Open Access Original Research Article

Character Association among Yield and Quality Traits in Early Maturing Sugarcane Clones

G. Eswara Reddy, G. Rakesh, P. Jalender Naik, N. Swapna, Y. Swathi, Y. Bharathi, M. Vijay Kumar, M. Venkataiah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 137-143
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030981

Eleven early maturing sugarcane clones were planted in Randomized Block Design for this study. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among the yield and quality parameters with cane yield and sugar yield in sugarcane, in order to provide information to help breeders in adopting traits for developing high yield and quality varieties. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for eleven yield and quality characters. Highest cane yield (176.66 t/ha) was recorded in clone 2015R10 and highest Commercial Cane Sugar (CCS) % (14.16) were observed in Co C 671. Correlation coefficient results indicated that cane yield was positively correlated with germination (0.166), number of millable canes (0.210), cane length (0.650), cane girth (0.610), single cane weight (0.880), CCS yield (0.518) whereas Brix% (-0.838), Sucrose% (-0.821), Purity % (-0.720) and CCS % (-0.812) showed negative correlation with cane yield. Sugar yield per hectare is positively correlated with purity% (0.187), cane length (0.413), cane girth (0.503), single cane weight (0.515) and cane yield (0.518). Results indicate that the genotypes should be selected on the basis of cane length, cane girth and single cane weight for getting higher sugarcane yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investment and Crop Diversity: An Empirical Evidence from Rural-Urban Interface of Bengaluru

M. S. Udaykumar, K. B. Umesh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030965

The study was undertaken in North of Bengaluru to analyse the investment pattern, crop diversification and farm household’s income across rural-urban interface. The required data was collected from randomly selected 80 farmers each under rural, transition and urban gradients. Tobit regression was used to determine the drivers of investment and Herfindahl index was used to capture the extent of crop diversification across rural urban interface. The per farm investment was relatively higher on water resource and irrigation structure across all the gradients. Around 56, 51 and 45 percent of farmers have invested on water resource and irrigation structures in transition, urban and rural gradient, respectively followed by animal husbandry (40% in rural gradient) and plantation and horticulture (25% in transition and urban gradients). There has been an investment led crop diversification from food crops to vegetables, flower and fruit crops in rural gradient between 2014 and 2019. Whereas, in transition and urban gradients, diversification was from food and vegetable crops to high value fruit crops during the same period. During 2019, the extent of diversification was more in transition (0.21) and rural (0.25) gradients compared to urban (0.29) gradient. Age of head of family, farm income and borrowed capital were the chief drivers which significantly affected the investment in agriculture. The study concludes that, investment led high value crops cultivation and crop diversification played significant role in augmenting the farm income leading to improvement in farmer’s welfare assuring food and livelihood security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Yeast Concentration and Total Soluble Solids on the Quality of Wine Produced from Pineapple

E. C. Udeagha, C. N. Ishiwu, C. U. Obiora, J. O. Iwouno

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 28-42
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030968

This research was carried out to determine the effects of yeast concentration and total soluble solids on the quality of wine produced from pineapple. The experiment was a Response Surface Methodology in the form of Rotatable Central Composite Design (RCCD). Ripe pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) was processed using pressure extraction to obtain the juice. The juice was divided into thirteen (13) portions. Each portion’s total soluble solids was adjusted using sugar syrup and then pitched with specified yeast concentration. All the thirteen (13) samples were fermented for 168 h at 25±3 °C and aged for seven weeks. The wine was analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, ash content, final total soluble solids and alcohol content using standard methods. The sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, mouth-feel, texture and general acceptability) of the wines were analyzed by a twenty-five member panelist using 9-point hedonic scale. The results of the physico-chemical analysis of the pineapple wines showed that pH , titratable acidity (tartaric acid) content, alcohol and final total soluble solids ranged from 3.58 – 4.58, 0.33 – 0.59 %, 4.33 – 10.66 %v/v, 3.35 – 5.65 °Brix respectively. The ash content ranged from 0.20 – 0.50 %. The mean sensory scores for colour, taste, aroma, texture, mouth-feel and general acceptance ranged from 3.28 – 7.96, 4.08 – 6.68, 4.04 – 5.96, 4.16 – 5.32, 4.00 – 5.84 and 4.04 – 6.72 respectively.  The mouthfeel of the pineapple wine samples did not differ significantly (P ≥ .05). Taste and alcohol exhibited significant model (P < .05), and were fitted into regression models. Pineapple has been found suitable for wine production. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var cerevisiae concentration of 6 %v/v and total soluble solids of 25 °Brix is suitable for production of pineapple wine and should be adopted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Character Association of Different Varieties of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) under Ranchi Condition

