Open Access Method Article

Application of Weighted Fuzzy Time Series Model to Forecast Epidemic Injuries

Hala Ahmed Abdul- Moneim

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 79-90
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430875

Aims: It is important to predict the amount of COVID-19 injuries. Since the first suspected case of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) on December 1st, 2019, in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, a total of 40,235 confirmed cases and 909 deaths have been reported in China up to February 10, 2020, evoking fear locally and internationally. Here, based on the large amounts of daily publicly available epidemiological data and the need to make an accurate prediction of future behavior requires the definition of powerful and effective techniques capable of inferring random dependency between the past and the future from observations. In this paper, we apply a rewarding model to predict injuries in areas where COVID-19 is, especially in the Arab region. This forecast uses epidemic injuries data from   March 2nd, 2020 to   July 20th, 2020 in Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: We propose the use of weighted fuzzy time series techniques (WFTS) and weighted non-stationary fuzzy time series techniques (WNSFTS) to be compared with the classical Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) statistical method. The available data is not a stationary and should therefore be converted first to stationary to forecast it with (ARIMA) and (WFTS) techniques. We do a log transform and differencing on our injuries dataset.

Results: When we examine the original data by Dickey-Fuller Test (DFT) to get p-value, we find it is equal to 0.646, it is more than 0.05 which implies the non-stationarity. The mean square error (MSE), the root mean square error (RMSE) and normalization root mean square error (NRMSE), are applied to compare the accuracy of the methods. The results show that WFTS methods give good services for predicting epidemic injuries in the territory by COVID-19.

Conclusion: The use of Weighted Non Stationary Fuzzy Time Series (WNSFTS) in forecasting epidemic injuries problem can provide significantly better results because it is able to predict the infected cases at the next time and achieve great predictive accuracy.

Open Access Minireview Article

Influence of Different Times of Planting on Seed Attributes of Gaillardia pulchella Foug. Local Cultivars

A. Nikhila Vaagdevi, T. Suresh Kumar, P. Prasanth, A. Kiran Kumar, A. Kiran Kumar, N. Sunil

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430872

The present research was conducted during September 2018 to June 2019 at Floricultural Research Station, Hyderabad, India to examine the influence of different times of planting on seed attributes in Gaillardia pulchella local cultivars. The experimental design is Factorial Randomized Block Design comprising of two cultivars namely Local yellow (C1) and Local red (with yellow tip) (C2) and five times of planting namely, 1st week of October (T1), 1st week of November (T2), 1st week of December (T3), 1st week of January(T4) and 1st week of February (T5) with three replications. The plot size is 2×2m with spacing followed is 30 × 45 cm. The results revealed that, maximum number of seeds/inflorescence was recorded with T1 (1st week of October) and minimum with T2 (1st week of November). T4 (1st week of January) recorded maximum seed yield /hectare, seed yield/plot and seed yield/plant and minimum in T2 (1st week of November). Germination percentage was recorded maximum with T1 (1st week of October) and minimum with T5 (1st week of February). Among cultivars, significant variation was observed in germination percentage. C1 (local yellow) showed higher germination % than C2 (local red with yellow tip). Interaction effect between cultivars and different planting times was non-significant in all the characters. Hence, it can be concluded that the cultivars namely Local yellow and Local red (with yellow tip) performed well with respect to seed yield. T4 (1st week of January) gave higher seed yield among different planting times and could be the best time of planting for seed production in Gaillardia pulchella.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Passive-Passive Combination Tillage Implements Suitable for Mini-Tractor

T. Mahesh Babu, A. Ashok Kumar, K. V. S. Rami Reddy, H. V. Hema Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430868

