Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Rennet Casein and Whey Protein Concentrate on Extrusion Behavior of Maize Flour

T. R. Thirumuruga Ponbhagavathi, Ashish Kumar Singh, P. Narender Raju, Neelam Upadhyay

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 16-27
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331014

The present study was carried out to find out the effect of blending of maize flour (MF) with varying levels of Rennet casein (RC 6, 8%) and Whey protein concentrate-70 (WPC-70  4, 8%) at different feed moisture content (12,14%) on the physico-chemical characteristics (pasting properties, colour, expansion  ratio, bulk density, hardness, water absorption and water solubility index, resistant starch), sensory properties of extrudates and their changes in physico-chemical (TBA and Free Fatty acids) as well as sensory properties of extrudates during storage. Physical parameters like, bulk density, WAI, WSI, expansion ratio, texture profile (hardness and crispiness) shown significant (p<0.05) variation among the treatments. Addition of RC and WPC-70 increased the setback viscosity and decreased the peak, breakdown and final viscosity. The hunter L* value, a* value and b* value were significantly (p< 0.05) affected by the type and level of addition of protein. Incorporation of RC and WPC-70 upto 8% to maize flour was more suitable for protein enriched snack base with good overall acceptability of product. The developed extrudate was packaged in metallized Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) pouches and stored under 25±1°C and 37±1°C for 1 month and monitored at weekly interval. The resistant starch content of extrudates increased from 45 to 128 mg/ 100 g and 132 mg/ 100 g of sample stored at 25°C and 37°C at the end of storage. Changes in TBA value was non-significant and FFA value increased significantly (p<0.05) due to hydrolytic rancidity. The sensory scores obtained for color and appearance, texture and overall acceptability did not have any significant variation (p>0.05), however the flavour scores decreased significantly (p<0.05) which can be correlated with FFA and TBA value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Seaweeds on Growth and Yield of Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Madhusri Pramanik, Dhananjoy Dutta, Indranil Samui

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 28-34
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331015

Introduction: Seaweed extract, an organic bio-stimulant has emerged as a promising tool for increasing crop growth and yield without affecting soil health and environment.

Aim: i) To study the efficacy of seaweed extract on growth and yield of boro rice ii) To evaluate the nutrients uptake and residual soil fertility under different treatments iii)To assess the economic viability of using the bio-stimulants in rice production.

Study Design:  Seven treatments were laid out inrandomized block design with three replications.

Place and Duration of the Study: Boro seasons of 2016-17 and 2017-18 at Instructional Farm of BCKV, Nadia, under new alluvial zone of West Bengal.

Methods: Field experiment was carried out in boro (summer) rice (cv. Satabdi) with seven treatments viz., T1-100% RDF (120:60:60 kg/ha N, P2O5 and K2O), T2-100% RDF+ biozyme liquid @ 2.5ml/l of water (seed soaking), T3-100% RDF + biozyme liquid @ 10ml/l of water (root dipping), T4- 100% RDF+ biozyme granule @15 kg/ha (soil application at 15 and 45 DAT)+ liquid @ 625 ml/ha (foliar spray at 15 and 45 DAT), T5-75% RDF + biozyme liquid, T6-75% RDF+ biozyme granule+ liquid  and T7-75% RDF+ amaze-X granule @ 10kg/ha at 45 DAT + biozymegranule + liquid.

Results: Results revealed that the maximum grain yield (4.88 t/ ha) was obtained under T7 followed by T4 and T6, however, the net return (Rs.25576/ha) and benefit-cost ratio (1.51) of T6 treatment gave maximum.

Conclusion: It may be concluded that T7 treatment performed best in terms of growth and yield of Boro rice but T6 treatment gave the highest B:C ratio and net income which is supposed to be more economical to the small and marginal farmers. Therefore, integrated use of 75% RDF and biozyme soil & foliar application can be recommended for boro rice under new alluvial zone of West Bengal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Topology Optimization of a Straight Subsoiler through Computer Mathematical Modelling

Saqib Parvaze Allaie, Ashok Tripathi, P. M. Dsouza, Sabah Parvaze

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 35-46
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331016

