Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Suitable Sites for Groundwater Recharge Using the Boolean Model: Case Study: Sidi Bouzid Acquifers

Sarra Ouerghi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 55-76
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231002

The scarcity of water can have harmful effects on human life. In addition, one noticeable issue humanity is faced with is managing water resources. This study aims at selecting the most suitable areas for groundwater artificial recharge using multi-criteria analysis. The fundamental element of this multi-criteria analysis is the choice of criteria that are the most sensitive part of the multi-criteria formulation of a decision problem. Such Criteria included: Slope, Soil Permeability, Soil Salinity, Depth of the Water table, Proximity to road networks, Proximity to the forest, proximity to wetlands, proximity to irrigation areas, proximity to urban areas, proximity to hydrographic networks, proximity to piezometer and borehole. Using Boolean Model, and in the GIS environment, the layers were produced and classified. The results suggested that the area’s most suitable are equal to 12.1%. Also, use of the land had an impact on the removal of restrictions of artificial recharge areas. It could be claimed that 5.5% of the studied area were considered suitable for artificial recharge in Boolean logic using land-use filtering.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Planting Windows for Seed Production of Soybean (Glycine max L.) in off Season under Kaylan Karnataka Region

K. Lokesh, . Basavegowda, Mallikarjun Reddy, . Siddaram, P. D. Suhas, Basavaraj Makanur, G. C. Shekar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 130-138
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231009

Aim: To identify the best planting time for obtaining higher seed yield and quality of Soybean in off season.

Study Design: Randomized completely block design (RCBD)

Place and Duration of Study: Agricultural Research Station, Halladkere, Bidar, Karnataka between 2016 and 2017.

Methodology: A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Halladkere, Bidar to find out the best off season planting time for quality seed production of Soybean. The certified seeds of soybean varieties, JS-335 and Dsb-21 were sown with recommended package of practices at appropriate field condition from November to February at every fortnight with a spacing of 30 cm X 10 cm. The quality parameters related to seed were carried out in the laboratory of seed science department. Further, soybean seeds were treated with fungicide (carbendazim 25% + mancozeb 75%) at the rate of 3 gram per kg of seeds.

Results: From the present investigation, it was observed that among the different sowing dates, soybean varieties (JS 335 and DSb 21) sown during 1st fortnight of November recorded significantly higher plant growth parameters as well as seed yield followed by 2nd fortnight of November during off season. Further, climatic factors like rainfall, maximum and minimum temperature and relative humidity played a major role in the off season to produce higher seed yield and quality of Soybean.

Conclusion: Among various sowing dates, November 1st Fortnight sowing resulted in highest seed yield with better seed quality in both cultivars (JS-335 and Dsb-21) of soybean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterisation of Bacterial Isolates from Vegetable, Cow Milk and Locust Bean Samples

T. A. Ihum, O. O. Efunwole, S. O. Olarewaju, E. B. Akinro, O. R. Adebayo, M. A. Abiona

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 139-147
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231010

Molecular characterization involves characterization at molecular level without any effect of environment or development or physiological state of the organism. Biochemical characterization is the characterization of the biochemical state of the organism, which is in fact affected by environment, development as well as physiological state. The objective of this study was to molecularly characterize bacteria isolated from certain food samples. Five bacteria isolates were obtained from the vegetable samples while two LAB isolates were obtained from cow milk and locust bean samples. The bacteria isolates were identified using 16SRNA GENE sequencing using the BLAST algorithm and were identified as Staphylococcus aureus CIP 9973; Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pec 1; Enterobacter cloacae AS10 Klebsiella aerogenes OFM28; Escherichia coli 2013C-3342; Proteus mirabilis UPMSD3; Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116; Lactobacillus plantarum NRIC 0383. Characterization of bacteria isolates to molecular level is of enormous advantage as it helps to know the exact genus of a particular organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Economic Feasibility and Suitability of Intercrops in Aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn L.) Plantation

Bhavanasi Dharani, Saket Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 156-162
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231012

