Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancement of Genetic Variability for Yield and Component Traits through Recombination followed by Induced Mutagenesis in Greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]

Prasanta Kumar Majhi, Suma C. Mogali, L. S. Abhisheka

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530886

Aim: Greengram is a self-pollinated crop which show very less variability to develop improved varieties through only hybridization or induced mutation breeding. Therefore, we have taken a new pace to create more variability by combining both recombinations with induced mutation through gamma rays irradiation. For this purpose, the F2 seeds were irradiated with gamma rays at BARC, Mumbai and sown to grow the F2M1 generation and subsequently the superior mutant lines with high degree variability with high GCV and genetic advances were selected from F2M2 generation of the mutant population.

Methodology: The present investigation was carried out during kharif-2017 and rabi-summer 2017-18 at the experimental plot, All India Coordinated Research Projects (AICRP) on MULLaRP, main Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. The experiment was laid out in an augmented design.

Results: The mutant progenies obtained from the crosses DGGV-2 × IPM-410-3 and DGGV-2 × SML-1815 in F2M2 generation have shown high PCV and GCV for the characters like plant height, number of clusters per plant and number of seeds per pod etc. when irradiated with 100 kR gamma rays. The mutant breeding lines derived from the crosses DGGV-7 × V-02-709 and DGGV-7 × V-02-802 with irradiation dose of 20 kR, have shown higher number of pods per cluster and higher number of pods per plant with high heritability. More variability was observed with higher dose (100 kR) of mutation even though it showed higher mortality rate.

Conclusion: Irradiation of F2 progeny (DGGV-2 × SML-1815) with 100 kR has generated more genetic variability for seed yield per plant (10.8 g), when compared to the check DGGV-2 (4.7 g) and SML-1815 (9.8 g). So, priority should be given to those characters which are having high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent mean to get better selection gains. The breeding lines which showed higher degree of variability can be utilized in the future breeding programme for development of high yielding genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Opportunities and Constraints Faced by the Rural Shital Pati Weaver for Sustainable Livelihood

Biman Maity, Tarun Kumar Das, Victor Sarkar, Kshouni Das, Ankur Adhikary, Kausik Pradhan, Bablu Ganguly

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 85-90
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530888

The migration of villagers is very much predominant in developing country like India in search of the remunerative enterprise. At present, many farmers are not satisfied with their agriculture production.  The villagers struggle to get rid of subsistence livelihood. The shital pati / cool mat weaving is to be one of the potential enterprises for sustainable livelihood generation in the Cooch Behar district of West Bengal. In this perspective, the study was conducted in Dholuabari, Deochorai, Barokodali, Dhalpal villages of Cooch Behar district in West Bengal in December 2019 to January 2020 know the perception of cool mat weaver related to cool mat weaving entrepreneurship. Randomly 100 respondents who were engaged in cool mat production were selected for the study, and from each village 25, of respondents are taken. An interview schedule was designed to collect the primary information where secondary data were collected from panchayat pradhan, mediators, literature, research papers and internet. The study revealed that many farmers were engaged in this enterprise to get more remuneration from secondary agriculture and thereby improve their socio-economic status in a sustainable way.

Open Access Original Research Article

Calibration Validation and Evaluation of CERES Maize Model under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir, Using DSSAT 4.7

Asma Fayaz, B. Ahmad Lone, . Shilpa, Sameera Qayoom, N. A. Dar, Z. A. Dar, Faisal Rasool, Sandeep Kumar, N. S. Khuroo, P. Singh, Najma Andrabi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530883

Field experiments were conducted at Shalimar Campus of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir during 2015 and 2016 to study the growth and yield of maize at different planting dates and Nitrogen levels with further simulating Maize growth and yield at different agro-ecological zones (altitudes) of Kashmir valley at fixed dates with varied nitrogen levels and at fixed nitrogen level with varied dates of sowing. Experiment was laid in split plot design with three dates of sowing i.e. 22nd May, 30th May and 8th June assigned to main plot and four levels of nitrogen i.e. 80 kg N ha-1 (N1), 120 kg N ha-1(N2), 160 kg N ha-1 (N3) and 200 kg N ha-1 assigned to sub plot. Genetic coefficients of maize crop variety (Shalimar Maize composite-4) were generated for calibrated and validation of CERES Maize model using DSSAT 4.5. Simulation was carried out for different dates of sowing viz, 1st May, 10th May, 22nd May, 30th May, 8th June, 20th June and 30th June at same fertility levels of 160 kg N ha-1, 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 30 kg K2O ha-1 for all the locations. Simulated studies carried at different locations indicated that sowing of Maize on 30th May (D2) with 200 kg N ha-1 (N4) predicted highest grain yield in location Kokernag which was followed by location Srinagar on same date 30th May (D2) with 160 kg N ha-1(N3) and lowest yield was recorded in district Kupwara. Maximum Biological yield was also recorded at 30th May with 160 kg N ha-1 (N3). Among the district Kokernag recorded maximum biological yield with delayed maturity (160 days) simulation studies were carried out with 7 dates of sowing at fixed level of Nitrogen in all the districts. Simulated studies of maize showed that sowing on 30th May with 160 kg N ha-1 (N3) recorded maximum LAI, Biological yield and grain yield. However, highest grain yield was recorded with location Kokernag and lowest was recorded with location Kupwara.

