Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Scope and Efficiency of Off-Season Rice Straw Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea L.) Cultivation in Coastal Odisha

N. Mahapatra, F. H. Rahman, P. Mishra, T. R. Sahoo, S. N. Mishra, P. K. Sahoo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 28-34
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730917

A field experiment was conducted in the farmers’ field in Ratanpur, Marshaghai block of Kendrapara district in Odisha, an adopted village of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kendrapara under the National Innovations in Climate-Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) project with the objective of determining the productivity of rice straw mushroom in off-season (Month of November) under different cultivation systems. Keeping in view the need to develop more resilient technology for farmers to combat the current scenario of changing climate and market demands along with generation of additional income, the possibility of growing this tropical mushroom during winter month was tested. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with 4 number of treatments and 6 replications with ten beds (blocks) taken in each replication. The treatments undertaken were as follows, T1- Rice straw mushroom cultivation in shade net, T2- Rice straw mushroom cultivation in poly house, T3- Rice straw mushroom cultivation in thatched roof and T4- Outdoor Rice straw mushroom cultivation. It was concluded from the findings that poly house system outperformed the other three cultivation systems i.e. shade net, thatched house and open situations in terms of yield maximization, gross and net return during the off-season (November). The poly house system produced 10.8 - 76.4% higher yield in comparison to other three systems with increased net returns and B:C ratio of 1.78 suggesting it to be the best cultivation system for off-season production of rice straw mushroom.

Open Access Original Research Article

Shalimar Maize Hybrid 4, a Most Promising Hybrid for High Altitude Ecologies of Kashmir Valley

M. Ashraf Ahangar, Asif B. Shikari, Showkat A. Waza, F. A. Sheikh, S. Najeeb, N. A. Teeli, Z. A. Dar, Ajaz A. Lone

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 136-144
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730932

Maize is one of the most important cereal crops of Kashmir Valley where it serves as a source of food, feed, fodder and industrial raw material, providing enormous opportunity for crop diversification, value addition and employment generation. However, the average productivity of maize in Kashmir Valley is quite low (1.5 t ha-1) when compared to the national productivity (2.5 t ha-1). The development, dissemination and adoption of high yielding, early maturity, cold tolerant maize hybrids can serve as the most economical, effective and coherent approach to contribute significantly towards increasing maize production in Kashmir Valley. A single cross hybrid SMH4 (Shalimar Maize Hybrid 4) has been developed to enhance the maize productivity in high altitude agro-ecologies of the Valley. SMH4 possesses very high yield potential of about 7.0-8.2 t ha-1 compared to 2.5-4.0 t ha-1 as realised by the predominantly grown landraces in hilly agro-ecosystems. The hybrid revealed the grain yield superiority of about 23.61% and the stover yield superiority of about 15.77% over the commercial check viz., Shalimar maize Hybrid 1. The variety is resistant to Turcicum leaf blight and common rust, besides showing resistance to stem borers and cut worms. SMH4 has a very good acceptability by farmers for its high yield potential (both grain and fodder), better seedling vigour and early maturity. SMH4 with the traits like cold tolerance and early maturity can play a potential role in enhancing the economy of maize growers under high altitude ecologies of Kashmir Valley. The development, upscaling and mass adoption of SMH4 in temperate agro-ecologies will lead to socio-economic upliftment of small and marginal farmers through increase in production, productivity and farm profitability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role Perception, Role Performance and Constraints of Trainers in KVKs Haryana

Sulekha ., Dileep Gupta, Prakash Chandra, Amit Kumar, Prem Nath, Kamlesh Kumar Yadav, Sudershan Mehta

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730914

The present investigation aimed at analyzing the role perception, role performance and constraints of trainers in KVKs of Haryana state. Agro climatically Haryana is divided into two zones i.e., western and eastern zone. 4 Krishi Vigyan Kendrs (KVKs), two each from western zone i.e. KVK Bhiwani and KVK Fatehabad whereas KVK Rohtak and KVK Jhajjar from eastern zone were selected. Overall 47.4 per cent trainers had high followed by medium (36.8%) role perception. Regarding role performance of the respondent’s irrespective of zones and KVKs had medium (52.6%) followed by high (36.8%) level of role performance. All the extension personnel of the selected KVKs who were directly involved in conduct of training programmes were selected for the study. There were, four (Bhiwani), six (Fatehabad), five (Rohtak) and four (Jhajjar) extension personnel respectively. Thus, 19 extension personnel were interviewed. Major constraints experienced by the trainers were: lot of paper work and reporting and feeling additional burden of work and responsibilities due vacant posts lying in each KVK.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Balance Nutrition (N, P, K, Zn and B) and Green Manuring on Yield, Nutrient Uptake, Economics and Soil Fertility of Rainfed Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Drought Prone Areas of Odisha