Indian agriculture account for nearly 14.2% of the gross domestic product and involves over 58.2% of population. The biggest challenge before the agriculture sector of India is to meet the growing demands of food for its increasing population from 1.21 billion in the year 2011 to 1.6 billion by the year 2050. Since the cultivated area has remained nearly constant (142 Mha) over the years, the only option to increase food production is to increase the productivity of land. The developed combination tillage implement comprises of two passive tillage implement one as front passive tillage implements and other as second passive tillage implement. In case of passive implements, power losses are more at tire-soil interface and also a considerable weight is required on drive wheels of tractor to provide necessary traction that results into detrimental soil compaction. The developed tillage implements were evaluated under actual field condition at different depth and operating speeds. The tillage performance parameters such as draft force, fuel consumption, wheel slip, power requirement was measured. A digital dynamometer was used for measurement of draft force of the tillage implement at different operating depths under field evaluation. The draw bar power requirement of the combination tillage implement was calculated. During field evaluation it was observed that the draft force of the cultivator with disc harrow (C-DH) found to vary from 190 to 220 kgf. The power requirement of combination tillage implement was observed as, 5.32, 9.866, 18.48 and 2.42, 6.3, 3, 7.7 and 0.46, 1.7, 3.5 kW at forward speed of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 km h-1, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Character Association Studies in Lowland Rice Cultivars of Bihar

Nitesh Kushwaha, Ravi Kant, Rajesh Kumar, .` Nilanjaya, Digvijay Singh, Ruchika Chhaya, Naincy Sinha, Tushar Arun Mohanty

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 31-39
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430870

The present investigation was carried out with aim to deduce the association among different characters with grain yield, i.e. their mutual relation with help of correlation analysis as well as to identify the component trait which are directly or indirectly contributing to the yield. The experiment was carried out at Rice Breeding Section, Pusa, Samastipur in kharif, 2018 from June, 26 to December 28. Total of twenty-two lowland rice accessions were sown in Randomized complete Block design Fashion (R.C.B.D.), with three replications. Fifteen characters including grain yield were observed for the experiment and data was collected at respective stages. The correlation coefficient analysis revealed that grain length, root volume, panicle length of main axis, number of panicles per hill, showed positive significant correlation with grain yield per plant. Hence, emphasis should be given to these traits in selection process during yield improvement programs. Grain length, root volume, panicle length of main axis and leaf length showed high direct effect on grain yield per plant. Hence, selection based on these characters would be more effective for yield improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimum Time of Pollination and Number of Fruit Pickings and Its Effect on Seed Yield in CGMS Based Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) Hybrid

Neha Thakur, S. N. Vasudevan, S. R. Doddagoudar, B. V. Tembhurne, Sangeeta I. Macha, M. G. Patil

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 40-44
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430871

This study proposed standardization of best time of pollination and stage of picking fruits in newly released chilli CGMS hybrid. As optimum pollination time can result in better fruit set and thus produce seeds with superior yield. Another purpose of conducting the experiment was selection of a fruit picking stage that positively influence the seed yield parameters as under matured or over matured fruits often cause losses. In present investigation during kharif season of  2016 and 2017stigma of A line (male sterile line) was pollinated at six different times with pollens from R line (male fertile/restorer line) starting from 9 am to 5 pm. Fruits labeled with different coloured threads were harvested 60 days after pollination in three different pickings. Pollination time 10 to 11 am yielded hybrid with higher fruit set (40 %), dry fruit weight (1.50g), seed weight per fruit (0.451 g), number of seeds per fruit (76) and test weight (6.26 g) as compared to late afternoon timings. Also second picking fruits were better in these seed yield parameters when compared to early and late pickings. The interaction effect was also significant for these two objectives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Fertility Status, Nutrient Uptake and Productivity of Marigold (Tagetes erecta Linn.) as Influenced by Fertilizer Doses and Plant Growth Regulators

Nilay Borah, J. Deka, N. C. Deka, I. C. Barua, B. K. Saud, Kaushik Das, Kankana Deka, Kasturi Goswami

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 53-65
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430873

Aims: A field experiment was conducted to evaluate soil fertility status, nutrient uptake, growth and yield of African marigold (Tagetes erecta Linn.) as influenced by fertilizer management with or without foliar spray of plant growth promoting chemicals.