The present investigation entitled “Studies on economic feasibility and suitability of intercrops in Aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn L.) plantation” was carried out during2018- 2019 at the Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj. The result of the present investigation, regarding the effect of inter crops in Aonla plantation on tree growth and fruit yield of Aonla. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD), replicated thrice with the six intercropping system treatment combination of T0: Sole crop, T1:Spinach, T2:Radish, T3:Tomato, T4:Coriander, T5:Okra and T6: Fenugreek. From the present investigation the treatment T2 Radish is best maximum growth, fruit yield and quality of Aonla tree and was recorded. In the treatment T1 is the best for Intercrop Yield (q/ha) (198.53) under Prayagraj agro-climatic condition.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Comparing the Effect of Continuous Care Model and Partnership Care Model on the Sleep Quality: A Systematic Review

Somayeh Meshkani, Sana Shahrabady, Milad Borji, Shahla Fakhreazizi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 95-101
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231005

Background: Sleep quality is one of the important variables that effectson the individual health status. For this reason, the present study aims to investigate the effect of CCM and PCM on the patients’sleepquality.

Methods: All interventional articles about the effect of CCM and PCM on sleep quality status were searched with the keywords of CCM, PCM, partnership care model, continuous care model and sleep quality at the Iranian scientific databases such as SID, Magiran, IranMedex and ISC, and the international databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct, Cochrane, Scopus and Web of Science. Then, after reviewing the entry and exit criteria and qualitative evaluation of the articles, Excel software was used to analyze the data.

Results: In this study, all published article about CCM, PCM and Sleep quality were reviewed.  All of the articles were conducted as clinical trial and the diagnostic tool of them were Pittsburg, in this instrument lower rate indicate less sleep disorder. The sample size of the study was 540 patients. According to the findings, the implementation of both models of CCM and PCM improved the sleep quality of patients.

Conclusion: Considering the more positive effect of CCM and PCM in improving the status of sleep quality in patients, so the implementation of this model is recommended to improve the patients’ sleep quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficient Regeneration of Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Plantlets from Cotyledon, Hypocotyl and Leaf Explants: An Excellent Model Plant for Gene Function Analysis

Md. Shoyeb, Kanis Fatema, Md. Abdur Rauf Sarkar, Atikur Rahman, Shaikh Mizanur Rahman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3230996

Tobacco has been widely used as a model plant for stable and non-stable gene function analysis. Successful Agrobacterium-mediated transformation mainly depends on in vitro regeneration of tobacco plant. However, a reliable and standard regeneration protocol of tobacco using multiple explants is limited. In this study, we established a reliable and reproducible regeneration protocol of tobacco using three different explants i.e. cotyledon, hypocotyl and leaf. Preliminary, surface sterilized tobacco seeds were germinated on growth regulator free MS medium. Thereafter, in vitro germinated explants were inoculated into Murashige and Skoog [1] media supplemented with different combination and types of growth regulators for callus induction and subsequent regeneration of plantlets. It was revealed that, regeneration ability of explants is greatly influenced by type and nature of the explant. Among the three explants, higher callus induction (95%) was obtained in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l-1 kinetin + 2.0 mg l-1 IAA from leaf explant. Also, leaf explant exhibited much higher regeneration ability (95%) than hypocotyl (60%) and cotyledon (45%) explants. Significantly highest number of shoots (8.0) were regenerated from leaf explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg l-1 Kinetin+1.0 mg l-1 IAA compared to the other hormone combinations. Regenerated mature shoots were showed normal root after transferred onto ½ MS medium containing 0.3 mg l-1 IBA. This study will provide valuable information related to in vitro regeneration of tobacco plantlets using cotyledon, hypocotyl and leaf explants and will be used as a standard protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for gene function analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production, Quality Evaluation and Postprandial Effects of High Fibre Fructose Sweetened Confectionery Snacks (Cookies) as a Functional Diet