. Sadanand, Sanyat Misra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 43-53
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030969

The present experimental work entitled “Character Association of Different Varieties of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) under Ranchi condition.” has been worked out in the research field of Department of Horticulture, Ranchi Agriculture College, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi (Jharkhand) during Kharif season,2017. In this experiment 10 genotypes of turmeric have been evaluated with check Rajendra Sonia for different traits. Different observations were recorded at different interval on emergence, number of tillers and leaves per plant, plant girth and height, leaf length and breadth, length, girth and weight of mother, primary and secondary rhizomes, number of primary and secondary rhizomes per plant, yield per plot and yield ha, dry matter recovery. Significant differences have been observed among the different genotypes for all the traits by observing the Analysis of variance. Three genotypes among the 10 genotypes namely Pratibha (23.88 t/ha), BSR-I(21.03 t/ha) and Punjab Haldi (17.96 t/ha) have excelled over the check; Rajendra Sonia (12.81 t/ha) for most of the characters including rhizome yield per hectare. Performance for other horticultural traits viz. number of tillers per plant, number of primary and secondary rhizomes per plant, length and girth of mother rhizome and weight of mother were superior among these three genotypes. The correlation coefficients among the different characters at phenotypic and genotypic levels revealed that yield per plot was having significantly positive association with number of tillers per plant, leaf length, leaf width, plant height, number of leaves per plant, length of mother rhizome, girth and weight of mother rhizome. High heritability coupled with high genetic gain were estimated for weight of mother and secondary rhizomes and yield per plot. This indicates that these characters are under additive gene effects and are more reliable for effective clonal selection for yield improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Heavy Metals Concentrations in Food Spices from Some Markets in Port Harcourt Meteropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria

Austin A. Okwelle, Tamunosisi F. Mac- Pepple

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 61-69
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030971

This study analysed the levels of some heavy metals like copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium(Cr), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) present in selected food spices widely used in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and wet digestion was used for analysis. The results revealed different concentrations of heavy metals in the food spices analysed. The mean and standard deviation of heavy metals across the samples revealed that copper had the highest concentration in tomatoes (15.45±5.09 mg/Kg), curry (10.30±2.03 mg/Kg), garlic (8.65±2.08 mg/Kg), onions (6.50±2.52 mg/Kg) and uda (6.15±3.75 mg/Kg) respectively. Chromium was only detected in curry (2.75±1.00 mg/Kg), pepper (0.65±0.02 mg/Kg) and salt (0.05±0.00 mg/kg). The detected level of nickel was high in tomatoes (6.90±4.89 mg/Kg), curry (4.09±1.90 mg/Kg), salt (6.15±3.70 mg/Kg) and onions (3.09±2.10 mg/Kg). Lead occurred more in uda (3.08±2.87 mg/Kg), tomatoes (3.80±1.28 mg/Kg), curry (2.86±1.34 mg/Kg) and salt (2.60±0.76 mg/Kg) respectively. Cadmium was not detected in any of the food spices, while in chilles spice no heavy metals was detected. The daily intake limit was calculated and compared with minimum risk level (MRL) values. The concentrations of lead in some of the food spices were much larger than those of MRL values. The regular consumption of the spices can lead to accumulation of these toxic heavy metals in human beings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical and Mechanical Properties of Tissue Culture Banana Plantlets for the Design of Planting Mechanism

B. Hari Prasad, S. S. Sivakumar, J. John Gunasekar, A. Surendrakumar, V. Alex Albert

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 70-75
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030972

Aims: To design a mechanical transplanting mechanism for tissue culture banana plantlets, physical and mechanical properties such as mass, height of plantlet, pseudostem height from tray to first leaf, pseudostem diameter between root plug and first leaf, root plug dimension, moisture content of root plug, pulling force and compression resistance are needed.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, AEC&RI, Kumulur, Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, AEC&RI, Coimbatore and Post-Harvest Technology Centre, Coimbatore between August 2019 to December 2019.

Methodology: For three local varieties used by the farmers to culivate tissue culture banana namely ‘Grand Naine-G9’ (AAA), ‘Red Banana’ (AAA) and ‘Nendran’ (BAA), physical and mechanical properties were studied.

