##### The Level of Rice Farmers' Adoption of Smart Climate Agriculture

Nagaratna C. Kurbetta, Geeta Tamgale, Geeta Gadekar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630898

Aim: To know the adaptation strategies undertaken by the respondents to deal with climate-smart agriculture.

Study Design: An expost facto research design was employed to analyse the level of adoption by the rice farmers.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted during 2018-19 in Dharwad district of Karnataka state. From Dharwad district two villages namely Mummigatti from Dharwad taluk and Jodalli from Kalaghatagi taluk were selected.

Methodology: A total of 60 respondents were randomly selected and personally interviewed.

To elicit the required information from the respondents, a structured interview schedule was prepared. Through informal discussions and interviews, data was collected from the respondents. The collected data was analysed with the help of suitable statistical tools like frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and t-test.

Results: The results of the study revealed that majority of the respondents from Mummigatti (86.67%) and Jodalli (66.70%) had medium level of awareness regarding climate-smart agriculture. Majority of the respondents from Mummigatti (80.00%) and Jodalli (73.30%) were found in medium adaptation category. Equal percentage (20.00% each) of the respondents from both the villages belonged to the high adaptation category. The study also reveals that cent percent of the respondents from both the villages were faced constraints likelack of knowledge about adaptive practices, lack of awareness about climate change issues, non-availability of inputs in time, lack of financial resource, poor support of local and national authorities with the climate-related issue and higher cost of the agricultural inputs to cope with climatic variability.

Conclusion: From the study, it can be concluded that providing information and local support from the authorities will be of immense use in the proper adaption of site-specific climate-smart practices. The study also suggests that suitable policies and strategies should be taken to deal with non adaptation of climate-smart practices in the villages.

##### Genetic Variability Analysis of Early Maturing Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Clones Using Morphological Characters

Rajvinder Singh, D. N. Kamat, Balwant Kumar, Pooja Kumari, Zala Rakesh Govindbhai

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 105-112
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630911

An investigation was undertaken to identify sugarcane clones suitable for the identification of early maturing genotypes for higher sugar yield at Research Farm of DRPCAU, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar in Randomized Block Design with three replications during spring season 2018-19. Variability, correlation, and path analysis in twelve early maturing clones of sugarcane for twenty-one different morphological and juice quality characters were studied in relation to the checks viz. CoLk94184 and CoSe95422. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences for all characters studied. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation was highest for Sugar yield (CCS) at harvest (t/ha) among the early maturing clones. The highest heritability was obtained for Brix at 8-month stage, Pol in juice at 8-month stage and Brix at 10-month stage. Genetic advance as per cent of mean was found to be highest in sugar yield (CCS) at harvest, cane yield and single cane weight indicating effectiveness of selection due to preponderance of additive gene action and breeder may consider these traits as main selection criteria.

##### Three-month Epidemiological Trend of Covid-19 in Nigeria – Rapid Review

K. A. Osakwe, O. C. Menkiti, K. Ukaegbu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630899

Background: Since the confirmation of the index case of Covid-19 on the 27th of February in Nigeria, the spread from Lagos to other parts of the country has been on the climb without a plateau in sight.

Objective: To characterize and present epidemiological trends of Covid-19 pandemic in the first three months of index confirmation in Nigeria.

Methods: A descriptive epidemiological study involving a review of the first three-month Covid-19 situation reports and updates in Nigeria using primary data was analyzed by Spatio-temporal analysis with categorical variables reported in percentages and numbers.

Findings: Retrospective analysis revealed 8344 confirmed cases in 35 of the 36 states (with the federal capital territory inclusive), 249 fatalities, 2385 discharged cases, 48544 laboratory testing, 5710 total active cases, a mortality rate of 0.12 per 100,000 population, and a Case Fatality Rate (CFR) of 3. It further showed an increased number of confirmed cases in densely populated states. Transmission via contact with infected persons accounted for 23% of a confirmed case. Additionally, 17% (circa) of the tested population were confirmed positive.

Conclusion: Causation and spread are attributed to travel and contact risk factors. Early epidemiological patterning occurred along population density and outdoor exposure lines. Aggressive and continuous testing would reveal more cases especially asymptomatic cohorts in the population.