Technologies and computer programs available today provide us with design programs and analytical techniques for solving complex problems in the different engineering disciplines. These technologies and programs have also found their significance in agricultural research. Computer-aided mathematical modelling was used for carrying out the design optimization of a straight subsoiler. At the initial stage, the static structural analysis under static loading conditions was performed. Details on the material and dimensions for the subsoiler were acquired from the manufacturer at the regional level. The existing subsoiler was then optimized for shank thickness, curve length, and shank width. Optimization was carried out for the objectives seeking minimum solid mass and maximum safety factor. The optimized design obtained was remodeled, and its static analysis performed. Results of the stresses, deformation, and safety factor before and after optimization were compared, and the conclusions drawn. The static structural analysis revealed that before optimization, the subsoiler mass was 24.54 kg, and the volume was 3117701.77 mm3. The maximum total deformation was 4.959 mm, maximum equivalent stress was 270.09 MPa, and the maximum principal stress was 295.06 MPa.  The minimum value for the safety factor was 1.296. Parametric correlation of the input and output parameters showed that the relationship among two input parameters viz. shank thickness, shank width, and output parameters was strong. These input parameters were used for response surface generation and design optimization. Optimization reduced both the subsoiler mass and volume by 14.86 %. The maximum equivalent stress and maximum principal stress reduced by 4.10% and 5.39%, respectively, while the total deformation, minimum safety factor, and maximum working life increased by 7.15%, 4.28%, and 14.26%, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Performance of Organic Agriculture in India

Deepali Chadha, S. K. Srivastava

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 86-94
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331022

Organic agriculture is growing rapidly as an alternative strategy to modern farming methods. At present, only 1.5 per cent of the world’s agricultural land is organic. However, it has encountered a phenomenal rise over the past fourteen years (2005 to 2018) growing annually at a compound growth rate of 7.05 per cent; with 71.5 million hectares global organic land in 2018. However, India has witnessed a remarkable growth of 10.62 per cent during the ibid period and stood at ninth rank among other countries in terms of organic agricultural land (2018-19). The present study attempts to examine the trend and variability in growth of organic agricultural land (including both the cultivated and wild) from 2005 to 2018 at both the national and global level. Further, it explores the marketing patterns for organic food products and unveils those areas where more emphasis is needed and which issues are to be further investigated, addressed and improvised.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Physio-Chemical Properties of Value Added Herbal Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Candy

Konche Jahnavi, Saket Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 95-101
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331024

A field experiment was conducted during year 2019-2020 at the Post Harvest Laboratory of Horticulture Department, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Prayagraj to study “Studies on physio-chemical properties of value added herbal papaya (Carica papaya L.) candy”. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments, replicated thrice. Total number of treatments were ten viz. (T0 (Control)- 70% sugar), (T1-Raw papaya + 70% sugar + 0.5% tulsi),( T2 -Raw papaya + 70% sugar + 1.0% tulsi), (T3 -Raw papaya + 70% sugar +1.5% tulsi), (T4 -Raw papaya + 70% sugar + 0.5% cardamom), (T5 -Raw papaya + 70 % sugar + 1.0% cardamom), (T6 -Raw papaya + 70 % sugar + 1.5% cardamom), (T7 -Raw papaya + 70% sugar + 0.5% lemon grass), (T8 -Raw papaya + 70% sugar + 1.0% lemon grass) and (T9 -Raw papaya +70% sugar + 1.5% lemon grass). The treatment T6 (Raw papaya + 70 % sugar + 1.5% cardamom) was found superior in respect of parameters like total soluble solids (85.78 °Brix), Titrable acidity (1.29), PH (5.05), flavour score (9.00), taste score (9.00) and overall acceptability score (8.50). Benfit-cost Ratio was found highest (1.64) in the treatments (T1 - Raw papaya + 70% sugar + 0.5% tulsi), (T2 - Raw papaya + 70% sugar + 1.0% tulsi), (T3 - Raw papaya + 70% sugar +1.5% tulsi) and (T7 -Raw papaya + 70% sugar + 0.5% lemon grass).