Opega Justina Ladi, Orishagbemi Cornelius, Ojo, Samuel Faruna

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 25-42
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3230999

Production, quality evaluation and postprandial effect of high fibre fructose sweetened confectionery snacks (cookies) as functional diet was investigated. It was to establish the chemical, sensory evaluation and postprandial effects of the products, cookie ingredients were purchased from Ankpa Kogi state, date fruits (Dabino) was processed into powder both sweetener were weighed rations. A creaming method cookie production was used and standard methods were used for the analyses. Triplicate values were obtained in each case and expressed on dry weight basis. All data collected were analysed statistically using SPSS version 20.0 package. Means and standard deviation were calculated at significant level of p ≤ 0.01. From the analyses, proximate composition (%) at (30, 40 and 50) in various ratios; showed that Moisture; (11.20 to 13.10) in sample C and B, [8.30 to 10.03] E and B (6.44 to 10.41) in B and C. Ash was (0.33 to 0.53) in C and D, (0.40 to 0.58) for C and B and (0.73 to1.0)  E and B respectively, crude fibre were (0.17 to 0.41) in C and B (0.2 to 0.48) and (0.33 to 0.37) in C and A while crude fat included; (13.83 to 16.21), A and B, (8.23 to11.70) C and B and (7.83 to 13.43) in A and B, proteins was (12.98 to 17.16) for C and D, (11.17 to 12.90) E and D, (12.52 to 17.80) C and D and Carbohydrates included; (53.60 to 83.62), in B and E. (65.53 to 69.53) for D and C and (57.95 to 70.00) in E and  A. Minerals in mg/100  included; sodium (52.50 to 70.33) B and A, (45.87 to 74.10) E and A and (41.23 to 76. 20) in B and D, Potassium (30.50 to 37.30%) in C and E, (30.60. to 56.0) in E and B (27.40 to 57.80) B and D, calcium (215.97 to 251.20) in C and D, (42.87 to 74.12) C and B (41.23 to 76. 20)  B and D magnesium included (28.60 to 127.22) B and D, (112 to148.30) for C and B (115.50 to 142.20) phosphorus; (55.60 to 73.46) in A and B and (54.14  to 67.20) C and A. (56.18 to 71.36 ) for A and D. ferrous were (8.12 to 20.20) for  B and E (11.71 to 30.07) C and B (17.04 to 29.42) in E and D Phytochemical contents at 30, 40 and 50% (mg / 100g) included; Tannic acid (1.8 to 2.9 mg), (2.20 to 3.44) and (2.76 to 5.00) flavonoid   (2.27 to 3.74),  (3.78 to 5.91) and  (4.07 to6.96) phenolic acid (7.38 to 3.58), (8.71 to 16.43), (8.71 to16.43) Saponin (1.00 to 2.09), (1.05 to 2.47) and (1.05 to 2.46) Carotenoid included; (5.31 to 8.77), (1.05 to 2.56), (1.05 to 2.47) Alkaloid (0.08 to 0.40), (0.10 to 0.25) and (0.10 to 0.25) C and B  for all the samples. The Sensory attributes in in ratios and at 30, 40 and 50% included; taste (7.00 to 8.30), (6.60 to 8.17) both samples were the same in  2:1 and 0:1 but 50% was (5.27 to 8.00) in 1:0 and, 1:1  the colour of the samples included (5.16 to 7.70),in 2:1 and 0:1  (6.17 to 7.67) in  1:0 and  1:1 and (5.37 to 8.37)  2:1 and, 0:1  Flavour included; (5.10 to 8.10), (5.77 to 8.67) and  (6.27 to 7.67) in 1:0 and 1:2, crispness (5.77 to 7.27) 1:2 and 0:1  (5.77 to 8.70) 1:0 to, 1:2 (6.00 to 7.17) for 0:1 and 1:0 while the texture were in the range of (6.767 to 7.87) 1:0 and, 0:1 (5.67 to 7.50) for 2:1 and 1:1 and (6.00 to 7.07) in ratios 0:1 and 1:1. The postprandial effect of cookies in mmol / L showed (5.64 to 7.87) in ratio 1:0 and 1:2 and (6.20 to 6.8) for 1:1 and 1:2 at 30% and 40% respectively. The inhibitory effects of date fruits at 50% in ratio 1:0 (date palm) only can be modified optimized and use as potential pharmaceutical therapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and other parameter tested moisture contents, phytochemical and postprandial effects were within the acceptable limit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Nitrogen Dose under Different Irrigation Levels in Maize (Zea mays L.) during Post Monsoon Season at Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India