J. Udgata, M. Barik, A. Phonglosa, S. K. Joshi, P. J. Mishra, F. H. Rahman, L. M. Garnayak, D. Parida

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730915

A field experiment was carried out in participatory mode on farmers’ field at Bhoimunda village of Jharsuguda block under Jharsuguda district, Odisha during Kharif season of 2017, 2018 and 2019 to study the efficiency of nutrient management along with green manuring crop on productivity, profitability and soil fertility of rice under Western Central Table Land Zone of Odisha, India. The adopted village was selected by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jharsuguda, Odisha under National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) project. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with four treatments replicated five times taking rice (cv. Sahabhagi dhan) as test crop.  The treatments comprised of four viz. T1: Farmer’s practice (NPK @ 50:20:20 kg ha-1), T2: Recommended dose of fertilizer (NPK @ 60:30:30 kg ha-1), T3: 75% RDF + Green manuring of dhaincha  (Sesbania aculeata) with seed rate of @ 25 kg ha-1 and T4: Soil Test Based NPKZnB @ 75:38:30:6.25:1.25 kg ha-1 + Green manuring.  Results revealed that application of Soil Test Based NPKZnB @ 75:38:30:6.25:1.25 kg ha-1 along with green manuring producing dry biomass 5044 kg ha-1  (T4) recorded significantly higher growth and yield attributes, grain yield (4.04 t ha-1), straw yield (5.15 t ha-1), harvest index (43.92%) as well as nutrient uptake in grain and straw of the crop over farmers practice. The same treatment recorded significant improvement in soil pH, organic carbon, available macronutrients (N, P and K) and micronutrients (Zn and B) status of soil after harvest of the crop. The highest benefit: cost ratio (1.62) and returns (Rs. 28559 ha-1) were recorded with the same treatment (T4) over farmers practice. The present study showed that use of green manuring along with balance nutrition, is an important strategy to maintain and/or improve soil fertility for sustainable crop production in drought prone areas as well as remunerative rice production by the farmers in Odisha, India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Use/Land Cover Change of Rabi Season of Rahuri Taluka of Ahmednagar District Maharashtra

Payal A. Mahadule, A. A. Atre, Ankita P. Kamble, C. Pande, S. D. Gorantiwar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730916

Advanced change location procedures by utilizing multi-temporal satellite symbolism helps in understanding landscape dynamics. The present examination shows the spatio- temporal elements of land use of Rahuri Taluka, Ahmednagar District, Maharashtra, India.  Sentinel 2A satellite imageries of four different months of Rabi season (2019-2020) were acquired by United States Geological Survey (USGS) earth explorer site and quantify the changes in the Rahuri Taluka from October 2019 to January 2020 over a period of 3 months.This study applied supervised classification-maximum likelihood algorithm by using Arc GIS 10.1 Map envision to distinguish land use changes of Rahuri. Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) in the Rahuri has experienced a progression of changes in the course of the last three months. Four significant LULC classes viz; Water body, Built-up Land, Waste/Fallow land, Agriculture land have been distinguished and demonstrate that significant land use in the Rahuri Taluka. Results appears, water bodies was highest in month of October 15.68% (166.48 km2), Agriculture land was highest in month of November 59.77% (634.56 km2) and Waste/Fallow land was significantly higher in month of October 41.1% (437.47 km2) and December 41.7% (442.77 km2) than November 30.54% (324.28 km2). The examination and discoveries of the investigation features significant approach suggestions for the maintainable Land Use/Land Cover the board in the Rahuri.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Signal Coverage Area in Mobile Communication Networks

O. A. Osahenvemwen

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 35-45
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730918

This study presents the optimization of signal coverage area in third generation WCDMA technology of mobile communication networks, aim at improving signal coverage area or overcoming the presence dead zone in mobile communication network. Various parameters that affect Signal coverage area in mobile communication network were determined. Optimization mathematical model based on Lagrange mathematical method was developed in line with the necessary parameters and characteristics. The developed mathematical model was simulated using MATLAB and Wolfram Mathematical Software using data obtain from mobile communication Network ‘A’ at Asaba, Delta State. The obtained data were number of duplex channels, frequency, load capacity of the base station, interference, distance power received, power transmitted etc. The result obtain are the critical points with fade-off of the radio signal. The coverage area indicates a non-linear function, therefore to minimize threshold parameter such as interference; pathloss and power received values will increase as the coverage area of the base station increases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Different Operating Parameters on Seed Holding in the Single Seed Metering Unit

B. Hari Babu, K. Lakshmi Prasanna, P. Vamsi Prasanna Kumar, K. Preethi, Aditya Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 58-70
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730920

Aims: The present study was conducted to determine the “Effect of Different Operating Parameters on Seed Holding in the Single Seed Metering Unit”.