Study Design: The field experiment was conducted with eight treatments, each being replicated thrice in a randomized block design (RBD).

Place and Duration of Study: Instructional cum research (ICR) farm, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam (India), between September 2013 and January 2015.

Methodology: The treatments comprised of an unfertilized plot, application of 2500 kg ha-1 vermicompost at planting followed by 10 kg ha-1 each of N, P2O5 and K2O in two equal splits at the time of planting and at 30 days after planting (DAP), 2500 kg ha-1 vermicompost as mixture with fertilizer (comlizer) 10:10:10 kg ha-1 (Comlizer-1) or 30:10:30 kg ha-1 (Comlizer-2) of N, P2O5 and K2O, respectively applied in two splits (planting and at 30 DAP). Each comlizer treatment had two supplementary treatments of spraying either vermiwash solution (10% on second and third weeks and 20% solution on fourth and fifth weeks after planting) or indole butyric acid (IBA) and kinetin mixture (IBA-kinetin) solution (0.01% each on second and third weeks and 0.02% each on fourth and fifth weeks after planting), respectively.

Results: The soil pH, organic carbon and available phosphorous contents after harvest of the crop were not affected by the treatments. The available nitrogen content in soil significantly increased in comlizer-2, but the available potassium content was not affected by the fertilizer doses. The NH4-N and NO3-N in soil at 15 and 45 DAP increased significantly with application of comlizer-2. Phosphorous and potassium uptake by aerial biomass of marigold at 21 and 42 days after planting significantly increased in Comlizer-2, but the effect of foliar spray was not significant. The highest fresh flower yield was produced by application of Comlizer-2 with foliar spray of vermiwash, and differed significantly to the rest of the treatments.

Conclusion: Application of mineral fertilizers as mixture with vermicompost and integrated with foliar spray of growth regulators showed promising results. Further works with higher doses of nutrient and compost, frequency and intensity of foliar application of growth regulators are required to develop cost effective nutrient management practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study and Analytical Modeling of the Influence of Technological and Geometric Parameters on the Performance of Ga0:67In0:33P=GaAs=Ga0:70In0:30As Tri-junction Photovoltaic Solar Cells

N. Ndorere, B. Kounouhewa, M.B. Agbomahena

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 66-78
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430874

In the context of global energy consumption, the production of photovoltaic solar energy remains very low. One solution to this problem is to use multi-junction solar cells with high efficiency. Efforts are being made to increase the efficiency of solar cells and reduce their cost of production. In order to optimize the performance of multi-junction solar cells, this paper presents an analytical model allowing to study and model the influence of technological and geometric parameters on the performance of tri-junction solar cells Ga0:67In0:33P=GaAs=Ga0:70In0:30As. These parameters are the thickness, doping and Gap energy of the three sub-cells making up the tri-junction solar structure. The thicknesses and doping of the emitters (bases) of the sub-cells are varied and chosen in order to optimize the efficiency of the Trijunction Solar Cell (TJSC) Ga0:67In0:33P=GaAs=Ga0:70In0:30As. The one hand, the base doping (emitter) is selected so as to minimize the dark current and the other hand,to reduce the resistive losses in this region. As for the thickness, it is chosen so as to minimize the recombination phenomena. The simulation results show that for a given thickness, the sub-cell efficiencies have maximums which evolve with the increase in doping. If the doping of the base (or emitter) of the sub-cells increases, there follows a proportional increase in the efficiency. In addition, when the optimal doping and thickness of the bases (or emitters) are reached, above these, they can vary over a wide range without considerably modifying the efficiency of the solar cell. This point about the tolerance ranges is very important for the practical realization of Photovoltaic solar cell structures. These results also show that the optimal performance of the Tri-junction Solar Cell are obtained for the relatively low thicknesses of the bases (or emitters) (100nm-700nm) with high doping values
(Nb = 8e + 18cm