B. Soujanya, B. Balaji Naik, M. Uma Devi, T. L. Neelima, Anima Biswal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 43-54
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231000

A field experiment was conducted at Agro Climate Research Center, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India during post monsoon season of 2019-20 with an objective to optimize the nitrogen dose under varied degrees of water stress environment. The experiment was laid out in split plot design replicated thrice with three irrigation scheduling (60%DASM, 40%DASM and 20%DASM) as main plots and three nitrogen levels (90, 180 and 240 kg of nitrogen ha-1) as sub plots. The results indicated that, at 20% DASM, with increasing nitrogen dose from 90 to180 and further 240 kg ha-1, the plant height and biomass increased significantly. Whereas a significant response in terms of the LAI, number of grains row-1, grain and stover yields and nitrogen uptake by plant was observed up to 180 kg N ha-1.Under deficit soil moisture condition (60% DASM) the maximum plant height (141.5cm), LAI (2.93), biomass (222.3 g plant-1), number of grains row-1 (35.3) test weight (24.1 g), grain yield (4930 kg ha-1), stover yields (7996kg ha-1) and nitrogen uptake by plant was recorded with low nitrogen dose of 90 kg N ha-1 and all these parameters were decreased with increasing nitrogen dose. The concentration of nitrogen in leaf, stem and grain was more under deficit soil moisture condition (60% DASM) and was decreased with reliving plant water stress by scheduling irrigation at 40% DASM and 20% DASM. This investigation evidences the need of nitrogen optimization under varied degree of moisture availability. Under deficit irrigated situation, lower dose of nitrogen is sufficient for optimum yield. Whereas under sufficient water availability, the beneficial effect increased nitrogen levels can be exploited for higher grain yield in maize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Enrollee Satisfaction with Private and Public Health Care Providers of Community Based Health Insurance Scheme in Edu LGA, Kwara State

I. M. Sheshi, Y. F. Issa, S. A. Aderibigbe, B. E. Agbana, M. D. Sanni

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 77-84
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231003

Introduction: Many low and middle income countries keep on searching for different ways of financing their health systems. In order to ensure accessibility to quality health services by those in the rural areas, a Community Based Health Insurance Scheme was initiated which aim to integrate both human and financial resources within the rural communities to provide basic healthcare services to its resident.  In recent years, level of patient satisfactions have been identified as one of the major yardsticks to measure quality of healthcare. This study was conducted to compare enrollees satisfaction of public and private providers of community based health insurance scheme in Edu Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria.

Materials and Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among eight hundred respondents that were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data was collected using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion. Analysis was done with EPI info software and confidence level was held at 95% and a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: The satisfaction level with private facility (4.28±0.35) was higher than that with public facilities (4.12 ±0.48). The difference was significant at a p-value of <0.001. Private providers had a higher satisfaction level than the public providers in the domains of empathy, tangibles, assurance and timeliness. The difference was statistically significant as the p-value was less than 0.05. No differences in level of satisfaction in responsiveness among the respondents of both providers as the p-value was 0.295. There was an association between marital status and satisfaction in public providers while an association occur between type of marriage and satisfaction in private provider. There was an association for both providers in occupation level, level of education and length of enrolment.