Open Access Original Research Article

Auditing and Analysis of Energy Consumption of a Hostel Building

B. S. Madhusudan, Sreeharsha Vandavasi, B. S. Nataraja, G. Gopi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 8-18
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530884

The Energy Auditing is the key to the utilization which balance out the circumstance of energy crisis by providing the conservation schemes. The accompanying paper has been set up so as to encourage our comprehension of the energy consumption pattern of the Residence of hostel building in Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Trichy. In the hostel, most of the energy usage spent on enlightenment and cooking purpose by the means of electricity and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). The accompanying paper presents the identification of zones of energy wastage and estimation of energy sparing potential in the hostel which has been made by walk-through energy Audit. Likewise, a detailed examination of data gathered is done by recommending cost-effective measures to improve the efficiency of energy use. Estimation of implementation costs and payback periods for each recommended action has been made. Based on the analysis of auditing exercise, some recommendations were suggested to reduce the electric energy consumptions which can reach up to 49.8%. The LPG for cooking can be partially reduced by implementing a steam cooking system in the hostel. The results will be beneficial for the operation and maintenance team to manage electrical and LPG usage and reduce the hostel overall expenditure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rapid Assessment of Mosquito Larvae Distribution in Three Micro Habitats in Port Harcourt Metropolis Using Geospatial Methods

Nwabuoku Omoye, Onwuteaka John, Ebere Nwabueze, Okeke Nnaemeka

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 19-37
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530885

The technique of Geographic Information System (GIS) was used in the rapid assessment of the abundance and distribution of mosquito larvae in three micro habitats (stagnant drainage, transient puddles and transient water in tyre) in Port-Harcourt metropolis in 2018. Mosquito larvae were collected over a period of four months in 7 zones (21 stations), reared to adult stage; identified up to species level and their abundance recorded. A total of 830 mosquito larvae were caught, belonging to three genera and five species. A GIS mapping showed a spatial variation in the abundance of the five species of mosquito which varied significantly, Culex quinquefasciatus had the highest mean abundance (15.5), followed by Anopheles gambiae (10.3), Aedes aegypti (7.5), Aedes albopictus (4.42) and Culex tigripes (2.41). Mosquito larvae species abundance was highest in stagnant drainage (51%), followed by transient puddles (30%) and then transient water in tyre (19%). All the mosquito genera have the capacity to occur as the only species within the microhabitats chosen for this study even as the microhabitats are in different landuse classes. Culex and the Anopheles genera occurred together in combinations as dominants and co-dominants within two (stagnant drainage and transient puddles) out of the three microhabitats. Aedes genus occurred insignificantly in combination with Anopheles only in the water-in-tyre microhabitat and with Culex and Anopheles in transient puddle microhabitat.

A GIS modeling based on maximum Anopheles mosquito flight distance (9km) was used to develop a surface hazard model of mosquito infestation. Spatial results produced individual hazard assessments from different cardinal points. Combined results of the individual hazard assessments confirmed a composite multi-hazard risk assessment where the distribution of risk was not based on the environmental attributes of the land use class. Provided the potential capacity to predict the health vulnerability of the population within each composite hazard class. This study offer insight on the promising nature of GIS-based models in a data scarce environment to help in a meaningful way extrapolate evidence-based mitigation planning and resource allocation in mosquito control programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Remanufacturing Aided Upgrading of Universal Testing Machine through Sustainability Assessment Modeling

Ziyad Tariq Abdullah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 49-84
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530887

Aims: Study sustainability of Remanufacturing Aided Upgrading of Universal Testing Machine Business.