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Oral Hygiene Knowledge and Practice among Secondary School Students in Owerri Municipal Area, Imo State, Nigeria

Samuel Chinonyerem Okoronkwo, Sally N. O. Ibe, Peter Chidiebere Okorie, Bright Ugochukwu, Chikanma Nwachukwu, Chidinma L. Amuneke

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 91-101
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430876

Aim: The aim of this study were to assess the oral hygiene knowledge and practice among secondary school students in Owerri Municipal Area, Imo State, Nigeria.

Study Design: This study employed a descriptive survey design.

Place and Duration of Study: This study were carried out in Secondary Schools in Owerri Municipality, Imo State, Nigeria within September 2014 and June 2015. 

Methodology: Data were collected using structural pretested questionnaire administered to 500 randomly selected consenting respondents (students) with 251 female and 249 male students. Data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially using SPSS version 20. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance and data generated were subjected to percentage findings presented by the use of tables.

Results: The results affirmed that 84% of the respondents had oral hygiene knowledge, 78% were of the opinion that major source of oral hygiene knowledge were parents/guardians, and 20% of the respondents acquiring information through their school teachers. It was noted that 44% of the respondents had good oral hygiene practices in Secondary School in Owerri Municipal Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The result of the statistical analyses shows that there was a significant relationship (342.624; P = .001) between the age of the students and the knowledge of oral hygiene, there was significant relationship (337.910; P = .001) between major source of oral hygiene information and the knowledge of oral hygiene and there was a significant relationship (390.988; P = .001) between major source of oral hygiene information and the practice of oral hygiene. The study therefore provided information on oral hygiene knowledge and practice in secondary school in Owerri Municipal Area, Imo State, Nigeria.

Conclusion: It can be recommended to Students/Parents/Government and School Teachers to embrace the idea that oral diseases can be prevented or mitigated by individual action of daily brushing and other oral hygiene related practices to pervert the negative oral health consequences.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dominance Hierarchies, Diversity and Spatial Connect of Crops in Banana Based High Range Home Gardens

M. Nithish Babu, Allan Thomas, Usha C. Thomas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 102-107
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430877

Home gardens are a time tested food production system which can be projected as a promise to the future to mitigate the issues related to the global food security crisis. The home gardens in Kerala are an integral part of the rich tradition which impart a dominant role in livelihood security of the people. The diversity profile of traditional homegardens of high range area and its spatial patterns were investigated in the present study revealed that a mean Shannon and Wiener diversity index (H) of 2.185 was recorded which denoted a dwindling trend in species diversity in banana based high range home gardens of Idukki. An appraisal of the diversity of crops revealed that the highest diversity was recorded in spices (H=1.425) and was on par with fruit crops (H=1.339) whereas lowest was noted on fodder crops (H= 0.054) followed by medicinal plants (H=0.197). Furthermore, the mean total diversity index exhibited a positive significant correlation with the total area of the home garden with a correlation coefficient of 0.621 which signified the importance of spatial dimensions in determining the diversity profile of the home gardens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Genetic Diversity in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) CMS Lines for High out Crossing Potential and Quality Traits

Kasanaboina Krishna, Y. Chandra Mohan, V. Gouri Shankar, Ch. V. Durga Rani, L. Krishna

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 108-115
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430878