Conclusion and Recommendation:  There was a higher overall satisfaction among enrollees of private providers than the public providers of Community Based Health Insurance Scheme. Health care delivery by private providers is of good quality and as such private facilities should be maintained as part of the providers of Community Based Health Insurance Scheme. Government should also strengthen monitoring and supervision to ensure good quality of health care delivery to the enrollees especially in the public health facilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Continuous Radiofrequency-Assisted Thermal Processing of Packaged Soft Wheat Flour

Sreenivasula Reddy Boreddy, Jeyamkondan Subbiah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 85-94
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231004

Soft wheat flour (SWF) is a low-moisture food ingredient in many ready-to-eat foods. Foodborne illnesses and outbreaks from consumption of multiple low-moisture foods heightened the importance of its microbiological safety. Traditional thermal processing methods take a long time to achieve desired pasteurization and are not suitable for processing the packaged products. The novel continuous radiofrequency (RF)-assisted thermal processing for packaged SWF was investigated with an objective of reducing the processing time. The temperature profiles in packaged SWF during RF heating at eight different locations under the stationary and moving conditions were investigated. The temperature difference between the coldest and the hottest locations in stationary RF heating of packaged SWF was 31°C. When the package was flipped up-side down along the long axis in stationary condition, the temperature difference was reduced to 24°C. The RF heating uniformity of packaged SWF with the conveyor movement improved and the temperature difference between the hottest and the coldest locations under this condition was only 15°C. The quality parameters of packaged SWF at 80°C for 7 h were not significantly different from that of the unpasteurized and batch mode processed SWF. This study demonstrated the continuous RF-assisted thermal processing of packaged SWF.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Zinc and Biofertilizer on Changes in Soil Fertility Status under Hybrid Rice – Chickpea Cropping Sequence in Alluvial Soils of Central Uttar Pradesh

Namrata Kashyap, Rajendra Pathak, A. K. Sacchan, S. Dimree

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 102-109
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231006

Aims: The present study was conducted to investigate the changes in soil fertility status with the application of zinc and biofertilizers in hybrid rice and chickpea.

Study Design: The design taken for study was Randomized Block Design (RBD).

Place and Duration of Study: Students Instructional Farm, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, between July 2018 – July – 2020.

Methodology: The experiment included twelve treatment groups replicated three times in Randomized Block Design.

Results: Soil parameters were also influenced with the application of zinc and biofertilizer. The available nitrogen varied between 192 to 223 kg ha-1 and 191 to 222 kg ha-1 at after harvest during first and second year in case of rice crop. The available phosphorus in case of rice was varied between 11.82 to 11.88 kg ha-1 at before harvest and 11.75 to 13.65 kg ha-1 at after harvest during first year. In case of available potassium it varied from 169 to 173 kg ha-1 at before harvest of the crop and 169 to 185 kg ha-1 at after harvest during first year. Similarly, significant increase in sulphur and zinc was also observed with application of zinc and biofertilizers. The available nitrogen, phosphorus potassium, sulphur and zinc were analysed numerically highest with the application T7 (100 per cent RDN + 25 per cent N FYM + S40 + ZnO + *Azotobacter or **Rhizobium) as compared to control at before and after harvest the crop during both the years that is 2018-19 and 2019-20.  Similar trend was seen in case of chickpea crop.           

Conclusion: Therefore, the combination of micronutrients and biofertilizers, proved beneficial, indicating to use balanced fertilizers to get maximum benefit and maintaining soil health in rice-chickpea cropping system for the farmers of Central Uttar Pradesh conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Suction Stress in Unsaturated Soils Considering Hydraulic Hysteresis

J. Ramírez Jiménez, J. M. Horta Rangel, M. L. Pérez Rea, E. Rojas González, T. Lopez Lara, J. B. Hernandez Zaragoza

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 110-123
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231007

Aims: To develop a flow-moisture model that allows determining the variation of suction over time, as well as the suction stresses, using the finite element method in a two-dimensional model of unsaturated soil through an analogy with a transient thermal problem.

Study Design: The variables used in this study were soil suction, hydraulic conductivity, diffusivity and degree of saturation which was represented as the  parameter of the Bishop’s effective stress equation.