Study Design: An attempt was made to development  seed metering unit and evaluated for its performance with battery drive i.e. seed rate, seed holding ratio, single seed holding ratio, double seed holding ratio and missing index. The shapes of cells speed of seed plate and number of cells on seed plate were chosen as parameters. A factorial completely randomised design used for analysis of variance.

Results: At the end of the research, it was found that the cell’s shape, peripheral velocity and number of cells on seed plate had an effect on the seed holding ratio (SHR) at a significant level of 5% (P<0.05). The diameter and thickness of the seed metering plates were 100 and 8 mm respectively. The hopper was of the trapezoidal section with height of 12.5 cm , volume 3510 cm3 and  thickness of material of 2.5 mm. For maize seed variety: Tulasi Naga If the velocity of seed plate increases then seed holding ratio decreases, seed holding ratio also decreased with increase in number of cells on seed plate. Oblong shape with extension was suitable for these seeds. For maize seed variety: Goodrej Ultra when  the velocity of seed plate increased then seed holding ratio decreased, seed holding ratio also decreased with increase in number of cells on seed plate. Oblong shape was  suitable for these seeds. For maize seed variety: Laxmi 2277  seed holding ratio increased with increase in velocity of seed plate, seed holding ratio also increased with increase in number of cells on seed plate. Oblong shape was  suitable for these seeds.

Conclusion: The highest and least value of seed holding ratio is 94% at a speed of 30 rpm in shape 2(6 and 7 cells) and 31% at a speed of 30 rpm in shape 1(7 cells), 39% at a speed of 26 rpm in shape 2(6 cells) and 12% at a speed of 30 rpm in shape 1(7 cells), 45% at a speed of 26 rpm in shape 1(6 cells) and 6%at a speed of 30 rpm in shape 2(7 cells) for laxmi, goodrej and tulasi variety of seeds respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Cost and Profit Strategies for the Mustard Crop in Madhya Pradesh

Pooja Shukla, J. K. Gupta

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 79-87
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730922

“India occupies fourth position in the World which share the 5.06 million hectares area, and the production is 5.83 million tones and 1,152kg per hectare productivity. The mustard oil seed produce in the states of India are Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, M.P., Maharashtra, Karnataka, U.P., and Rajasthan. Around 85% of the oilseed crop is from the seven states of India. In India Madhya Pradesh contributes 40 percent production, in the national economy and its occupies 6th position, and also contributes 0.31million hectare area, 0.21 million tonnes production. Mustard is the most remunerative and dominant oilseed crop and more than 20% percent of this crop area lies in the Neemuch district of M.P. The most popular district of the state for the mustard is Neemuch. In this study, the profit is found from the cultivation of the mustard. This crop contains the area per hector, which is higher for the existing yield level with the level of the sample farms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Post Emergence Herbicides on Weed Management in Transplanted Kharif Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Their Residuality on Soil Microorganisms

Ranjan Kumar Dey, Megha Sana, Subhajit Pal, Ramyajit Mondal, Sukanta Pal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 88-95
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730923

The field experiments were conducted at Regional Research Sub-Station (new alluvial zone) of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Chakdaha, Nadia, West Bengal during kharif of 2015 & 2016 to study different post emergence herbicides against weed management in transplanted kharif rice. Ten (10) treatments were used following Randomize Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Among four different chemical herbicides Almix 20 WP @ 4 g ha-1 applied at 15 DAT as EPOE( early post emergence) effectively controlled all categories of weeds (mostly sedges and broad leaves) resulted minimum weed population, biomass production and higher weed control efficiency (WCE) at 30 and 45 DAT which ultimately produced higher grain yield (3.23 t ha-1) compare to other treatments. In case of efficacy of phytotoxicity effects on experimental crop, toxicity effects on soil microflora and BC ratio, Almix 20 WP @ 4 g/ha reflects the satisfied result.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Nutrient Supply, Kinetics, and Prediction of Iron (Fe) Uptake in Iron-deficient Soil using a Mechanistic Model