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Various Organic Nutrient Management Practices for Augmenting the Growth, Yield Attributes and Yield of Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn]

Sweta Shikta Mahapatra, N. Sunitha, Y. Reddi Ramu, F. H. Rahman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 126-135
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331027

A field experiment was carried out during kharif, 2016 on sandy loam soils of dry land farm of S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. There were eight treatments viz., control (T1), 100% RDF (60:30:30 kg ha-1 N:P2O5:K2O) (T2), 100% N through farm yard manure (FYM) (T3), 100% N through FYM + seedling treatment with biofertilizers (Azospirillum+ PSB) (T4), Seedling treatment with beejamruta + soil application of jeevamruta @ 500 l ha-1 just after transplanting and at every 10 days interval upto 15 days before harvest (T5), Seedling treatment with beejamruta + foliar application of panchagavya @ 3% foliar spray at every 10 days interval up to 15 days before harvest (T6), T3 + T5 (T7) and T3+ T6 (T8). The test variety of finger millet was ‘Vakula’. The growth and yield attributing parameters i.e., plant height, leaf area index, number of tillers m-2 and dry matter production at harvest, number of productive tillers m-2 and ear weight, yield and economics of finger millet crop were found to be significantly influenced by various sources of nutrients. In conclusion, the investigation revealed that higher grain yield of finger millet as well as economic returns could be realized with 100% recommended dose of nutrients through fertilizers. Among the various organic sources of nutrients tried, 100% N through FYM + seedling treatment with beejamruta + soil application of jeevamruta @ 500 l ha-1 just after transplanting and at every 10 days interval up to 15 days before harvest (T7) was proved to be the most promising integrated organic nutrient management practice for higher yield, economics of finger millet along with maintenance of soil biological activity as well as fertility for the sustenance of soil ecology in the present domain of study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense Race TR4 Infecting Banana Groups in Indo-Gangetic Plains of India

Debashis Rana, Ankit Kumar Ghorai, Krishnendu Pramanik, Arpita Das, Joydeep Banerjee, Dilip Kumar Misra, Uday Bikash Oraon

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 136-148
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331028

Panama wilt or Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a major threat for banana cultivation and impacting symbolic economic losses worldwide. Previously Foc race 1 and race 2 was detected in India which eventually spread monoculture of ‘Cavendish’ bananas resistant against these two races. Later on, another new race TR4 of Foc was detected to be incited in ‘Cavendish’ group of banana raised an alarming situation to the global banana industry. In the present study detailed survey was conducted in popular banana growing districts of West Bengal, India for visualizing the impact of disease incidence as well as collection of isolates from infected suckers and rhizomes of ‘Cavendish’ banana with an aim to develop a rapid detection technique for apprehending the presence of Foc TR4 race at early infection stages. Methods comprised of field survey followed by isolation of pathogen, test of pathogenicity and further molecular detection through Foc TR4 specific primers. Results revealed that the colonies formed on the potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium exhibited typical characteristic of Foc. Pathogenicity test conducted by considering healthy plantlet of ‘Grand Naine’ also detected characteristic symptom of Foc. Additionally, PCR assay using specific markers followed by sequencing of 28S-18S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer spacer (IGS) confirmed the presence of this isolate in the infected samples. Phylogenetic evolution assays revealed a very close relationship of the Foc TR4 strains of India with Asia-Pacific isolates of Foc TR4. This study advocated the urgency of prevention of introduction of Foc TR4 into disease-free areas in the banana growing districts of India for maintaining sustainable banana production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Physicochemical Effects of pH, Sulphate and Zinc Concentrations on the Water Samples in Nsukka Town, Enugu State of Nigeria

J. C. Ndefo, P. E. Joshua, A. V. Arazu, I. U. Okagu, V. I. Nnamani, J. N. Obeta, S. Cosmas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 149-157
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331030

Most of our water resources are gradually becoming polluted due to the addition of foreign materials from the surroundings. These include organic of plant and animal origin, land surface washing, and industrial and sewage effluents. The problem of environmental pollution due to toxic metals has begun to cause concern now in most major metropolitan cities. Nsukka environs have been plagued with perennial problem of water supplies round the year and a better understanding of its water physicochemically status will help to address this daunting problem and issues of human health. The analysis carried out was on the utility water supplies in Nsukka area. Thirteen sampling areas consisting of four boreholes, six dug wells and three springs were chosen for this research work. A total of 26 water samples were taken from the sampling areas during the dry season and another 26 samples during the wet season. Water samples were collected from these sampling areas and refrigerated at 4°C for processing. Concentration of zinc was determined in each sample by spectrophotometric method. Harch Model C50 digital multi-range meter was used to measure the pH. Chemical parameter such as sulphate was also determined by spectrophotometric method. Bacteriological analysis of the water samples was carried out to ascertain whether there was faecal contamination by the use of multiple tube/most probable number techniques. Sulphate concentration of water sample from spring sources increased significantly (p<0.05) during dry season iiwhen compared with that of wet season. No significant difference (p>0.05) exists in the concentration of zinc compared to all other test samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Physico-chemical and Organoleptic Properties and Economic Analysis of Guava-sapota (Psidium guajava-Achrus zapota) Blended Cheese

