Open Access Original Research Article

HPLC Analysis and Antimicrobial Screening of Methanol Extract/Fractions of the Root of Millettia aboensis (Hook.f.) Baker against Streptococcus mutans

Adeniran J. Ikuesan, Eze E. Ajaegbu, Ukachukwu C. Ezeh, Adaobi J. Dieke, Adaora L. Onuora, Florence O. Nduka, Flora N. Ezugworie, Ese S. Izekor, Aduloju A. Tunde, Nneyeneime U. Bassey, Jennifer N. Ewa- Elechi, Juliet O. Nwigwe, Oluwapelumi O. Komolafe

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230835

Millettia aboensis (Hook.f.) Baker belongs to the Leguminosae family, known locally as nduezi in Igbo, erurumesi in Edo, and Òdúdū in Efik. The plant parts have proven to be active against some diseases. The plant was studied for its antimicrobial activity and the phytochemicals present. The plant materials were macerated and fractionated using different extraction methods. The compounds present in the fractions of the stem were detected with the aid of HPLC-DAD. The efficacy of the crude methanol and fractions from the root part was evaluated against Streptococcus mutans. The results showed that the aqueous fraction extract had the highest percentage yield (51.11%), followed by the ethyl acetate (24.10%), butanol (6.63%), and hexane (5.56%), while the methanol extract had a yield of 2.48%. Nine phytochemical compounds were detected from the fractions of the root extract: bis-oxazolidinone derivative – 1, circumdatin F – 2, enniatin B – 3, septicine – 4, orobol 8-C-glucoside – 5, rocaglamide – 6, genistein 6-C-glucoside – 7, 3-phenyl chromen-4-one – 8, and corynesidone D – 9. The methanol extract/fractions of M. aboensis showed no antimicrobial activities on clinical isolates at different concentrations (6.25-50 mg/ml). Based on the poor activity against Strep. mutans, but with promising phytoconstituents present, the extract/fractions need further investigation as regards its utilization against other pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Change Mitigation and Social Sustainability in Agriculture in the Sub Himalaya Region

Tarun Kumar Das, Biman Maity, Kausik Pradhan, Bablu Ganguly

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 12-22
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230836

The present study was conducted in sub-Himalaya region of India where in the two districts of the region such as Cooch Behar and Malda districts are selectively selected for the study. Four blocks in the selected districts were randomly selected. In each block, one village was selected for the study. An exhaustive list of agricultural producers in each village was prepared and from this list, eighty agricultural producers were randomly selected. The data were collected with the help of structure interview schedule through personal interview methods. The climate change aberration in socio-cultural milieu was delineated in terms of mitigation strategy of climate change discourses, the impact of climate change on agricultural production and education is considered as predicted variables and other six nos. of attributes of socio-economic and cognitive attributes of the agricultural producer were considered as predictor variables for the study. Data were processed into statistical tools i.e. frequency, percentage, correlation analysis and regression analysis. It was found that education and farm size are positively and significantly associated with the awareness and knowledge on climate change. Results reveal that the variables farming experience and farm size are negatively and significantly contributing towards the impacts of climate change on education. It was seen that farming experience is negatively and significantly contributing towards impacts of climate change on agricultural production. The finding reveals that 88.75% of the farmers had modified their cropping pattern including the scientific cultivation practices to adapt the impact of climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Kinetics, Mechanism and Effect of Contact Time on the Adsorption of Cadmium and Glyphosate to Alfisol

F. B. Okanlawon, O. A. Okon- Akan, O. A. Adegoke, O. A. Olatunji

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230837

This study was carried out using Alfisol as an adsorbent to adsorb Cadmium and Glyphosate both of which are common inorganic and organic contaminants. The soil samples were air-dried and allowed to pass through 2mm sieve before use while its analysis was done following the standard procedures. The kinetic data were tested with pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models, and it was concluded that both adsorbates adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics, while the nature and the mechanism of adsorption processes were studied by using an intraparticle diffusion model. A complete linear plot of intraparticle diffusion was obtained for glyphosate which suggests that intraparticle diffusion was the rate-controlling step in its adsorption but the opposite is the case for cadmium adsorption. The peak removal of cadmium occurred after 50 minutes with equilibrium attained over 250 minutes while peak glyphosate removal was achieved after 30 minutes. It can be concluded that Alfisol can be effectively used for the adsorption of both Cadmium and Glyphosate thus showcasing a potential environmental remediation process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Carbon Sequestration and Productivity Potential of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Hybrids and Varieties under Coastal Eco-System of Maharashtra