R. Gobinath, K. P. Patel, K. V. Ramani, . Rajkishore, V. Manasa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 96-107
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730924

A pot culture experiment in the factorial completely randomized design (FRCD) was formulated with the three levels of iron (Fe) @ 0, 20 and 40 mg kg-1 in the iron-deficient Typic Ustochrept sandy loam soil at Anand Agricultural University, Gujarat, India to evaluate and predict the iron uptake, nutrient efficiency and its depletion of in the rhizosphere of efficient and in-efficient chick pea cultivars using mechanistic model NST 3.0. The current investigation was carried out with the four chickpea cultivars namely, Fe-efficient (GG-1 and GAG-735) and Fe-inefficient (ICCC-4 and GJG-305). Plant observations were recorded during three different growth stages viz., 20 DAG, 40 DAG and maturity, respectively. The shoot weight and shoot length of Fe-inefficient varieties (ICCC-4 and GJG-305) well responded to the application of Fe as compared to Fe-efficient varieties (GG-1 and GAG-735) with 20 mg Fe Kg-1 application through FeSO4. Lower dose of 20 mg Fe kg-1 was found equally effective in increasing root length and root radius. Root radius (ro) and initial soil solution concentration of Fe (CLi) were found most sensitive parameters influencing Fe uptake, which was followed by maximum net influx (Imax). In no Fe treatment, increasing r0, CLi by a factor of 2.0 times individually caused increase in Fe uptake by 1.60, 1.45 times, 1.36, 1.53 times, 1.16, 1.15 times and 1.05, 1.25 times, respectively in GG-1, GAG-735, ICCC-4 and GJG-305 varieties of chickpea. While, increasing Imax and Km separately by a factor of 2.0 Fe uptake altered in proportions by 1.03, 0.57 times, 0.93, 0.57 times, 0.73, 0.54 times and 0.69 and 0.48 times, respectively in GG-1, GAG-735, ICCC-4 and GJG-305 varieties of chickpea. The ICCC-4 instead of GG-1 and GAG-735 could be rational choice to grow on Fe deficient soil to get with dense Fe content. On the other hand, Fe-Inefficient varieties had 2 times of higher mean Fe-influx at 40 mg Fe kg-1 application than Fe-Efficient varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Financial Evaluation of Short Rotation Tree Crop under Agroforestry System in Tamil Nadu

R. Divya Bharathi, K. Chandran, V. Karthick

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 108-115
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730925

This paper presents the financial evaluation of short rotation tree crops under agroforestry system.  Agroforestry involves the cultivation of two or more plant species with woody perennial in a single fragment of land. Multi-stage purposive sampling technique was employed in selection of the district, blocks and villages based on area under forest cover. Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu was taken for this study. Though there are many short rotation tree species grown in the study area, farmers prefer Malabar Neem (Melia dubia) for its multiple uses. The prominent agroforestry systems in the study region viz. Agri-Silviculture and Silviculture were selected. The primary data was collected from 80 sample farmers for the agricultural year 2018-19 and the sample respondents were surveyed from January to February, 2020. Financial analysis viz., Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), Net Present Worth (NPW) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) were performed to check the feasibility of the investment in Agri- Silviculture and Silviculture system. The results indicate that additional income (68%) and meeting emergency cash requirement (67%) were the major reasons for adopting short rotation tree crops. The Net Present Worth per hectare in Agri-Silviculture and Silviculture system was Rs. 3,43,823 and Rs.1,97,909. BCR of Agri-Silviculture system has been found to be higher (2.01) than Silviculture system (1.66). Growing Malabar Neem with agricultural crops is more beneficial when comparing trees alone, it is capable of providing income round the year in a short span of time. Using tree crops as a contingency fund allows the farmer to meet the unforeseen expenses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Architecture of Working Memory Cognitive Function of Twins

. Annu, Bimla Dhanda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 129-135
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730927

The twin research has provided a deep understanding of the influence of genetic and the environment on cognitive functions. The contribution of genetic material accounted for 50-65% in the variations of working memory cognitive functions of twins. To conduct twin study 100 pairs of twins from two districts, namely: Bhiwani (N = 90) and Hisar (N = 110) of Haryana State, were taken. The working memory cognitive functions of twins were measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children- Revised (WISC-R). Heritability estimate was used to examine the genes that contributed to shaping the cognitive functions of twins. The result of heritability estimates revealed that the heritability estimates of working memory cognitive functions namely: digit span (62%), maze (58%) and arithmetic (58%) in Bhiwani district and Hisar district, were 57%, 51% and 54% for digit span, maze, and arithmetic respectively. The findings elucidated that the working memory cognitive functions were more influenced by genetic architecture than the environmental factors. The monozygotic twins were more correlated in their general cognitive abilities than the dizygotic twins.