Results: ‘G9’, ‘Red Banana’ and ‘Nendran’ were 120.5±12.3, 117.2± 9.0 and 113.5±9.0 g mass and 379.3±21.72, 360±26.23, 467.6±13.06 mm height, pseudostem diameter near root plug was observed as 10.7 ± 1.0, 10.2 ± 0.8 and 10.9 ± 1.4 mm respectively. The height of pseudostem till the first leaf was minimum for ‘Red’ variety (37.1±4.3 mm), maximum for ‘Nendran’ (102.1±2.3 mm). The pulling force for three varieties were observed as 4.96±2, 4.97±1.1 and 5.05±1.6 N with little difference in-between them. The minimum compressive resistance offered by the three varieties are 47.16 ± 3.08, 46.42 ± 5.43 and 38.55 ± 1.86 N near the base and 44.07 ± 2.55, 37.89 ± 6.6 and 32.36 ± 1.58 N at 25 mm above root plug for ‘G9’, ‘Red’ and ‘Nendran’ respectively.

Conclusion: The maximum plantlet weight was observed as 132.8 mm for ‘G9’ variety and plantlet height as 480 mm for ‘Nendran’ variety. The minimum height of pseudostem till the first leaf was 31 mm for ‘Red’ variety and picking gripper height should be less than 30 mm. The minimum pulling force should be 7 N to remove the plantlet from the pro-tray and force applied by the gripper to hold the plantlet on pseudostem shouldn’t exceed 30 N.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Zero Tillage Technique on Wheat Production in the Middle Indo-Gangetic Plains of Nalanda (Bihar)

V. K. Singh, Abhishek Pandey, V. Y. Deshpande, B. Shivarudrappa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 76-82
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030974

The present study was undertaken to compare the response of zero tillage method and conventional method on wheat production with respect to various growth, yield and economic parameters in the middle Indo-Gangetic Plains of Nalanda district of Bihar. The study was conducted during Rabi seasons of 2017-18 and 2018-19. Fourteen farmers were selected for the study, 7 of whom sowed with zero tillage machine and 7 followed broadcasting method. Four observation from each plot were taken, therefore, total 56 observations were taken for both the methods. Results showed that higher mean plant height was recorded by Zero Tillage (ZT) method (83.07±128 cm) followed by broadcasting method (79.57±187 cm) that shows significant difference. Significantly mean higher no. of tillers per square meters was recorded by ZT method (556.57±21.28) as compared to broadcasting method (501.07±13.48). Mean spike length was significantly higher in case of ZT method (11.96±0.53 cm) compared to broadcasting method (11.03±0.22 cm). Significantly higher mean no. of grains per spike was recorded in ZT method (45.42±0.93) compared to broadcasting method (42.46±1.03). Significantly higher mean 1000- grain weight (g) were recorded in ZT method (42.07±0.61) compared to broadcasting method (40.03±0.67). Highly significant difference was recorded in grain yield (tonnes/ha) between ZT (3.82±0.03) and broadcasting method (3.68±0.04). Also, there were highly significant difference recorded in all the economic parameters between ZT and broadcast method. Cost of cultivation (Rs. /ha), gross monetary return (Rs. /ha), net monetary return (Rs. /ha) and BCR for ZT method are 37564±289, 70657±620, 33093±677 and 1.88±0.02. Corresponding values for broadcasting method are 40427±256, 68087±728, 27659±759 and 1.68±0.02. From the two years on farm research study it is concluded that the Zero tillage method of wheat cultivation is cost saving, more remunerative with timely sowing and helpful for areas where burning of paddy straw after paddy harvesting is widely prevalent. This method can be promoted among the farmers in Bihar and other middle Indo- Gangetic Plain regions for large scale adoption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diurnal Variations in Soil Temperature during Lockdown amid COVID-19 Pandemic in Mid Hills of Rajouri District, Jammu & Kashmir Union Territory, India

Rohit Sharma, Vishaw Vikas, Mahender Singh, Deepak Kumar, Vikas Sharma, Vishal Sharma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 83-88
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030975

Aim: A preliminary analysis was done to evaluate the impact of lockdown on soil temperature at different depths and comparison with year 2018 and 2019.

Methodology and Results: In order to describe the basic features of the data in study, descriptive statistics method was opted. The deviation in soil temperature from mean value at 5 cm depth observed during lockdown was -8.58 % and -4.77 % compared to year 2018 and 2019. However the deviation observed from mean value at 10 cm depth was -10.72 % and -9.28 %. The deviation from mean value at 20 cm depth observed was -2.34 % and -1.98 %.