Study Design: Sustainability assessment criteria are elicited, unified, normalized and weighted to find the mean global weights of economic, environmental, social, management and technical measures of sustainability.

Place and Duration of Study: Middle Technical University, Institute of Technology-Baghdad, Mechanical Techniques Department, between January 2020 and August 2020.

Methodology: Remanufacturing Aided Upgrading experience is used to project the suitable literature comparatively to construct sustainability assessment model. Remanufacturing Aided Upgrading are reviewed and modified to accommodate new changes that accompany the current case study.

Decision making for selection of remanufactured alternatives and remanufacturing alternative in field of machine tools remanufacturing is reviewed. Experience in field of machine tool remanufacturing is exploited to remodeling of existence models to optimize a remanufactured lathe into CNC machine case study.

Results: Remanufacturing Aided Upgrading of Universal Testing Machine can encounter four phases of upgradability so that Universal Testing Machine can be divided into:

1- Analog Display Universal Testing Machine

2- Digital Display Universal Testing Machine

3- Computer Display Universal Testing Machine

4- Electro-Hydraulic Servo Control Universal Testing Machine

Such classification cannot fulfill structural analysis to study sustainability through prospective of remanufacturing added upgradability so structural analysis is required to be applied. Structural analysis can show that mechanical structure and hydraulic sub-systems are developing slightly through these four phases so they are remanufacturing oriented while control and data acquisition system encounters dramatically changes so that Universal Testing Machines are classified based on their specifications in control and data acquisition. According to Remanufacturing Aided Upgrading based sustainability prospective, Universal Testing Machine components can be classified into :-

1- Remanufacturing Aided Upgrading based design components

2- Remanufacturing based design components

3- Upgrading based design components

4- General purposes based design components

Assessment matrices are of consistent weights with an error due to ambiguity, inexactness subjectivity, impreciseness and vagueness to an extent in some joints of the problem statement which requires future research.

Conclusion: Literature based analysis and experience based analysis can be used to develop alternatives based analysis to elicit potentials to apply Remanufacturing Aided Upgrading of Universal Testing Machine to develop sustainable business. Technically, remanufacturing is the viable to be followed by economic and environment viabilities. There is a need to enhance the social and management viabilities because they are low. Assessment based classification lead to that Universal Testing Machine can be divided into:

1- Remanufacturing based Design Components which include Upper Cross Head, Moveable Cross Head, Lead Screws, Driving Sub-system, Upper Cross Head and Table Alignment Columns, Table, Machine Base Foundation, Hydraulic Cylinder and Hydraulic Pump.

2- Remanufacturing Aided Upgrading based Design components which include Load Control Valve, hydraulic oil returning valve and Pump Electrical Motor.

3- Upgrading based Design components which include Analog Display, Pendulum Load Cell, Elongation Translation Mechanism, Pressure Sensor, Load Cell, Encoder, Extensometer, Data Acquisition Card, Data Acquisition-Control Card, Computer Display Data Acquisition Software and Computer Display Data Acquisition-Control Software.

4- General purposes based design components which include piping system, Upper Cross Head Grips and Moveable Cross Head Grip.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis for ‘Yield Contributing’ Traits in Quality Protein Maize (Zea mays L.)

Digvijay Singh, Ajay Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Satish Kumar Singh, Nitesh Kushwaha, Tushar Arun Mohanty

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 91-99
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530889

Character association studies will help to assess the relationship among the yield and its components for enhancing the usefulness of the selection. In view of this, the present research work was carried out to assess the correlation coefficient and path analysis among twenty five maize genotypes using eleven quantitative parameters. Correlation studies indicated that plant height (cm), ear height (cm), ear length (cm), ear girth (cm), number of kernel rows per ear, number of kernels per row showed significant positive association with grain yield (Kg/ha) as well as among themselves at phenotypic and genotypic level. Hence, selection for any one of these characters would bring in simultaneous improvement of other characters and also finally improvement in grain yield (kg/ha). Path coefficient analysis revealed that the highest positive direct effects on grain yield  was exhibited by days to 75% tasseling, ear length, days to 75% brown husk, ear height and ear girth. Therefore, present investigation could be helpful in a reliable selection of parental lines based on the above given traits as well as for the development of high yielding verities for further breeding programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Based on Agro-Morphological Traits

Tushar Arun Mohanty, Umesh Kumar Singh, Satish Kumar Singh, Digvijay Singh, Nitesh Kushwaha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 100-107
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530890