S. L. Ghavale, V. V. Shinde, S. M. Wankhede, H. P. Maheswarappa, P. M. Haldankar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 30-37
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230838

Field experiment was carried out at All India Coordinated Research Project on Palms, Regional Coconut Research Station, Bhatye (DBSKKV, Dapoli), Maharashtra, (India) during the period of 2004-2016 to assess the carbon sequestration and productivity potential of twelve coconut hybrids and three varieties which was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Results showed that the two hybrids viz, GBGD x ECT (127.6 nuts/palm/year) and COD x LCT (108.0 nuts/palm/year) are superior with respect to nut production followed by WCT x MYD (107.6 nuts), ECT x GBGD (106.9 nuts) and the standard variety ‘Pratap’. Furthermore, the coconut orchard substantially contributed towards improving the above and below ground carbon stock. The above ground standing biomass and carbon stock recorded was the highest in the variety East Coast Tall (312 kg/plant and 27.32 t/ha, respectively) followed by hybrid WCT x GBGD (308.69 kg/plant and 27.01 t/ha, respectively) and the lowest was in hybrid MYD x ECT (138.71 kg/plant and 12.14 t/ha, respectively). The highest soil carbon stock 39.12 t/ha and 37.16 t/ha at 0-30 and 31-60 cm depth was recorded in the rhizosphere of hybrid ECT x MYD and the lowest soil carbon stock (35.52 t/ha and 34.71 t/ha) was observed in hybrid PHOT x GBGD.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Key Input for Reducing of Mechanization Cost in Smallholdings: Mini Tractor Drawn Multi Task Toolbar

C. Ramana, N. Rakesh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 38-43
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230839

The present study aims to determine the key input for reducing of mechanization cost in smallholdings: Mini tractor-drawn multi task toolbar. Farm power and mechanization are essential inputs agricultural production system and will raise the labour and land productivity. Inadequate equipment and practices can damage severely natural resources. A focus on only one aspect, primary tillage (or) seeding (or) tilling (or) spraying results in low utilization rate which is not profitable to small holder farmer. Hence the attempt was made and developed "multi-task tool frame" that can house all the components required for a variety of operations such as seeding, fertilizing, weeding, tilling, spraying and transportation thereby reducing investment, operating cost, time and fuel for operation. The use of multi-task tool frame could reduce the cost of sowing and fertilizer application reduced from Rs. 3800/- to Rs. 1674/- per ha through developed machine planting. Moreover, the man hour requirement came down from 152 hour to 3 hours. Combining the spraying and weeding operation found to be good in 1st speed ie 1.8 kmph over the 2nd speed 3.2 kmph. However, the cost of reduction was 71 percent in machine operation when compared to manuel weeding & spraying and 44 percent over independent machine (spraying weeding) operation, moreover and saving in man-days about 48 man days per hectare. Fuel-saving of 8.15 Lha-1 which amounts to 47.8% due to combining the two operations like tilling and spraying compared to independent operations.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relevance of Post Graduation Research in Agricultural Sciences in Selected Indian Universities

Krishna S. Maraddi, Kumaraswamy Hiremath, B. Arunkumar, D. K. Hadinami, N. H. Sunitha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 44-52
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230840

The study was conducted in selected farm universities in Karnataka state namely Raichur, Dharwad and Bangalore Agricultural Universities for the period 2015-16 and 2016-17 to know about the relevance of post graduate research in agricultural sciences. The preferred research areas focused in various subjects of agricultural sciences were categorized and studied the relevance on the major fields of specialization in these farm universities. The results show that among various post-graduation disciplines numerically highest research relevance was observed in agronomy and least relevance was observed in crop physiology. Hence, the study suggests that research areas should be focused on current regions of overall agriculture development and research relevance should be focused on present problems which can address the farming communities about the current pressing agricultural development problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Growing Degree Days on Yield Attributes and Yield of Groundnut

