91 mm (K9) to 16.61 mm (KH) and from 0.56 to 0.63, respectively. The 100 whole pods mass for four different peanut varieties are significantly different from each other. The bulk density of peanut pods ranged from 232.7 kg/m3 (K9) to 289.0 kg/m3 (K6) and these are significantly different from each other. The calculated porosity values for peanut pods varied from 37.89% (KH) to 47.32% (TAG-24). For the kernels, the highest GMD value of 10.57 mm was recorded for the KH variety and the lowest GMD value of 9.33 mm was found for the K6 variety. Sphericity values for peanut kernels ranged from 0.71 (K6) to 0.78 (K9). The average 100 kernels mass ranged from 46.23 g (TAG-24) to 56.34 g (for K9). The bulk density of kernels ranged from 583.4 kg/m3 (K9) to 611.9 kg/m3 (K6). However, the bulk density of peanut kernels is not significantly different for the varieties from each other. The true density values of peanut kernels ranged from1020.4 kg/m3 (K6) to 1052.0 kg/m3 (TAG-24). The porosity values for peanut kernels ranged from 40.06% (K6) to 43.64% (TAG-24) and they are not significantly different for the varieties from each other. Among all the varieties, KH variety had the lowest ash content of 2.18% and also the lowest protein content. The oil content of selected peanut varieties ranged from 45.36% (K9) to 48.22% (KH).The physical properties measured in this study are helpful to design and develop suitable pre and primary processing equipment. Proximate composition gives an idea to decide peanut’s suitability for manufacturing products such as peanut butter. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Occupational Health and Safety Management in Selected Stone Quarries in Akamkpa, Cross River State, Nigeria

Akaninyene Edet Ekong, Chikere Ezeokoro, Eucharia Oluchi Nwaichi, Realman Evans Obele

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 107-122
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431041

This research aims to study the management of and implementation of occupational health and safety issues associated with stone quarry work in selected quarries in Akamkpa, Cross River State Nigeria. The research objectives include to determine the types of quarrying activities carried out; to assess the occupational health and safety hazards associated with stone-quarry work; to evaluate the awareness of Quarry workers on potential health and safety hazards associated with their work; establish the level of compliance to the use of Personal Protective Equipment by the workers, and to verify the type of health care provision available to the workers. With a target population of four hundred and thirty-five (435) staff of twelve (12) quarries, A sample of two hundred and five (205) respondents was drawn from the target population through simple random sampling procedure. Questionnaires were the major instrument used for data collection and designed in a 4-point modified Likert scale based on the objectives of the study and validated to be in conformance with ISO 45001:2018 checklist.  Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings were that 61.7% of respondents are aware that quarry work is highly hazardous, 84.6% do not make use of Personal Protective Equipment. 93.5% inhale particulate materials, 60% have trouble in breathing, 63% experience back and waist pain, 67.2% experience catarrh and 66.7% experience cough at work. 91.5% of workers responded that there were no emergency provisions at site while 96.5% respondents do not have any health insurance, a large percent (85.1%) self-medicates. The totality of evidence from this research supports the conclusions that stone-quarry workers are highly exposed to health and safety hazards, they have no PPE or access to medical care. It is recommended that the Federal and State Government should establish laws and establish an agency to regulate, enforce and monitor compliance to health and safety in Quarries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Self-Sufficiency of Rice Consumption and Farm Entrepreneurship of Operating Farmers in Rural Areas of West Bengal, India: An Empirical Interpretation from Socio-Personal, Agro-Economic, Socio-Psychological and Communicative Variables

Debraj Roy, Swagata Ghoshal, S. K. Acharya, Arindam Ghosh, Debashis Mazumder, Amitava Biswas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 171-180
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431047

Aims: The major objectives of the study are to elucidate the distributive characters of operating farms in the selected locale of the study, to delineate a micro level policy so that the constraints of the operating farms can be analyzed and intervention programmes can be operationally described, to estimate and analyze the nature and direction of interaction among the independent and dependent variables.

Study Design: The locale was selected by purposive as well as simple random sampling techniques and the respondents following rice cultivation had been interacted and were selected by the simple random sampling method.

Place of Study: Village Rasulpur of Memari-1 block of Purba Bardhaman district in West Bengal was purposively selected for the study.

Methodology: In this study 50 respondents following rice cultivation have been interacted and are selected by the simple random sampling method. A preliminary interview schedule has been administered to understand the knowledge, perception and attitude of the people towards climate changes concept, communication and extension system, farm enterprises, challenges faced during rice production. The collected data had been put into multivariate analysis. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences V20.0 (SPSS) of IBM was used for correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, step-down regression analysis, path analysis and factor analysis.

Results: Independent variables economic land (x7), group interaction (x11), innovation proneness (x13) and market orientation (x14) have been found to exert strong and determining contribution to estimate dependent variable self-consumption of rice production (y) and the set of economic and ecological variables as selected for the study.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the dynamics of self-sufficiency of food grains and entrepreneurship, here in case of rice enterprises, are dominantly relying on the entrepreneurs’ behavioural characters, the group interaction they are experiencing, the economic land they are possessing, the electricity consumption level, and the fuel use efficiency, innovation proneness and market interaction.

Open Access Review Article

Unified Ontology Implementation of Cloud Computing for Distributed Systems

Zainab Salih Ageed, Rowaida Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed A. M. Sadeeq

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 82-97
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3431039

The ability to provide massive data storage, applications, platforms plus many other services leads to make the number of clouds services providers been increased. Providing different types of services and resources by various providers implies to get a high level of complexity. This complexity leads to face many challenges related to security, reliability, discovery, service selection, and interoperability. In this review, we focus on the use of many technologies and methods for utilizing the semantic web and ontology in cloud computing and distributed system as a solution for these challenges. Cloud computing does not have an own search engine to satisfy the needs of the providers of the cloud service. Using ontology enhances the cloud computing self-motivated via an intelligent framework of SaaS and consolidating the security by providing resources access control. The use RDF and OWL semantic technologies in the modeling of a multi-agent system are very effective in increases coordination the interoperability. One of the most efficient proposed frameworks is building cloud computing marketplace that collects the consumer's requirements of cloud services provider and managing these needs and resources to provide quick and reliable services.