##### Relation of Smoking Parameters to the Quality and Consumer Acceptability of Smoked Mackerel Fish (Scromber scombrus)

A. O. Oyeniyi, T. A. Akinyemi, A. F. Bankole, J. O. Olaniyan, Y. M. Oluroye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 19-24
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630900

The effects of heat sources (oven, charcoal and stove) on roasted mackerel fish was investigated on proximate composition and sensory evaluation of roasted mackerel fish (Scromber scombrus). The fish sample was thawed, cut, eviscerated, washed with brine solution and roasted at a temperature of 75°C for 5 hours using oven, charcoal and stove as heat sources. Minor variations were obtained in crude protein, ash, fat, moisture and crude fibre contents amongst the roasted fish samples, while significant variation (p<0.05)was observed between the raw and roasted samples. The nutritive value of roasted fish improved as a result of the smoking process. In all the treated samples, the percentage of total protein, lipid and ash contents increased due to water loss during smoking. High value of ash was seen in experimental charcoal and stove heat sourced fish (15.86 & 14.56% respectively). Protein was retained better in oven sourced (49.17%) fish more than other sources used. The result of the sensory evaluation shows clearly that there was no significant difference in the level of acceptability of the three samples. The mean scores showed that all the characteristics of the products were moderately liked. Mean scores for overall acceptability indicates that the products were generally well accepted. Although the oven heated sample was more acceptable than other heat sources.

##### The Electromagnetic Field Representation of the Quantum Mechanics

Wei-Xing Xu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 25-28
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630901

In this work a new representation of quantum mechanics, that is, the electromagnetic field representation, is proposed, which is different from the Schr dingers equation and Heisenbergs Matrix. It is pointed out that even though the results from Schr dingers equation, Heisenbergs Matrix and electromagnetic field representation in describing the quantum system are the same, the principles and procedures in describing the quantum system are totally different. The further result regarding the application of the electromagnetic field representation of quantum mechanics to different atomic and molecular systems will be presented later.

##### Genetic Variability Assessment in Lowland Rice Cultivars of Bihar, India

Nitesh Kushwaha, Ravi Kant, Rajesh Kumar, Nilanjaya ., Digvijay Singh, Ruchika Chhaya, Naincy Sinha, Tushar Arun Mohanty

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 39-46
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630903

The present investigation for various genetic parameters was done for twenty-two lowland rice genotypes in R.C.B.D. with three replications at Rice Breeding Section, Pusa Farm, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences (P-value =0.01) among genotypes for all the characters. Brasali was the highest yielder suggesting that it can be used for crossing programme for improvement in yield. The phenotypic variance was higher than corresponding genotypic variances for all the characters studied. Genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were highest for grain yield per plant followed by1000 grain weight, plant height, number of panicles, root volume, leaf length and days to 50 % flowering revealing that sufficient variability was present in the gene pool for these characters. Thus, there is ample scope for genetic improvement of these traits through selection. The broad sense heritability ranged from 23 % (panicle length of main axis) to 97% (1000 grain weight). High heritability was obtained for most of the characters except for panicle length of main axis and kernel width. High heritability accompanied with high genetic advance as percent of mean was recorded for days to 50% flowering, plant height, root volume, number of panicles, 1000 grain weight, leaf length and grain yield per plant. High values of GCV, PCV, heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean observed for various characters indicate that these traits can be used as selection indices for yield improvement.

##### Genetic Variability and Divergence Studies on Yield under Delayed Sowing Conditions in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

S. Vanisri, V. Ishwrya Laxmi, K. Charles Wesly, B. Priyanka, M. Sreedhar, Srikant Rahul

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 47-60
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630904