Genetic divergence among parents is of paramount importance in selecting them for hybridization programme for crop improvement. Genetic divergence was assessed among 30 sesame genotypes which were evaluated in RBD with an objective to classify and understand the nature and magnitude of genetic diversity with regard to grain yield, yield components and quality traits using Mahalanobis D2 statistics. The genotypes differed significantly regarding the characters studied and displayed marked divergence and were grouped into four clusters following Tocher’s method. Cluster I had twenty-seven genotypes while the Cluster II, cluster III and cluster IV were monogenotypic comprised only one genotype each. The oil content exhibited maximum contribution towards divergence. The  maximum inter  cluster  distance  was  recorded  between  cluster  III  and  IV (2717.76) followed by cluster I and IV (1760.59), cluster II and III (991.96), cluster I and II (695.67), cluster I and III (637.32) and cluster II and IV (584.59) indicating the chances of getting high yielding recombinants would be better if the crosses are made among the genotypes of these groups under timely sown condition. The genotypes in cluster III and cluster IV, due to maximum inter cluster distance between them, exhibited high degree of genetic diversity and thus may be utilized under inter varietal hybridization programme (transgressive breeding) for getting high yielding recombinants. The analysis of divergence indicated significant differences among parental lines for all the agro-morphological characters. Based on results obtained in the present investigation, it is concluded that the allelic diversity can be used for future breeding program. The traits under study are largely associated with each other and should be taken into consideration either simultaneously or alone for selecting a high yielding sesame genotype.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Variation in Photosynthetically Active Radiation Interception and Radiation Use Efficiency in Green Gram [Vigna radiata (L.)Wilczek] in Lower Gangetic Plain of India

Shrabani Basu, Pramiti K. Chakraborty, Rajib Nath

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 108-125
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530891

Aim: The present study was conducted for identifying sowing windows and cultivars of green gram in spring – summer and rainy seasons depending on light interception pattern and photo synthetically active radiation use efficiency (PARUE) in the lower Gangetic Plains of Eastern India.

Methodology: Five green gram varieties (V1, V2, V3, V4 and V5) were sown on four dates (D1, D2, D3 and D4) in the spring –summer season starting from 15th February and on three dates (D1, D2 and D3) in the rainy season, starting from 20th August at interval of 10 days. Cumulative intercepted PAR (CIPAR), PARUE for above ground biomass and green gram seed and the seed yield were measured. The experiments were conducted under strip –plot design.

Results: Results showed that CIPAR increased gradually in both the seasons under different dates of sowing. The mean PARUE for above ground biomass were 3.97, 4.58, 3.18 and 2.64 gMJ-1 for D1, D2, D3 and D4 sowings during spring – summer season. In rainy season the same was declined from 8.67 to 3.73 g MJ-1 with the delay in sowing. Maximum seed yield was obtained under D2 and V3 in the spring –summer and under D1 and V5 in the rainy season. The mean PARUE for seed yield were 0.65 and 0.64 g MJ-1 and 0.40 and 0.42 g MJ-1 in the spring summer seasons of 2011 and 2012 respectively. In the rainy season the maximum PARUE were 0.91 and 0.55 g MJ-1 under D1 for two experimental years.

Conclusion: Depending on PARUE Pant Mung – 5 and Mehashould be sown during 3rd week of February and August in this zone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Microwave Heating Parameters on Physical Properties of Extracted Oil from Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

Sachin ., Vijay Kumar Singh, M. K. Garg, Amarjit Kalra, Sushant Bhardwaj, Parveen ., Rajender Kumar, Yadvika ., Sunil Kumar, Nitin Kumar, Arun Kumar Attkan, Anil Panghal, Deepak Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 126-136
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530892

In the study, essential oil extraction from turmeric was carried out using modified microwave distillation system and rotary evaporator unit. In present study, effect of input parameters i.e. microwave power (200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 W) and extraction time (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min.) on physical properties (oil yield, specific gravity, refractive index and colour) of essential oil were studied. Fixed ratio samples (1:1:1) i.e. turmeric powder, solvent and distilled water was used during the experiment conducted. Essential oil yield using hexane varied from 1.895% to 4.973% while from 0.180% to 1.226% using petroleum ether solvents. Quality parameters varied i.e. specific gravity from 0.910 to 0.923, refractive index from1.478 to 1.506, colour values for oil ranges L* from 70.60 to 98.60, a* from –25.60 to 15.1 and b* from 82.1 to 88.5. Optimum values of process parameters for maximum oil recovery (4.973%) and best quality of oil (specific gravity: 0.915; refractive index: 1.485) was found at microwave power 300 W and extraction time 20 min.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Nitrogen Management in Yield, Uptake and Quality Parameters of Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) under Red Lateritic Soils of Odisha