Open Access Review Article

Food Assistance to the Calamity-Hit Victims of Recurrent Floods, Cyclones, Earthquakes and Droughts in India – A Review

Pushpa Dhami, Kiran Bains, Harpreet Kaur, Shruti Jain

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 46-57
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730919

India has been facing the wrath of natural calamities pertaining to its unique geography and varied climatic patterns from time immemorial. The purpose of this paper is to gather data pertaining to food assistance provided to stranded evacuees in the aftermath of Natural Calamities. Food assistance forms crucial part of humanitarian assistance to provide immediate relief to victims and help in their speedy recovery from injuries, illness and psychological distress. We aimed to collect information on the type of food, quantities of food and cultural competence of food because India has a wide diversity in food eating patterns across its regions. We also took into account the rescue operations involving role of different stakeholders like government organizations, Armed forces, paramilitary forces, NGOs, international donors and volunteers who usually work independently but gather together aftermath of any calamity or disaster, to address the problems that arise with a common shared goal in a coordinated and effective manner. The paper was basically a desk study involving compilation and analyses of information and data from official documents, research papers/reports of National and International agencies, NGOs and media reports such as newspaper articles featuring the updates on calamity. The paper concluded that, although there is enough information on disaster aftermath including rescue operations yet there is a dearth of detailed information about the food assistance in terms of type of food, quantities and cultural competency of food aid. The findings suggested that cultural competence in food aid is an important area to focus on as the stranded evacuees may have a wider acceptance of the food when they see culturally familiar foods in their food basket. Also, there should be clear documentation of the food aid in terms of quantity and distribution so that nutrition professionals, policymakers and other stakeholders can effectively debate and design the food policies and feeding programmes incongruent with identified food needs of stranded evacuees.

Open Access Review Article

Seaweed - An Eco-friendly Alternative of Agrochemicals in Sustainable Agriculture

Abhay Mishra, Sangita Sahni, Sanjeev Kumar, Bishun Deo Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 71-78
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730921

Sustainable agriculture demands the use of our natural resources to enhance production and productivity without depleting the natural base along with a vision to preserve them for our future generation. The effect of modern agriculture driven by agrochemicals has raised serious concern about the health and wellbeing of our environment and humans as well. The growth of the population and shrinking resources has created the need for searching new technology and resources to balance between feeding and preserving the environment. Researchers are nowadays more focussed towards trying and testing new products to reduce our dependency on agrochemicals. Among the various alternatives, Seaweed has drawn the attention of many researchers due to its unique properties and abundant availability. They are nowadays used to increase the yield by enhancing the nutrient uptake by the plant. This can reduce excessive fertilizer application for yield enhancement. Seaweed extracts are also showing effective response against various pest and diseases. This property can also play a very important role in reducing our dependency on harmful chemicals for pest control.

Open Access Review Article

A Critical Review on Use of Edible Coating to Enhance Shelf Life of Mango

Prasenjit Kundu, Nayan Kishor Adhikary, Sutanu Maji

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 116-128
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2730926

Mango is a crop of economic importance for its high export potentiality and usage as fresh and processed products of many kinds. However, increase its shelf life with maintaining postharvest quality and acceptability for long period is prime concerned since mango is a climacteric crop and cannot store for more than 5-7 days after ripening at ambient condition. Low temperature storage along with controlled atmospheric condition is being practised to keep fruits fresh. Controlled atmospheric storage reduces physiological processes, delayed ripening, but, can cause off flavour, internal tissue degradation, poor colouration and other physiological disorders. With the growing consciousness on bad effect of various chemical techniques and environmental hazards emphasizes a need to develop consumer friendly and environment friendly technology to increase shelf life of mango fruits with maintaining its quality and general acceptability. Use of edible coating is now becoming popular because it is a hazard free and environment friendly approach. It has tremendous potentiality to prolong shelf life of mango as whole fruit or fresh cut pieces. Generally, Aloe vera based edible coatings with chitosan have been studied for mango. The present review organised the various study exhaustively on different aspect of postharvest physiology of mango with use of edible coating which shall benefit the researchers for future study.