Place and Duration of Study: Graduate Engineering Department, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, between November 2019 and August 2020.

Methodology: To establish the model, experimental Soil-Water Retention Curve was taken from Galaviz (2016). With this information, the curves of hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity were calculated with the methods of Fredlund et al. (2012) and Li (1996). In ANSYS 19.2, an analogous transient thermal analysis was run to determine suction changes over time in a 12 x 2.4 meters two-dimensional medium with an impermeable membrane at the center of its surface which was 4.8 meters long. Through these suction changes, the hydraulic hysteresis algorithm presented by Zhou et al. (2012) was used to calculate the respective degrees of saturation, which were considered as the  parameter to obtain the suction stresses.

Results: The changes in soil suction, degree of saturation and suction stress were properly modeled.

Conclusion: When considering the hydraulic hysteresis cycles, both spatial and temporal variations behaved in a similar way in the  parameters as well as in the suction stresses. Such stresses depended on the analysis period, increasing in the dry season, according to the precipitation-evapotranspiration model, and decreasing in the wetting season. A time lag was observed between the maximum and minimum stresses as greater depths were studied. Along the horizontal axis, considering the same depth, the stresses varied more in the areas adjacent to the impermeable membrane, while at the center this variation was practically null.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Management for Realizing Higher Cane Yield under Bud Chip Method of Planting in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)

N. Swapna, T. Prabhakar Reddy, G. Rakesh, G. Eswara Reddy, P. Jalender Naik, M. Venkataiah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 124-129
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231008

A field experiment was conducted at Regional Sugarcane and Rice Research Station, Rudrur, during 2018-19 to study the effect of plant density and nitrogen management for realizing higher cane yield under bud chip method of planting in sugarcane (Saccharum officinerum). The treatments were plant geometry and nitrogen doses with three and four splits of application in split plot design. The recommended dose of nitrogen was 250 kg N ha-1. Among the geometry, 150 x 60 cm spacing recorded significantly higher cane length which was statistically at par with 150 x 30 cm. 150% RDN (375 kg N ha-1) with four splits of application recorded significantly higher cane length. Among the split application of nitrogen, four splits with 150% RDN at basal, 60, 90 and 120 DAP recorded significantly higher number of tiller at 90 and 120 DAP. Significantly higher single cane weight was recorded in 150% RDN  with four splits of application in 150 x 60 cm. Significantly higher cane yield was recorded in 150% RDN with four splits of application in 150 x 60 cm spacing and was statistically at par with 150 x 30 cm spacing. This was followed by 100% RDN with four splits of application in 150 x 60 cm spacing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Some Phytogenic Feed Supplements for Lean Meat Production in Commercial Broiler Chicken

E. Naga Mallika, K. Naga Raja Kumari, K. Sudheer, . Sunidhi, K. Ravikanth, Bhaskar Ganguly

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 148-155
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231011