Timely sowing is a critical factor in realizing the yield as it ensures the vegetative growth to crop up during a period of satisfactory temperatures and fits the cultivar maturity length and growing season. In the present investigation, 38 cold tolerant rice genotypes were studied under delayed sowing conditions at College Farm, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad. The genotypes were evaluated for yield attributing traits with a view of understanding the extent of variability and diversity present among the genotypes that could be suitable for delayed sowing conditions with cold tolerance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated significant differences for all the characters with high genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) values for tillers per plant, spikelet fertility, filled grains per panicle and seed yield per plant. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of the mean was observed for plant height, spikelet fertility, filled grains per panicle with higher variability indicating the presence of fixable gene action which may suggest a reliable crop improvement through selection of these traits. As association analysis could help the breeder to design selection strategies to improve grain yield, correlation studies were carried out which revealed the trait to be having positive relation with all the traits except panicle exertion and panicle length. Path coefficient analysis showed all the traits except panicle exertion and test weight to be exhibiting a direct positive effect on yield, selection for which should be emphasized on these positively associated traits for yield enhancement. Principal component analysis and D2 analysis together determined plant height, grain yield, panicle exertion, panicle length and yield per plant having higher contributions to the total variability, which could be taken into consideration in rice breeding programmes for further improvement in production.

##### Impact of Cluster Front Line Demonstrations in Diversification of Chickpea with Safflower Variety ISF-764 in Rainfed Black Soils of Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh

M. Jayalakshmi, G. Prasad Babu, B. H. Chaithanya, M. Mahadevaiah, B. Vijayabhinandana

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 61-69
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630905

The productivity of chickpea has declined considerably during the last three years in rainfed black soils of western part of Kurnool district due to the aberrations in the rainfall pattern, high cost of cultivation, pest & disease incidence and wild deer problem. To overcome these production constraints Cluster Frontline Demonstrations in safflower played major role with introduction of new safflower variety ISF-764.Cluster Frontline Demonstrations were conducted in safflower in 30ha area in 2017-18 and 40 ha in 2018-19 by Krishi Vigyan Kendra Banavasi. ISF-764 (T3 demonstration) performed better even in dry spell conditions compared to chickpea .Cost of cultivation in both ISF -764 (demonstration) and PBNS-12 (T2check) was low (18,300 Rs/ha) compared to chick pea (35,500 Rs/ha) variety JG-11(T3farmers Practice). Chickpea equivalent yields of safflower was 1339 and 803 (kg/ha) in demonstration and check and 720 kg/ha in farmers practice with 86 and 11.6 % improvement in yield. Extension gap for ISF 764 and PBNS-12 were 619 & 83 kg/ha respectively. The technology index was lowest in ISF-764 (21.8) as compared toPBNS-12 (57.12) and JG -11 (58 .8) which indicates the highest feasibility of the demonstrated technology. The net returns (37,950 Rs/ha) and benefit cost ratio (3.07) were highest in ISF -764. Hence Safflower variety, ISF 764 is highly suitable for rainfed black soils of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh.

##### Study on Contribution of Genetic and Environment to Perceptual Cognitive Skills of Twins

Annu ., Bimla Dhanda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 70-76
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630906

The contribution of genetic was ranging from 50-65% in the variations of perceptual cognitive skills of twins. The current twin study design elucidated the contribution of genetic and environment to a wide range of perceptual cognitive skills. To conduct twin study, 100 pairs of twins from two districts namely; Bhiwani (N = 90) and Hisar (N = 110) of Haryana State were taken. Genetic and environmental influences were assessed in twin study design. The perceptual cognitive skills of twins were measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children- Revised (WISC-R). Heritability estimate was used to examine the genes contributed to shape the cognitive skills of twins. The result of heritability estimates revealed that the heritability estimates of perceptual cognitive skills namely picture completion, picture arrangement, block design and object assembly in Bhiwani district were 63%, 57%, 61% and 60% and in Hisar district were 54%, 52%, 58% and 56% respectively. The findings clearly elucidated that the perceptual cognitive skills were more influenced by genetic background than the environmental factors. The monozygotic twins were more correlated in their general cognitive abilities than the dizygotic twins.