Subhashree Behera, Gayatri Sahu, Poonam Preeti Pradhan, Gour Hari Santra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 137-142
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530893

The present study was conducted in research plots of Central Horticultural Research station (CHES) during Rabi season 2018-2019 on integrated nitrogen management in chilli under red lateritic soils of Odisha to study the effect of different combination of nitrogen sources on yield, uptake, quality parameters and economics on chilli crop. The field experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design comprising of eight treatments replicated thrice. It was observed that the substitution of N through vermicompost to the extent of 50% and remaining 50% as urea proved to be considered as the best treatment amongst different combinations of organic sources with urea (RDF). The highest yield of chilli i.e. both pod yield (14511.4 kg ha-1) and stover yield (901.05 kg ha-1) and uptake of nitrogen by pod (122.31 kg ha-1) and stover (8.72 kg ha-1) were observed in T5 due to combination of 50% of N as urea and 50% of N as VC. The highest B: C ratio was found to be highest in T2 (100% of N through RDF). Regarding the quality parameters of chilli like oleoresin, capsaicin, ascorbic acid and protein content were also found highest in T5. Integrated use of organic manures along with chemical fertilizers not only produced highest and sustainable crop yields but also enhanced the efficiency of added fertilizers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Compressed Stabilised Earth Blocks with Rice Husk Ash

P. Asha, K. Johnson, C. M. Sachin, V. Vetrivel, E. Prasanna

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 143-153
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530894

This study investigated the feasibility of using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) as a partial replacement of cement in the stabilization of clay soil for the production of compressed earth blocks. Varying levels of percentage replacement of cement with rice husk ash in range of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 12.5% was used. From the compressive strength test results, compressive strengths of 2.07 MPa, 1.64 MPa, 1.74 MPa, 1.90 MPa and 1.50 MPa were obtained for blocks admixed with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 12.5% respectively. Water absorption was found to increase steadily with increase in percent of rice husk ash and value is 8.55% for the block with 12.5% RHA.  Unit weight of blocks decreased with increase in percent of rice husk ash.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sustainability Modeling of Conventional Milling Machine Remanufactured CNC Machine Tool Upgraded

Ziyad Tariq Abdullah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 197-224
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530897

Aims: Accelerated developments of CNC machines will let huge amount of milling machines to be out of date. To cope with such problem conventional milling machines can be upgrading by using what is called emerged technology which is of attributes of:

  • The same performance of new machines can be obtained in like-new form remanufactured CNC milling machine.
  • Economic feasibility can be certain.
  • Various purposes can be satisfied include education, training and industry.
  • Efficiency and accuracy requirements can be within limits of customer expectations.
  • Sustainability assessment approach that contains feasibilities of technology, economic and environment modeling for conventional milling into CNC machine tool remanufacturing.

Study Design: Literature is surveyed for specifying criteria of feasibilities of technology, economic and environment modeling. Mathematical sub-models are confirmed based on comparative literature based analysis to be used to find the values of indexes of assessment feasibilities within insights of experience based analysis. Feasibilities which are selected to conduct sustainability assessment of remanufacturing processes include sub-feasibility of:-

  • Easy of disassembly sub-feasibility: As low as the time of disassembly, the higher the index of criterion and the easier disassembly.
  • Sub-feasibility of cleaning: As easy as the cleaning process, the lower the index value of criterion.
  • Sub-feasibility of inspection and sorting: As low as the time of inspection and sorting, the higher the index of criterion and the easier inspection and sorting.
  • Sub-feasibility of upgradability: As high as the accuracy of remanufactured milling into CNC machine tool, the higher the index value of criterion.
  • Easy of reassembly sub-feasibility: As low as the time of reassembly, the higher the index value of criterion and the easier reassembly.
  • Sub-feasibility of tack-back cost: It is net price of conventional milling machine to be remanufactured into CNC machine tool.
  • Sub-feasibility of remanufacturing process cost of: It is expense of purchasing replacing parts, material resource consumption and electrical energy consumption.
  • Sub-feasibility of overhead cost: Operating expense to keep continues machine tool remanufacturing business.
  • Material saving sub-feasibility: It is the mass of reused components.
  • Energy saving sub-feasibility: It is the ratio of consumed energy to embodied energy as a result of preventing manufacturing processes by remanufacturing.
  • Pollution reduction sub-feasibility: It is embodied emissions reduction as a result of preventing manufacturing processes by remanufacturing.