R. Baskaran, V. Karunakaran, A. Kamaraj

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 53-56
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230841

The objective of this study was undertaken to find out the optimum sowing window and the amount of heat units required to change their phonological development for groundnut. An field experiment was conducted at experimental farm of Agricultural College and Research Institute, Eachangkottai during Margazhi pattam 2019. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design. Different morphological indices were observed (plant height, number of branches, dry matter, number of pods) and yield attributes and yield of groundnut VRI-2 was recorded. The heat unit concept of Growing Degree Days also worked out for individual sowing windows. Among the sowing dates, 05.01.2019 recorded essential GDD of 1651.3°C and higher growth attributes, yield attributes and yield (2370 kg ha-1).

Open Access Original Research Article

To Workout Nutrigenetic Traits for Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. by Absorption/Assimilation for Determining Growth and Development for Identifying Parental Breeds for Future Breeding during Spring Season under Subtropical Region of North West India

S. Murali, Sardar Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 57-70
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230843

Study was conducted for screening and evaluation of selected breed’s for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds under Subtropical condition of North Western India based on the breeds which shows less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient bivoltine silkworm breeds selected from different regions of our country. Highly significant differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of bivoltine silkworm breeds in the study. The nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency for conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index for selection of highly promising breeds. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the bivoltine silkworm breeds on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell were shortlisted during spring season. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index, eight bivoltine silkworm breeds (B.con 1, B.con 4, BHR 2, ATR 16, BHR 3, CSR 50, RSJ 14 and NB4D2) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion and can be utilized for further breeding programme. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Best Fit Probability Distribution Model for Wind Speed Data for Different Sites of Burkina Faso

Drissa Boro, Ky Thierry, Florent P. Kieno, Joseph Bathiebo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 71-83
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230845

In order to estimate the power output of a wind turbine, optimise its sizing and forecast the economic rate of return and risks of a wind energy project, wind speed distribution modelling is crucial. For which, Weibull distribution is considered as one of the most acceptable model. However, this distribution does not fit certain wind speed regimes. The objective of this study is to model the frequency distribution of the three-hourly wind speed at ten sites of Burkina Faso. In this context, we compared the accuracy of five distributions (Weibull, Hybrid Weibull, Rayleigh, Gamma and inverse Gaussian) which gave satisfactory results in this field. The maximum likelihood method was used to fit the distributions to the measured data. According to the statistical analysis tools (the coefficient of determination and the root mean square error), it was found that the Weibull distribution is most suited to the Bobo, Dédougou, Ouaga and Ouahigouya sites. On the other hand, for the sites of Bogandé, Fada and Po, the hybrid Weibull distribution is the most suitable one. As to the inverse Gaussian distribution, it is the most suitable for the Boromo, Dori and Gaoua sites. In addition, the analysis focused on comparing the mean absolute error of the annual wind power density estimation using the distributions examined. The Hybrid Weibull distribution was found to have a minimal mean absolute error for most study sites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Soil Management Techniques on Ecological Integrity and Sustainable Apple Growing in Kashmir Valley

Munib Ur Rehman, Barkat Hussain Bhat, Umar Iqbal Waida, Zubair Ahmad Tak, Syed Shujat

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 84-91
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230846