##### Evaluation of Pre Released Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes under Different Sowing Dates in Rainy Season

D. Anil, Sreedhar Siddi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 77-84
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630907

Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the pre released rice genotypes under different sowing windows on clay soils of agricultural research station, Kunaram, Telangana state, India during two consecutive rainy seasons of 2018 and 2019.The experiment was laid out in strip plot design with three replications. The treatments comprised of three sowing dates i.e. 20thJune, 5thJuly and 20thJuly in horizontal factor and four genotypes i.e. KNM 733, RNR 15048, KNM 1638 and KNM 118 in vertical factor. The pooled data results indicated that, among the genotypes the genotype KNM 1638 sown on 5th July recorded maximum growth parameters and highest grain yield (7455 kg ha-1) and followed by sown on 20th June. In respect of economics of treatment combinations, the highest net returns (Rs.75,326 ha-1), gross returns (Rs.1,35,326 ha-1) and B:C (2.26) ratio were obtained when rice crop was sown during 5th July with the  genotype KNM1638 and followed by sown on 20th June with the  genotype KNM 1638.

##### Transforming Agriculture and Tea Garden: The Impact on Farm Women Engagement

Monirul Haque, S. K. Acharya, Kabita Mondal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 85-92
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630908

Aims: To study the relationship between the women farmers' engagement in the transformed tea gardens from conventional farming practices with various socio-economic exogenous variables, their socio-economic condition, economic vulnerability, and empowerment.

Study Design:  The locale was selected by the purposive sampling technique and the respondents following such transformation in their farming practices are selected by the random sampling method.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out during the year of 2018-19. The place, three blocks namely Falakata Block, Madarihat Block, and Alipurduar-1 of Alipurduar District of West Bengal of India were selected for the study.

Methodology: In this present study sixty respondents following such transformation in their farming practices have been selected by both purposive and random sampling techniques to study the farm women's engagement in transformed tea gardens as the consequent character in terms of various exogenous variables. Then the numerical data is collected, passed through the data normalization process, and then put them into multivariate analysis. The gathered data had been put into multivariate analysis (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences V20.0 (SPSS) of IBM and OPSTAT were used for analyzing the Coefficient of Correlation, Stepwise Regression, and Path Analysis).

Results: The study reveals that the mean change in land under cultivation (x6), mean change in average garden size (x7), mean change in total income (x8) and ratio of pesticides use (x10) variables have been found to exert strong and determining the contribution to this transformational process.

Conclusion: The study had revealed the emergence of small tea gardens help in the empowerment of the women as well as increasing the demand of women labours in the transformed farming sector, which improve the overall status of the tea garden workers.

##### Studying Yield and Water Productivity of Maize at Enhanced Level of Temperature Using DSSAT 4.7.5

B. A. Lone, A. Fayaz, S. Qayoom, N. A. Dar, Z. A. Dar, P. Singh, S. Kumar, Faisal Rasool, Najmah Andrabi, Nighat Mushtaq

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 93-104
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630909

Climate variability has been and continues to be, the principal source of fluctuations in global food production in countries of the developing world and is of serious concern. Agriculture, with its allied sectors, is unquestionably are highly dependent on weather conditions, any weather aberrations cause atmospheric and other forms of stress and in turn, will increase the vulnerability of these farmers to economic losses. Process-based models use simplified functions to express the interactions between crop growth and the major environmental factors that affect crops (i.e., climate, soils, and management), and many have been used in climate impact assessments. The climatic scenario from A1B scenario 2011-2090 extracted from PRECIS run shows that overall maximum and minimum temperature increase by 5.39°C (±1.76) and 5.08°C (±1.37). A decrease of about 20 quintals was recorded when maximum temperature was enhanced by +4°C and about 10 quintals decreased at +2°C. Enhancement of minimum temperature by +3°C shows a decrease of about 16 quintals in tops weight. Combination of both minimum and maximum temperature remarkably decreased grain yield at (maximum & minimum +2°C) up to 25.41%. Max. temperature lead to staggering in the irrigation water productivity, however, a consistant increase in the irrigation water productivity was realised with an increase in minimum temperature. Dry matter productivity of 50 kg DM /ha/mm [ET] was observed with the increase of 1°C in both Max. and Min. temperatures and  the lowest value of (16.7 kg DM /ha/mm[ET]) was recorded when the crop is supposed to grow at enhanced level maximum temperature by +4°C both maximum and minimum temperature. Increase in the both max and minimum temperature by +1°C lead to maximum irrigation water productivity of 22.4 (kg[yield]/ha/mm[irrig]) and the lowest irrigation water productivity of 16.7 (kg[yield]/ha/mm[irrig]) was registerd when both max. as well as min. temp. was raised by +4°C minimum temperature.