Syed Poola Ruksana, S. Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 158-167
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331031

The present experiment was carried out during April 2019 to July 2019 in the Post Harvest Laboratory of the Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj (India). The experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with eleven treatments and three replications. The treatments were T0 (Guava pulp 100% (Control)), T1 (Guava pulp 90% + Sapota Pulp 10%), T2 (Guava Pulp 80% + Sapota Pulp 20%), T3 (Guava Pulp 70% + Sapota Pulp 30%), T4 (Guava Pulp 60% + Sapota Pulp 40%), T5 (Guava Pulp 50% + Sapota Pulp 50%) , T6 (Guava Pulp 40% + Sapota Pulp 60%) , T7 (Guava pulp 30% + Sapota Pulp 70%), T8 (Guava pulp 20% + Sapota Pulp 80%), T9 (Guava pulp 10% + Sapota Pulp 90%) and T10 (Sapota Pulp 100%). The main objectives of the research is to standardize the proportion of guava and sapota pulp for Guava-Sapota blended cheese, in order to improve physico-chemical properties, organoleptic characteristics and shelf-life of the product, within an affordable economics. From the present investigation it is found that treatment T5 (Guava Pulp 50% + Sapota pulp 50%) was superior in respect of the parameters Total Soluble Solids (74.75°Brix), Acidity (0.40%), pH (5.27%), Ascorbic acid (83.72 mg/100 g), Reducing Sugar (3.93%), Non-Reducing Sugar (5.75%) and Total Sugar (9.07%). In terms of organoleptic properties like Colour and Appearance (8.52), Flavour and Taste (8.47), Texture (8.60) and Overall Acceptability (8.65) T5 was found best. In terms of cost benefit ratio, the highest net return (325.50/-) and Cost Benefit Ratio (1:2.08) were found in T5 (Guava Pulp 50% + Sapota pulp 50%). Hence, T5 was found superior based on above parameters.

Open Access Short Research Articles

Effect of Board Diversity on Organisation Performance, A Case of Kenya Ports Authority Mombasa, Kenya

Beatrice Nyagilo, Phelista Njeru

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 65-73
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331018

The global business landscape is increasingly becoming complex and unpredictable. For corporations to survive in these increasingly competitive markets, they have to be flexible and meet their customer requirements. It is on this basis that relation between strategic corporate governance and organisation performance has evoked much interest among scholars. This study investigated the impact of strategic corporate governance on organisation performance of Kenya Ports Authority in Mombasa Kenya. Specifically, the study investigated the effect of board diversity on the performance of KPA. The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey design where 55 board of directors, general managers and head of division of KPA were targeted. The sample size was 48 and stratified sampling technique was employed to identify respondents that participated in the study. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data from the respondents. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the data using frequency tables, percentages, and measures of central tendency used included mode, median and mean. The inferential statistics used was multiple regression, which established whether there was a significant relationship between board size, board independence, board diversity and committee members’ competency on the performance of KPA. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and presented using tables and figure. The study found that 59.8 per cent of the organisation performance at KPA could be attributed to strategic corporate governance. The study also found out that board diversity had a statistically significant impact on the organisation performance of KPA. This study recommends KPA to strive and incorporate board diversity Competency in its strategic corporate governance objectives if it were to enhance its performance.