In the present study genetic diversity among 40 rice genotypes was evaluated using Mahalanobis D2 statistic based on morphological markers. Based on cluster analysis, the germplasms were grouped into 4 clusters of which Cluster I comprising of 23 genotypes was the largest group followed by the cluster II comprising of 15 genotypes, the clusters III and IV were represented by single genotype indicating high degree of heterogeneity among the genotypes. Maximum intra cluster distance observed in cluster II is (146.8) followed by cluster I (112.9) indicating the existence of variability among the genotypes within these clusters. The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster IV and III (606.5), While the lowest was noticed between cluster II and III (222.9), describing that the genotypes included in these clusters were closely related. The kernel length, kernel length after cooking, kernel breadth, gel consistency, days to 50% flowering and plant height together contributed 90.1% towards total divergence. Therefore, these characters should be given importance during hybridization and selection of segregating populations. The genotypes falling in different clusters with the high mean for grain yield and other component characters can be utilized for the hybridization programme to obtain elite segregants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey on Seed Sources and Quality Seed Availability in Telangana Districts

Kona Prabhavathi, K. Kanakadurga, T. Pradeep, R. G. S. Rao

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 116-122
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430879

Our study was conducted to understand the significance of existing seed systems and extent of seed availability of major crops viz., paddy, maize (cereals); red gram (pulses); and cotton (commercial crops) in 4 major agrarian districts (Mahbubnagar, Karimnagar, Warangal and Nalgonda) of Telangana state. There is a striking influence of seed source on the productivity & profitability of farmers, and hence, our study was aimed at understanding the nature and extent of seed quality parameters like genetic identity, genetic purity and seed health contributing to gross output of the crop. Our survey conducted during 2 Kharif & 2 Rabi seasons during 2017 to 2019 brought out interesting facts that formal sector contributes 96 to 100% of seed replacement rate (SRR) for commercial crops, 70 to 90% for cereals, 75 to 100% for pulses and negligible in case of oilseeds. The reasons for highest contribution of formal sector are due to prevalent seed subsidy schemes and also, availability of good quality seeds. The informal supply of seed majorly involves farmer to farmer exchange and farm saved seeds which is a major source of seeds to resource poor farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Some Operational Computation for Intuitionistic or Pythagorean Fuzzy Set Using C-Programming

Jwngsar Moshahary

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 123-132
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430880

Intuitionistic or pythagorean fuzzy sets are the best tools to deal with uncertainty or ambiguity to solve diverse disciplines of application problems. It is often difficult to compute union, intersection, and complements when it comes to a large number of members contained in the set, also it is difficult to check whether it is a subset or not. Here, we used the C-programming language to overcome the problems, and then it is found that more effective and realistic results have been obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Doubling Farmers’ Income through Integrated Farming System Approach in Purba Barddhaman District of West Bengal

F. H. Rahman, D. Ghorai, S. Sarkar, S. S. Kundu, S. Das

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 133-141
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430881

Integration of different enterprises / crop by utilizing farmer’s available resources is one of the best multidisciplinary approaches to boosting farmers’ income from production and economic point of view. In this context, awareness and dissemination of this farming approach are taken as a priority of work with multidisciplinary interventions. One model has been developed on Integrated Farming System Approach in the farmers’ fields on Crop + poultry + fish or Crop + duck + fish in aquatic based production through conducting awareness camp, trainings, trials and demonstrations. This has been developed in the field of one of the farmers namely Shoyeb Hossain, a marginal farmer-cum-rural youth of Jagulipara village in Purba Barddhaman disrict of West Bengal. Although being a rural youth, he has got a pragmatic view towards latest agricultural technologies and he is keen to learn and as such he was chosen for developing the integrated farming system model in his backyard. He owned one pond of 1 bigha with adjoining 1.5 bigha land including bund area. The  pond was mainly used for household purposes like washing with irregular or even no pisciculture while the land area was used for growing seasonal vegetables for meeting  household needs and as a result he was hardly having any meaningful income from the resources. He was extensively trained towards developing the integrated farming system in his backyard which he accomplished with success. To start with he was supplied with tissue cultured banana plantlets, vegetable seedlings, poultry chicks, ducklings and IMC fingerlings. A good banana orchard intercropped with vegetables like chili, tomato, brinjal, turmeric etc. was developed. The model with Crop+ fish + poultry farming has proven more remunerative (Benefit-Cost ratio 2.40) and his earning around Rs. 1,50,000 per annum  from that farm, thus inspiring other farmers to adopt this kind of intervention. Advantageous aspects such as production potentiality, insurance coverage by other crops / enterprise, flow of return motivated farming community as well as district officials. Study on changes in food security indicated that over 4 years there has been augmentation in food security of the respondents. This is due to increase in income owing to adoption of improved technologies and crop diversification. It was revealed that the annual income of the members increased from Rs.15000/-to Rs. 135000in the 4 eastern clusters but that of Galsi cluster ranged between Rs. 10500/- to Rs 82000/-. The income augmentation was positively correlated with the land holding (0.95) size of the respondents. This model has been identified by district MGNREGA and had been taken up in MGNREGA convergence programme which is being replicated in selected 200 ponds recently excavated under the programme in the district. Many workshops have been conducted on the methodologies for these interventions to all the beneficiaries, Self Help Group (SHGs) and officers of line departments involving in the convergence programme of MGNREGA of the district.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Communication Strategies of Fadama User Groups in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