##### Impact of Training Programmes of KVKs in Terms of Adoption of Technologies: A Gender Analysis

Sulekha ., Amit Kumar, Prakash Chandra, Dileep Gupta, Manoj Kumar, Prem Nath, Kamlesh Kumar Yadav

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 113-120
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630912

The present study was conducted to determine the impact of training programmes of KrishiVigyan Kendra’s (KVKs-Farm Science Centres) in terms of adoption of technologies as a result gender analysis. This study was undertaken with a view on 200 respondents selected by random sampling technique from four KVKs i.e. western (Bhiwani and Fatehabad) and eastern (Rohtak and Jhajjar) zones of Haryana in India. Out of total 29 areas in which both male and female respondents attended trainings, female participation was more in three areas of trainings i.e. value addition,  processing and cooking and cutting and tailoring whereas in rest all of the trainings male participation was more. In case of eastern zone KVKs, 35.0 and 23.0 per cent male and female respondents were partial followed by no adoption (12.0% male and 14.0% female) and full (12.0% and 4.0%) adoption of technologies. Pooled data revealed that 31.5 and 25.0 per cent male and female had partial followed by no (11.0% male and 13.5% female) and full adoption (15.5 % male and 3.5% female) of demonstrated technologies.

##### Improving the Efficiency of Ammonium Acetate Extraction of Soil Potassium by Saturation Extract Method

T. Chaitanya, G. Padmaja, P. C. Rao

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 121-136
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630913

The K-status in soils and its availability to plants has close relationship with field capacity or saturated conditions. Hence, there is a need to know the available K status through saturation extract and other parameters governing K-availability which bears close relation to normal field situation under which plants are grown. To improve the efficiency of ammonium acetate method by saturation extract method, saturation extract parameters were studied in vegetable growing soils of Ranga Reddy and Mahaboobnagar districts of Telangana and are correlated with forms of potassium, soil physical and chemical properties to know the importance of these parameters in release and availability of K to plants. The saturation extract obtained from the soils was analysed for available potassium and Ca + Mg values. Different parameters of the saturation extract viz., CRK, BCK and USQI factor were calculated to know the availability of potassium to plants. Results of correlation between BCK and USQI with exchangeable and non exchangeable K showed that these parameters influence the release and availability of K to plants and also the correlation with soil characteristics clearly indicate that the  quantity factor Kam, KL and intensity factors PBCK, BCK  are important to assess available K status. These parameters derived from K extracted by NN NH4OAc and concentration ratio of K in the saturation extract of soil i.e. BCK and USQI factor served as better indices for assessing the K supplying status of soils than K extracted by different chemical methods.

##### Ethnobotany, Phytochemical, Pharmacological Potentials of Murraya koenigii, and Its Health Benefits – A Review

Priyanka Goyal, Rohit Chhabra, Lavanya Vij

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 29-38
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2630902

Murraya koenigii, also widely known as curry leaves and curry patta, is a noticeably significant plant recognized all around the world for its tremendous therapeutic, medicinal worth and characteristic aromatic properties. It is one of the major export commodities originated from east and southern part of India bringing good foreign revenue. This review article is designed to assess and compile all the currently available literature on ethnobotanical aspects and phytochemical, pharmacological potentials of M. koenigii. Morphologically, it is a semi deciduous small shrub or aromatic shrub having slender but strong woody stem with branches covered with grey bark. The whole plant of M. koenigii viz., as stem, leaf, fruits, root and seeds have been accounted to have anti-oxidant, anti-fungal, anti-candidal, anti-bacterial, anti-hypersensitive and various biological properties. It is also additionally used in hormonal therapy in traditional medicines as a dysenteric, blood purifier, diuretic, febrifuge, hair tonic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-diarrheal. M. koenigii oil is said to have massive impact in the pharmaceuticals and in aromatherapy enterprises as a powerful ingredient. Many researchers have worked on all parts of M. koenigii, from roots, stem, leaves up its bark. This review is an attempt to summarize all the diverse literature available so as to compile a reliable review article on M. koenigii providing detailed information on therapeutic potential, health benefits and pharmacological applications of the plant.