An experiment was conducted to study the role of soil mechanization on ecological integrity and yield attributes in apple cultivation. In the experiment, soil management techniques were applied on low density apple orchards (Red delicious/ seedling) continuously for four years in the tree rows and the drive allays, and results were obtained at the end of 4th year in 2017. The experiment was constructed under following design: NT) no-tillage with multi –species ground cover moved twice during growing season; MT) Reduced tillage with two ploughings a year (20-25 cm deep) one at the sowing time of intercrop (mustard) during November-December and second after harvesting the intercrop during May; and CT) Four ploughings (20-25 cm deep) in a year with no grass or cover crop. Treatment effects were compared using one-way analysis of varience (ANOVA), and to separate means, Tukey multiple comparisons were used. Results claimed that soil nesting bees, which are valuable pollinators and benefit growers in the form of readily available pollination services, were abundantly found in undisturbed soils (NT) and also enhanced fruit yield (fruit set, fruit retention, seed content and fruit weight). Earth worm saturation, soil moisture conservation and organic carbon content were better maintained under this soil management practice.  Maximum available soil nitrogen (198.35 kg/ha) and phosphorus (62.63 kg/ha) were also obtained under NT conditions. Moreover, in case of mustard intercropped plots, although the bee abundance was good but fruit yield recorded was low.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morpho-Molecular Diversity Analysis of Local Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes Using Microsatellite Markers

S. K. Singh, Charupriya Singh, Mounika Korada, Sonali Habde, D. K. Singh, Amrutlal Khaire, Prasanta Kumar Majhi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 92-104
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230847

Aim: The knowledge of genetic diversity and relationship among the genotypes play a significant role for genetic enhancement in breeding programmes to increase production, improve quality, biotic and abiotic stresses, and also for the selection of superior parental lines in rice. The present field experiment was conducted to study the diversity present in 29 local genotypes of rice using both morphological and molecular ways.

Methodology: The experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, Banaras Hindu University, during Kharif-2017 in an augmented block design with 29 rice genotypes including 3 checks. Mahalanobis’ D2 analysis was carried out to assess the morphological diversity present among the genotypes and molecular analysis was done with 21 polymorphic SSR markers using the NTSYSpc software.

Results: Mahalanobis’ D2 grouped the 29 genotypes into 6 clusters based on the inter-se genetic distance. The highest intra-cluster distance was recorded in the Cluster I (32.73), which comprised of 7 genotypes. The highest inter-cluster distance (65.86) was observed between Clusters IV and V. Molecular diversity analysis grouped the 29 rice genotypes into 2 main clusters i.e. cluster I and cluster II with dissimilarity coefficient of 0.34, which were further divided into sub-clusters. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) value is an evidence of diversity and frequency among the varieties. The level of polymorphism varied from 0.164 to 0.694, with an average 0.521. The highest PIC value was observed for locus RM 5 (0.694) followed by RM 510 (0.692). All the 21 primers showed polymorphism and the number of alleles ranged from 2 to 4 with an average of 3.04. 

Conclusion: This study established the presence of considerable amount of genetic diversity among the genotypes studied, the most diverse genotypes being Anupam gold and HUR-1309 followed by Kalanamak-2 and HUR-1304. Breeders may attempt hybridization among the above genotypes which showed maximum diversity, for creating more variability in rice and can be used for planning further breeding programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Light Intensity on the Morpho-physiological Traits and Grain Yield of Finger Millet

Y. A. Nanja Reddy, K. T. Krishne Gowda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 105-113
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230849

The normal light intensity during monsoon season in rainfed finger millet cultivation regions in particular, Bangalore, is around 1200 uMm-2s-1; the effect of reduction in light intensity on physiological parameters and grain yield of finger millet was studied. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with four light intensity treatments and three varieties in three replications. Each replication had four lines of 1.5 m row length (1.5 m x 1.0 m). The crop was directly sown on 03-08-2007 with the spacing of 22.5 cm between rows and 10 cm between the hills, using three varieties namely, GPU-48 (early maturing variety, 100 days), GPU-28 (medium maturing variety, 110 days), and L-5 (late maturing variety, 120 days). Decreased light intensity at canopy level decreased the leaf area, specific leaf weight, net assimilation rate and biomass production, which resulted in decreased grain yield in all varieties. Mean grain yield decreased by 16.4, 34.7 and 55.7% respectively with 75, 50 and 25% light intensity. Low light intensity decreased the biomass, which is important in regional fodder security. Early maturing variety had lesser percent reduction in grain yield (1.68%) as compared to the medium (9.5%) and late maturing (29.0%) varieties at low light intensity of 75 % natural light. Therefore, the critical lower limit of light intensity could be nearly 1200 uMm-2s-1 for finger millet potential yield. The results obtained in this study also suggests that genotypic variability for low light adaptation of early maturing genotype (GPU-48) can be exploited for intercropping systems in rainfed mango plantations up to 4-5 years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphometric Analysis of Ken River Basin through Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques

Ramesh Verma, Sumit Kumar, Om Prakash Kumar, Gaurav Sharma, Pradeep Kumar Singh Bhadauria

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 122-129
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230851

Management of water resources required assessment of morphometric parameters in order to enhance the capability of understanding the factor which may help to render the impact caused due to high flood due to inadequate water disposal management. In the present study computation of linear, aerial and relief aspects viz., bifurcation ratio, mean bifurcation ratio (Rbm), mean stream length (Lum), stream length ratio (Rl), form factor (Ff), circularity ratio (Rc), stream frequency (Fs), drainage density (Dd), dissection index (Di), ruggedness index (Ri) has been carried out in order evaluate watershed characteristics for soil conservation and watershed management. The basin poses a high flood potential risk due to inadequate drainage and less channel development. The Ken river basin is elongated in shape as indicated by the computation of form factor with comparatively less value. Due to inadequate drainage patterns for safe disposal of surplus water, the vulnerability to water erosion can be considered as a major cause of concern in the Ken river basin. Evaluation of relief aspects suggested the existence of intense flood characteristics within the basin during period of heavy rainfall. Assessment using remote sensing and GIS approach can prove as an effective tool for analyzing properties of basin and for sustainable management of available water resources with exercise of suitable sites selection for development of structure to control runoff and adaptation of conventional methods for water conservation, thus increasing infiltration rate with decreased surface runoff and erosion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Time-Homogeneous Markov Process for Low Birth Weight Progression under Treatment

Michael Fosu Ofori, Stephen Boakye Twum, Osborne A. Y. Jackson

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 130-140
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230852

Background: Low birth weight incidence is quite high in the sub region, which has a public health concern. The weight of a baby at birth has dire consequences on the child as an infant, in childhood and as an adult.

Methods: The aim of this study was to explore and examine the spread and gravity of incidence of low birth weight by using a multi-state model to understand low birth weight progression. This study utilised data by Ghana Statistical Service from Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey conducted in 2011 to monitor progress of children and women.

Results: The multi-state Markov model dealt into the low birth weight transitions and severity under three treatments where transition intensities, transition probabilities and the mean sojourn times were estimated which show that low birth weight children tend to spend less time in bad states than in good states.

Conclusion: Generally, the survival of a low birth weight child in future time decreases from state 1 to state 4, hence treatment must be applied on time.

Open Access Review Article

Critical Review on Cooperative Societies in Agricultural Development in India

Alok K. Sahoo, Sanat K. Meher, Tarak C. Panda, Susrita Sahu, Rukeiya Begum, N. C. Barik

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 114-121
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2230850

Cooperative Societies are grass root organization of group of people united with collective responsibilities to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs which run with philosophy of self-reliance and mutual help. It helps in agricultural development supporting critical inputs supply (seeds, fertilizer, pesticides, credit), storage facilities like Go downs, agro processing facilities and marketing the agro produce.  Since 1904, the cooperative moment took stardom and the five year plans and Government legislation have integrated them into the policies for self-reliant rural growth and development. Agricultural cooperative societies dealing with inputs and credit disbursement, processing cooperatives such as Sugar Cooperatives, Dairy cooperatives etc. flourished with their consumer products whereas KRIBHCO, IFFCO became successful large cooperatives in marketing their fertilizers to their farmer members and outsiders act as a business enterprise. Status of Primary Agricultural Cooperatives Societies (PACS) reveals 19% of total PACS potentially viable, 49% running in profit, 45% small farmers’ borrower from societies. Several challenges like lack of professionalism, lack of infrastructure, political interference, nepotism, unawareness of members, meager shareholding, overdependence on financing agencies for credit, poor recovery are hindering the sustainability of societies. Certain restructuring with policy intervention like reducing state control, increased professionalism, good governance, raising share capital, quality assurance with competitive product & service, multi-purpose support system, will act as vibrant social enterprise with public trust as Government sector initiative  in the locality converged with other agencies.