A. S. Amusat, A. O. Fadairo, A. W. Dauda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 142-149
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430882

The success or otherwise of any development project partly depend on the effectiveness of communication strategies used in such project. The study assessed the communication strategies utilised by Fadama User Groups (FUGs) for fadama programme. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 120 members of the Fadama User Groups randomly selected from 10 villages in Ido Local Government which was purposively selected based on the preponderance of Fadama User Groups in the Local Government. The data collected were subjected to descriptive (percentage and frequency ) and inferential (Chi square).Result shows that majority of respondents were male (75.0%), married (95.0%) between the age of  36-40 ( 30.8%) with 66.6% having household size of 1-3 persons and ( 75.0% ) had access to extension services. Majority preferred group discussion (66.7%) and radio (62.5%) as medium of communication. Larger percentage of the respondents (69.2 %) had high access to different communication strategies   in the study area. Language barrier   ( =2.00) and irregular power supply ( =1.50) were the major constraints against effective utilisation of communication strategies used by members of Fadama User Groups. Significant relationship existed between occupation (x2=14.106, p=0.001) and communication strategies of Fadama User Groups in the study area.  It is recommended that members of FUG should be encouraged on the need to sustain the use of different communication strategies to enable them get timely information on modern system of farming.

Open Access Review Article

The Anthropocene Dialogues on Climate Change to Human Health of Homosapiens in India

Siba Prasad Mishra, Saswat Mishra, Mohammad Siddique

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 13-30
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2430869

The Anthropocene has succeeded the 11700 years old Holocene epoch from 1945. Biological annihilation about 6th mass extinction from Holocene to present is well marked but less documented though the human dominance over bio-geo-hydro spheres has been established. IUCN is the footage of the floral/ faunal species from mammals to microorganisms.  Many natural disasters, killer IAS and pandemic viruses are targeting human immune system. The 21st century virulent diseases are the HIV/AIDS, SARS, MERS, Swine flu. Corona viruses are not novice whereas COVID-19 viruses are mutation of old corona viruses. It is necessary to study the COVID-19 as one of the players of the 6th Mass extinction. Present work envisages the 6th mass extinction processes in India from the Holocene to present epoch. There is gradual endangering the aboriginal species, pathogens and viral species. The geospatial extinction process of 1200 years gathered from different sources and synchronized in the India’s time frame. The present outbreak of the killer COVID-19 has triggered threat to very human existence in mid latitudes affecting 5.0 millon and fatalities 325K people over 215 countries and two ships in the globe and 101 thousand confirmed cases and 3.3K people in India (till 20.05.2020).The pandemic has paralyzed the human’s social, economic, political activities and deteriorated world economy since last four months. The viral invasion is geospatially delimiting the climate change, extreme events, economy, sociology and mass immunity of the vibrant urban demography.