Open Access Case Study

Study of the Noise Level During the Construction of the Tanjung Jati Steam Power Plant

Slamet Isworo, Slamet Febriyanto, Poerna Sri Oetari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331013

The impact of noise due to the construction of a Steam Power Plant can have a negative impact on the surrounding environment. This study aims to assess the initial baseline condition of environmental noise before the existence of development activities, predictions after activities, and actions to manage/monitor the impact of noise that occurs. The research method is evaluative descriptive using the integrating sound level meter. The research data are the equivalent noise level (Leq), daytime noise level (LS), night noise level (LM), and day-night noise level (L-SM) from 9 sampling locations. The results of the noise analysis are categorized based on scale and compared with the Decree of the Minister of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia No. Kep-48 / MENLH / 11/1996 and IFC - EHS guidelines. Noise level data The initial environmental baseline of the laydown area utilization stage at scale 2, land clearing stage at scale 1, the construction phase of the main building, and supporting facilities at scale 1. The value of the scale of the noise level is assessed based on the difference in impact components that is smaller than the difference in the average environmental scale, so that the impact category is a manageable impact. The direction for controlling the impact of noise is to install a project guardrail, activities are carried out at 07.00-19.00 WIB and and tree planting. Environmental management and monitoring have been carried out well, the evaluation trend shows a decline.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Practices to Enhance Nutrient Acquisition, Grain Quality, Resource-Use Efficiency in Direct- Seeded Aerobic Rice in Eastern India

Arjun Singh, Anchal Dass, Shiva Dhar, C. V. Singh, S. Sudhishri, Anil K. Choudhary, G. A. Rajanna, Saroj Choudhary, Ajay Pal, Raj Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 102-111
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331025

Aim: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is mainly grown in the rainy season in eastern India on rainfed uplands with a low average productivity of 1.0-1.4 t ha-1. Erratic rainfall leading to moisture stress and poor cultivation practices are the key reasons for low yields and rice grain quality in the area. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effects of irrigation scheduling, soil adjuvant and sowing methods on yield, grain quality and resource-use efficiency in aerobic rice.

Methodology: The experiment was conducted in a three-time replicated split-plot design during rainy-season of 2016 on a sandy loam soil in Eastern India. Treatments included 8 combinations of 4-irrigation schedules, viz., irrigation at IW/CPE 0.9, 1.2, 1.5 and no-irrigation (rainfed) and 2-soil adjutants (soil adjuvant applied and no-soil adjuvant) assigned to main-plots, and 2-planting methods (conventional dry seeding at 20 cm row spacing and spot-sowing (dibbling of 4-seeds hill-1 at 20×15 cm interval) assigned to sub-plots.

Results: Irrigation at IW/CPE 1.5 increased grain yield by 37.3% over rainfed crop, 23% over crop irrigated at IW/CPE 0.9 and 13.5% over IW/CPE 1.2. Grain quality parameters were also best, in crop watered at IW/CPE 1.5. Net return, B: C ratio, net energy output, production efficiency (PE) and monetary efficiency (ME) were significantly greater with irrigation at IW/CPE 1.5 compared to other irrigation schedules. Spot-sowing proved superior to conventional drilling of seeds exhibiting about 7% improvement in grain yield and water-use efficiency (WUE). Effect of soil adjuvant application was not significant.

Interpretation: This study emphatically demonstrated that aerobic rice should be spot-sown and irrigated at IW/CPE 1.5, for obtaining higher yield with better grain quality. The findings are useful for aerobic rice production in eastern India and adjoining sub-humid regions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Prosopis juliflora on Abundance and Species Diversity of Forage Species in Turkana County, Kenya

Nadio E. Clement, Agevi Humphrey, Obiri John

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 112-125
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331026

Aims: This study sought to determine the effects of P. juliflora on the abundance and relative diversity of other forage species in Turkana County.

Study Design:  Ecological data collection entailed cross-sectional surveys across riverine and non-riverine ecosystems.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was undertaken in three sub-counties within Turkana County namely Turkana Central, Turkana West and Turkana South between 15th January to 17th May, 2020.

Methodology: Sampling plots were used to collect plant abundance data from the various parts of the study area. The plots were of three types; main plots of 30 m× 40 m (1200 m2), sub-plots of 5 m × 2 m (10 m2) and square quadrats of 1 m×1 m (1 m2). The sub-plots and quadrats were nested within the main plots which were in turn laid down along transect belts. The transects of width 40 m and 400m in length were laid down in two main habitats (riverine and non-riverine) of the three sub-counties. Control plots were also laid in non P. juliflora sites.