Chicken meat tends to be high in polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, which may increase the risk of atherosclerosis, stroke and other associated diseases. A study was conducted for 42 days to evaluate the efficacy of dietary supplementation of two phytogenic feed supplements viz. AV/LMP/10 and AV/HLP/16 (M/s Ayurvet Limited, India) for their ability to produce lean meat in commercial broiler chicken. One hundred and fifty (150) one-day old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to five equal groups. All the groups were fed standard basal ration. T0 was control group (without treatment), groups T1 and T2 were supplemented with AV/LMP/10 @ 500 g/ton and 1 kg/ton of feed, respectively. Groups T3 and T4 were supplemented with AV/HLP/16 @ 1 kg/ton and 1.5 kg/ton of feed, respectively. On day 42, significantly better (P<0.05) results were obtained in the treated groups (T1-T4) in terms of body weight (2118.10±0.61, 2159.20±0.34, 2098.90±0.41, and 2180.40±0.56 g), total protein (19.10±0.56, 19.93±1.18, 20.80±0.36, and 21.04±0.64%), crude fat (1.25 ±0.25, 1.25 ± 0.31, 0.92 ± 0.24, and 1.03 ± 0.03%), pH (6.01 ± 0.07, 5.93 ± 0.09, 5.78 ± 0.08, and 6.06 ± 0.09), TBARS value (1.11±0.07, 1.11±0.05, 1.06±0.06, and 1.08±0.06 mg/Kg), cholesterol (54.19±1.11, 35.72±1.71, 45.61±1.54, and 36.09±1.045 mg/dL), HDL cholesterol (16.70±0.56, 12.61±1.28, 14.16±1.02, and 15.59±0.57 mg/dL) and total lipids (1.60±0.13, 1.56±0.22, 1.64±0.15, and 2.03±0.12 mg/g) in comparison to the untreated group (2050.80±0.71 g, 18.15±0.41%, 1.66 ± 0.48%, 6.07 ± 0.08, 1.18±0.09 mg/Kg, 62.36±0.88 mg/dL, 24.25±0.54 mg/dL and 2.42±0.18 mg/g). FCR and slaughter parameters varied non-significantly among different groups. The meat: bone ratio was numerically higher in the treated groups T1-4 (2.01±0.20, 2.09 ±0.19, 2.16±0.20 and 1.89±0.35) as compared to the control group (1.80±0.18). The highest protein content was obtained in T4 (21.04%) followed by T3 (20.80%), T2 (19.93%), T1 (19.10%) and lowest in T0 (18.15%), while highest crude fat was obtained in the muscles of the control group T0 (1.66%) followed by T1 and T2 (1.25%), T4 (1.03%) and T3 (0.92). Overall sensory acceptability of meat also improved in the supplemented groups. From the present study, it could be concluded that the phytogenic formulations AV/LMP/10 and AV/HLP/16 were effective in lean meat production in broiler chicken.

Open Access Review Article

Enrichment of Organic Manures and Their Utilization in Vegetable Crops

V. Sindhu, Ranjit Chatterjee, G. M. Santhoshkumar, Trisha Sinha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 10-24
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3230998

Agriculture intensification through indiscriminate and irrational use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has resulted in reduction of crop productivity, lowered fertilizer use efficiency, accelerated environmental degradation and soil heath thus posing serious threat to the sustainability of agriculture, ecological balance and human health. However, people are gradually realizing the emerging danger and showing interest in sustainable crop production practices such increased use of organic manures to revitalize and restore soil fertility and reviving the microbial activity of the soil. Traditionally farmyard manure, animal wastes, compost, vermicompost are used as source of organic fertilizers for improving soil fertility and crop productivity. However, low nutrient content, bulkiness, handling difficulties and labour intensive application prevent the growers for larger use of these traditional organic manures. Gradually there is a decline in microbial activity of these organic manures which in turn leads to depletion of enzymatic activity and composition of nutrient. Manure enrichment increases the nutrient content, microbial population, enzyme activity and increase the fertility status of the soil. Enrichment of manures and composts is done by incorporation of mineral additives (rock phosphate, zinc salt etc.), bio-fertilizers (nitrogen fixing, phosphorus and potassium solubilising bacteria etc.) and bio-inoculations (Trichoderma, Pseudomonas etc.) have lot of benefits on crops in terms of higher yield, better quality, increased disease and pest resistance, availability of essential nutrients and increased soil microbial population and activity. Regular use of higher amount of enriched organic manures will not only reduce the amount of organic manure requirements, but will also increase the use efficiency of the applied manures. Preparation and application of enriched organic manures should be promoted to more number of vegetable growers for organic cultivation as well as for traditional crop cultivation. The present review work on enrichment of organic manure was aimed to explore the possibility of preparation and utilization of enriched organic manures on vegetable crop growth, yield and soil health. The different enrichment method and their utilization will motivate the farming community to adopt enrichment of available organic manures which in turn reduce soil pollution and environmental degradation from fossil fuels.