Conclusion: The study concluded that due to lockdown, there was significant change in soil temperature values at variable depths compared to year 2018 and 2019 in the study region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Socio-economic Characteristics and Anthropometric Status of Pre and Post-menopausal Civil Servants in Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria

Ojo M. I., Nupo S. S., Shittu T. A., Sanni S. A., Ilori O. A.

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 89-96
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030976

Background: Menopause is the consistent and continuous absence of menses for twelve consecutive months among women.

Aim: The study was conducted to assess the Anthropometry and Nutrient intake of pre and post-menopausal civil servant in Abeokuta, Ogun state. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist/Hip ratio were used to classify the anthropometric characteristics of the respondents and were compared with the WHO reference standard.

Methods: All statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS/RC) Programme (version 16). Chi-square, t-test and Pearson linear correlation were used to assess the relationship between variables.

Results: Result of Body Mass Index (BMI) revealed that a total of 17.4% of pre-menopausal women and 14.8% of the menopausal were obese.  Consumption of fruit and vegetable was low for both groups of women. There was a significant difference in the WHR (p< 0.05) and no significant difference in the mean intake of the two groups considered at p< 0.05. There was a positive correlation (r=0.246) between age and BMI and a positive correlation (r=0.164) between BMI and activity level.

Conclusion: There is a need to educate respondents on weight maintenance. An improvement in respondents' knowledge on the importance of fruit and vegetable, through nutrition education, and way to incorporate these sources of nutrient in the diet will go a long way in improving nutritional status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extent of Adoption of Vegetable Production Practices by Vegetable Growers in Medak District of Telangana

B. Savitha, C. Srinivas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 97-104
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030977

The study was conducted in four villages of Mulugu mandal of Medak district of Telangana to assess the extent of adoption of recommended vegetable production practices and safety measures in handling pesticides by the vegetable growers. An interview schedule was prepared for collection data pertaining to the adoption of practices by the respondents. From the study, it could be concluded that, the with respect to the adoption, majority of the farmers (64.00%) fell under medium category of adoption followed by high (20.00%) and low (16.00%) categories. When practice wise adoption was assessed it was revealed that, majority of the farmers (76.00%) adopted plant protection practices followed by recommendations pertaining to the selection of seeds & sowing methods & time (72.00%) and application of manures and fertilizers (70.00%). Further, farmers opined that, powdery mildew; Helicoverpa, Spodoptera and Jassids were the important pests occur in vegetables. While coming to the safe handling of pesticides farmers opined that, they are taking personal protection measures like, use of face mask, gloves and turban while spraying of pesticides.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Pruning in Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) for Shoot Growth, Flowering and Fruit Yield

K. S. Amarnath, Saket Mishra, Ravi Kumar Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 114-123
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030979

The present experiment was carried out during December 2018 to May 2019 in Central Research Field, Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj. it is concluded that treatment T2 (20 cm pruning) was best in terms of vegetative growth parameters like plant height, plant spread, number of branches etc. and treatment T4 (40 cm pruning) was best in terms of earliness and fruit yield parameters, in terms of quality treatment T3 (30 cm pruning) was best. In terms of economics treatment T4 (40 cm pruning) recorded maximum benefit and cost benefit ratio.

Open Access Original Research Article

Equilibrium Moisture Characteristics of Egg White Powder at Higher Temperatures

R. Snehitha, Sreenivasula Reddy Boreddy, D. D. Smith, H. V. Hema Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 124-136
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030980

The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of food material is defined as the moisture content of the material after it has been exposed to a particular environment for an infinitely long period of time. Equilibrium moisture characteristics of Egg White Powder (EWP) was studied at higher temperatures of 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90°C in the equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) range of 10-78% (at seven levels). The standard gravimetric method was used to determine the EMC-ERH relationships of EWP by employing the various saturated inorganic salt solutions. The EMC of EWP at any particular ERH decreased with an increase in environmental temperature. The EMC of EWP ranged from 2.17 to 3.35 at lower ERH value of about 10% whereas the EMC values ranged from 12.07 to 14.80 at higher ERH value of about 78% when the environmental temperature increased from 50°C to 90°C. EMC values of EWP are different than that of the values obtained at lower temperatures, hence useful to understand the thermal processing of EWP at higher temperatures. EMC-ERH data obtained in this study was fit into seven EMC-ERH models namely Henderson, modified Henderson, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Oswin, modified Halsey, modified GAB (Guggenheim, Ander-son and de-Boer) and Chen-Clayton models and were evaluated using mean relative percent error (Pe), standard error of estimate (SEE) and residual plots. The modified Henderson equation described the EMC-ERH relationship of EWP the best, Henderson, and Chen-Clayton equations gave good fit. The heat of vaporization (hfg) of EWP at different moisture contents and temperatures was calculated from EMC-ERH data with the help of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The hfg values indicate that the heat of vaporization of EWP increases as the moisture content and temperature decreases and the values are higher than that of the pure water.