Results: Prosopis juliflora was the most abundant species covering about 63% of the sampled individuals (N=6390). This was followed by Acacia tortilis at 18% while Acacia mellifera was the least. There was significant difference in abundance between sites and among counties (p˂0.05). The Shannon diversity index (H´) in areas with Prosopis juliflora ranged between 0.40-1.27 while in areas without Prosopis juliflora (or Control) it ranged between 1.5-2.1, indicating high diversity in the areas without P. juliflora compared to areas colonized by it. Prosopis juliflora was also high in the riverine areas compared to non-riverine areas across the three sub counties. Results show that Prosopis juliflora has invaded vast areas especially the riverine ecosystem leading to a decline in the population of key forage species and thus threatening the socio-economic livelihoods of Turkana County.

Conclusion: Prosopis juliflora was the most abundant and dominant plant species in both the riverine and non-riverine sites. The study also showed that P. juliflora has led to the decreased plant species richness and diversity in the area because of its invasive nature.

Open Access Review Article

Mitigation of Climate Change through Approached Agriculture-Soil Carbon Sequestration (A Review)

Shamal S. Kumar, Ananta G. Mahale, Ashutosh C. Patil

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 47-64
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331017

It is projected that by 2030, the global population will rise to 8.5 billion influencing various changes to the whole globe. Since 1750, the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased sharply and exceeds more than 31 percent as a result of land use change and intense farming activities that require unique and modern actions to manage its climate - related risks. The earth is getting warmer day by day due to land use transition, intensive agriculture; global carbon (C) emissions have drastically increases after industrial revolution. Soil C depletion is enhanced by soil mismanagement, soil degradation and aggravated by land exploitation. Sources of emissions from various anthropogenic activities; land use change, burning of natural biomass, natural conversion to agricultural habitats, and soil cultivation. The soil as a dynamic natural entity has the potential of storing most of the C from atmosphere that will cause substantial decrease in CO2 content that is enhancing global climate change. Through agriculture, soils can reduce CO2 emissions in the atmosphere and store C while having good effect on food security, water quality and climate prior to the introduction of best management and restorative land-use practices. Most of the reduced C in soil carbon (SC) pools can be recovered by embracing conservation tillage (no-till, reduced tillage) with cover cropping and incorporating crop residues as mulch, nutrient management through integrated nutrient management practices, manure and organic amendments, biochar and using other productive soil management strategies. These management systems lead to preservation of lands that are being or have been depleted, increase carbon production, enhance soil health and decrease the amount of atmospheric CO2 leading to climate change mitigation.

Open Access Review Article

Agri-business in North East India: Current Status, Potential Ventures and Strategies

G. Kadirvel, Digia Lois Gangmei, Bandita B. Banerjee, S. R. Assumi, Sao Evalwell Dkhar, Amitava Mukherjee

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 74-85
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3331021

The Northeast region (NER) of India comprises of 8 sister states namely Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Nagaland, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Manipur. The region has an agrarian economy composing of rich agricultural resources which needs strategic exploration for inclusive growth of the region. This can be achieved through the realization of the immense scope and potential for agribusiness in the region. The study aims to explore the agribusiness scenario in the region and to throw light on the constraints in the sector prevailing in the region. Several agribusiness ventures have also been discussed which have potential in the region’s unique business ecosystem. Finally several strategies were provided which may have policy implications on future entrepreneurial development strategies in the region. The descriptive policy paper was formulated based on data collected and experienced gained from over four years (2016-2020) of entrepreneurial development activities by the Agri Business Incubation Centre under Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Research Centre for North Eastern Hill region (ICAR RC for NEH) and its 5 regional centers across the NER. Further, references from other researchers have been included to substantiate the topics discussed here and improve validity of the observations. Agribusiness sector in the region may be promoted through intensified entrepreneurial initiatives by adequately exploiting the resource potential, particularly in agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry and fishery sector. This creation of market driven products to suffice the demands of growing middle-class consumers will lead to improve rural employment generation, augment farm income and raise revenue through intensified participation in export trade. However several infrastructural, technical and policy improvement have to be made in order to unlock the potential of these ventures. Only planned structural and strategic changes which include increased exports, impactful research and development, institutional support, etc., can be catalytic for entrepreneurial development in the region.