Place and Duration of Study: Middle Technical University, Institute of Technology-Baghdad, Mechanical Techniques Department, between February 2020 and July 2020.

Methodology: Study methodology includes the following outlines:-

  • Literature survey.
  • Comparative literature based assessment application.
  • Experience based analysis application.
  • Isolation of indices
  • Weighting of indexes
  • Sustainability Index calculation

Results: Comparative literature based analysis and experience based analysis are used to find the indexes of sub-feasibilities where assessment feasibilities can be calculated through multiplication of index weight by weight of importance. Three evaluation results are calculated to assess the performance of sustainability where index value of (70%) can refer to that conventional milling machine is of high innovative contribution potentials to deliver sustainable solution of CNC machine tool remanufacturing.

Conclusion: Technology, Economic and environment are of good evaluation indexes and conventional milling into CNC machine tool remanufacturing is directed toward sustainability.

Open Access Review Article

Sustaining Crop Production in Rainfed Areas in India: Issues and Strategies

Raj Singh, Anchal Dass, V. K. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 154-173
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530895

The Agriculture sector plays an important role in the Indian Economy. Besides assuring the food grain security to nearly 1350 million (m) human population and fodder security to 512.05 m livestock population of the country, it contributes about 16% of total GDP, 12.5% of total export, and provides employment to over 50% total workforce of the country. Owing to the introduction of improved production technologies, expansion of irrigation facilities, increase the use of synthetic inputs, popularization of the technologies, implementation of policies for the agricultural development and greater investment in agricultural sector, food grain output in the country increased from 51.8 million tons (m.t) in 1950-51 to 285.01 m t in 2018-19. The growth rate of food grain production for the period between 2010-11 and 2017-18 was almost double the population growth rate. Despite the overwhelming growth in food grain production, market size, availability of improved production technologies and being the front ranking producer of many crops in the world, Indian agriculture is still facing several challenges, which are severely affecting its performance, income, employment and livelihood of the farmers. Rainfed agriculture in India occupies the largest area and the value of the produce in the world. It accounts for nearly 52% of the total net cultivated area of the country. Rainfed agriculture must play an important role in food security and sustainability of livelihoods because almost 40% human and 60% livestock population of the country depend on it. But, it is And characterized by unstable yield, dominance of marginal and small operational holdings, occurrence of frequent drought, low income, and lack of regular employment, food insecurity, out migration, malnutrition and poor socio-economic status of the inhabitants of the rainfed regions. In the era of globalization, transformation of subsistence agriculture to commercial agriculture coupled with increase of income higher per unit area is the need of the day to sustain the people’s livelihood in the rainfed regions. Efficient use of rainwater and soil moisture, adoption of improved production technologies of crop production, alternate land use systems (ALUS), integrated farming systems (IFSs), conservation of natural resources and better access to markets are of prime importance not only for enhancing crop production, income and employment, but also to sustain the livelihoods of the farmers under variable climatic condition of the rainfed regions. Hence, efforts have been made to discuss the constraints and improved production technologies, which can be effective to realize higher crop productivity and income from the rainfed agriculture in India.

Open Access Review Article

Brassinosteroids: A Multifunctional Phytohormone of Plant Development and Stress Responses

Jannela Praveena, Satyanarayan Dash, Laxmipreeya Behera, Gyana Ranjan Rout

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 174-196
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2530896

Brassinosteroids (BRs) act as immune-modulators for generating plant growth and development. It regulated either activation or suppression of various key enzymatic reactions, activation of synthesis of protein, and generation of various defense modulating compounds for the plant kingdom. BRs play a vital role in regulating cellular differentiation, pollen development, fruit ripening, and quality seed formation.   BRs regulates the various physiological process including root growth during nutrient deficiency such as nitrogen, phosphorus, boron and tends to signal the nutrient distribution in the rhizosphere level for better growth and high yield in crop plants. This review highlighted the role of BRs in plant growth and development and stress response, understanding the BR pathway, the molecular mechanism of BR signaling in various tissues, crosstalk between BRs and other phytohormones, gene involves in the brassinosteroids signaling pathway, biosynthesis and  role of  BRs  in  biomass production and crop yield.