Open Access Review Article

Tensiometers for Rice Water Footprints

Rajan Bhatt

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 11-27
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030966

Water footprints (WFs) of rice are quite higher viz. 992 billion cubic metres per year (Gm3 yr−1) than from the other cereals which further responsible for the lower water productivity. Out of global WFs for crop production viz. 7404 Gm3 yr−1 corresponds to 78 % green, 12 % blue, and 10 % grey water, respectively. Around 3000-4000 litres of water required for one kg of rice grains and conventional puddle transplanted flood irrigations responsible for this. Therefore, there is an urgent need to cut down rice WFs share. Over irrigated pounded water under conventional puddle transplanted rice responsible for the emissions of the green house gases in atmosphere, which further has its own complications. With time, due to excessive withdrawals of the underground water, the water table is declining at a faster rate and seems to be beyond the reach of the middle class rice farmers. Rice water productivity declining day by day due to huge water demand of rice crop followed by reduced yields. A major share of the applied irrigation water lost/evaporate in the atmosphere. Soil water tension controls the soil moisture dynamics and directly linked to the plant need based approach. Being a kharif crop, rice season faces harsh summers and where evaporative demands of atmosphere intensified to many folds and thus, irrigation water has to be applied frequently. Annually additional water of worth US $ 39 million is withdrawn in NW Indian Punjab state for feeding crops, particularly rice. Tensiometer is the only instrument provided to the rice farmers for applying irrigation water judiciously based on the plant need which further cut down WFs from 18 to 22%. This practise where on one side saves irrigation water, improves declining land as well as water productivity of rice, also controlled the emissions of GHGs from the soil.

Open Access Review Article

Cognitive Dissonance: A Psychological Unrest

V. L. Dilakshini, S. Mohan Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 54-60
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030970

Cognitive dissonance is a phenomenon which will be created based on the discomfort experience when two cognitions are mismatch with each other. This study reviews some literature (nearly twenty-five (25) articles based on cognitive dissonance in past to give a clear picture regarding the cognitive dissonance in order to make the human beings away from stress and negative feeling. A cognition is a piece of a knowledge which can be, thought, attitude, personal value and behaviour. All of the human being prefer that their world should be associate with their cognitions. So, cognitive dissonance can be making a human being under stressful condition. People tend to seek uniformity in their attitudes and perceptions, so this battle creates feelings of unease or discomfort. This discrepancy between what people believe and how they behave stimulates people to engage in actions that will help to minimize their feelings of discomfort. In order to cope up with tension, humans are carrying out several strategies, such as rejecting the new information, explaining away or avoiding new information. Cognitive dissonance isn’t necessarily a bad thing. It can be positive, if we make positive changes in our beliefs when we realize that our beliefs and actions are odd. Not everyone experiences cognitive dissonance to the same degree. Some people have a higher tolerance for uncertainty and inconsistency. Even, based on the personality of a human also will decide how to tolerate the dissonance in an effective manner to reach a healthy life.

Open Access Review Article

Technologies for Preparation of Solid and Granular Jaggery: A Review

Eresh Kumar Kuruba, P. V. K. Jagannadha Rao, D. Khokhar, S. Patel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 105-113
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3030978

Jaggery is unrefined sugar used in all countries of the world under different names prepared from sugarcane juice. It is a tastemaker and color maker rather than being just a sweetener. Jaggery is rich in minerals and vitamins contained more than of refined sugar. Nowadays people are very conscious about health and current food consumption. People are concentrating mainly on high-quality foods with low capital investment. Jaggery is one of the products which is cheaply and easily available to all categories of people. To meet market demand and jaggery export, with a short period of production though it is consumed throughout the year, the high quality and hygiene jaggery can be prepared by increasing the plant efficiency by considering the modifications in the design of the furnace, pan, rate of bagasse consumption, rate of heat transfer from hot flue gases. The production can also be increased by practicing good manufacturing practice (GMP), by preparing other products like liquid jaggery and granular jaggery in addition to solid jaggery. This paper discusses the various up-gradation technologies of jaggery preparation and besides, this paper gives an overview of various forms of jaggery preparation from different sources of input along with automation and advanced jaggery making process.