Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Assessment of Groundwater in the Vicinity of Coir Retting Areas of Kadinamkulam Estuary, South India

Sonu Sasidharan, D. S. Jaya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 118-128
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130830

The present study was conducted in the selected groundwater bodies of the coastal gramapanchayath near Kadinamkulam estuary during the pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons. Kadinamkulam estuary is one of the major coir-retting areas in Kerala. The major objective of the study is to assess the physico- chemical characteristics and hydrogen sulfide pollution of groundwater in the residential areas of Azhoor Gramapanchayath in Thiruvananthapuram district. Surface water samples from selected stations were also collected from the Kadinamkulam estuary. The physico-chemical characteristics of water were analyzed following the standard procedures in APHA (2012). The results show that the recorded values for color, pH, phosphate, calcium, magnesium and hydrogen sulfide were above the permissible limits of drinking water quality standards (Bureau of Indian Standards, 1991; WHO, 1993, 1996). This may be due leaching of effluents from the coir retting activity in the Kadinamkulam estuary and due to the disposal of solid wastes. The study also revealed that the hydrogen sulfide content was high in lake water samples which affect the primary productivity of the water body. The correlation and principal component analysis shows that color is an important parameter and from cluster, analysis it was found that phosphate and hydrogen sulfide content significantly affect the groundwater quality. The study concludes that the groundwater sources in the study area are getting contaminated due to the leaching of pollutants from Kadinamkulam estuary and anthropogenic activities in the nearby residential areas.

Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of Promising Sugarcane Clones in Plant Cane against Natural Infection of Pokkah Boeng Disease

Jalender Porika, Swathi Yellagoni, Eshwara Reddy, Rakesh Gojuri, Swapna Naguri

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 129-134
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130831

Pokkah boeng caused by Fusarium sp is becoming a serious fungal disease on basis of its rapid spread during last few years, posing new threat to sugarcane cultivation. Earlier Pokkah boeng disease was of minor importance but now it has become matter of concern as it is spreading rapidly in sugarcane growing areas having monoculture of single variety. The present investigation entitled “Evaluation of promising sugarcane clones in plant cane against natural infection of pokkah boeng disease” was carried out at Regional Sugarcane and Rice Research station, Rudrur, Nizamabad, Telangana (India) to identify the source of resistance with single series design. Among the ten promising sugarcane clones evaluated in plant cane against Pokkah boeng disease three clones viz., 2014R11, 2010R854 and 83R23 showed resistant reaction.

Open Access Minireview Article

Sustainable Irrigation through Renovation of Pond: A Case Study on Change of Crop Production, Irrigation, Cropping Pattern and Cropping Intensity Level in Sub Himalayan Terai Region of India

Ganesh Das, Sankar Saha, F. H. Rahman, Surajit Sarkar, Sujan Biswas, Sandip Hembram, Prashanta Barman, Samima Sultana, Bikash Roy, Bablu Ganguly

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 7-18
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130818

Terai region of West Bengal fall under high rainfall region but 90% rainfall occurs in kharif season and drought observed during rabi season.  NICRA project started in the Cooch Behar District during 2011. The project area and plan of work were selected on the basis of participatory rural appraisal method. The experimental trial was conducted from 2011 to 2019. The objective of the experiment was to development of sustainable irrigation system through renovation of pond and its impact on crop production. It was found from the study that pond renovation has potential impact on increasing crop yield, cropping intensity, copping system and area of irrigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Financial and Production Constraints faced by Women Entrepreneurs

N. Suganthi, M. Asokhan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130817

Women, who try to enter the field of industry in either managerial or entrepreneurial role, are generally exposed to various constraints. Though the entrepreneurial process is the same for men and women, there are however, in practice, women have to confront many additional problems of varying dimensions and magnitudes, which prevent them from realizing their full potential as entrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs experience multidimensional constraints. The governments at the centre and the states have established a number of specialized institutions to cater to the needs of women entrepreneurs but they still face many problems. At this juncture, the constraints faced by women entrepreneurs were studied as one of the objective. This objective was to ascertain the financial, production and labour constraints faced by women in their enterprise. To achieve the purpose of the study, 40 registered women entrepreneurs in Micro Small and Medium Enterprise (MSME) were identified in Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu. Series of questions were asked through well structured interview schedule. Evidence in the paper shows that the most serious financial constraint faced by women was, that the entire loan was not given at a time (65.00%). In production and labour, most serious constraints faced by women entrepreneurs were labour management in various essential activities (92.5%). Methodology and design not clarified here. No recommendations The ex post - facto type of research was employed. Proportionate Random sample method” was adopted to select the respondents from the four Entrepreneurial Hubs. Women should attend training programs, seminars, workshop and conferences Related to develop professional competencies in managerial, leadership, marketing, financial, production process, profit planning, maintaining books of accounts and other skills.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Heritability and Genetic Advance for Morphological Traits of Indian Mustard Germplasms

Dinesh Awasthi, Vimlesh Kumar Tiwari, V. S. Kandalkar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 39-47
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130820

Genotypic source of variations were significant for all characters in 168 genotypes including 7 checks of Indian mustard at 5% level of significance. Maximum seed yield per plant (g) and harvest index was recorded in MRNJ-82; whereas, the minimum days to 50% flowering and maturity were recorded in RVM-1 and MRNJ-5 respectively. In genotypes viz; MRNJ-36, RVM-2, MRNJ-59, JM-1, MRNJ-53 and MRNJ-35 had maximum plant height (cm), number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of siliqua per plant, number of seeds per siliqua and 1000 seed weight (g). Highest GCV and PCV were recorded for seed yield per plant which indicates for improvement through selection among these genotypes. High heritability along with high genetic advance as percentage of mean has been noticed for seed yield per plant and harvest index indicating less influence of environment and also the presence of additive, dominance and interaction among genes in the expressions of these characters. Low genetic advance along with low heritability estimate were observed for number of primary branches per plant and number of seeds per siliqua. This indicates the involvement of additive and non-additive gene actions in their inheritance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Divulging Satisfaction Levels of Residents for Household Waste Management through Vermicomposting at Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University: A Cross-sectional Exploration

Uday Kumar, Shankar Jha, Sudhanand Prasad Lal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 48-55
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130821

The reduction of household wastes has been a pressing issue and is a key element of waste management programme in India. The goal of present research was to evaluate the ongoing Household Waste Management Practices (HWMPs) of the University in managing the waste generated within it. To realize this goal, researchers conducted survey and investigative study with campus residents on HWMPs being followed in the campus. In this backdrop, the present study was conducted with the following two objectives: To measure the Socio-Personal, Socio-psychological profiles and appraisal of on-site treatment of Household Waste of the Respondents with scientific parsimony and to quantify overall satisfaction level of the respondents as dependent variable. Out of total 750 residential quarters in the university from which 50 household heads of the quarters were selected through ‘probability simple random sampling’. In qualitative methods observation, interviews, open-ended surveys, focus groups and oral history were used. Closely 90 percent of respondents were well acquainted with the fact that collected household wastes are being converted into vermi-compost inside the university campus itself. More than one-fourth of the respondents addressed the problem of throwing garbage around the metallic dustbins. In order to generate statistical information quantitative survey of satisfaction level was done which revealed that more than 80 percent respondent showed their satisfaction for HWMPs. By applying the Pearson chi-square test it was revealed that satisfaction level of the respondents were inclined ‘towards satisfied to fully satisfied’ categories with the chi-square value, i.e. 24.72 was significant at 1% level with P-value of 0.001. So, it can be concluded that residents were satisfied from waste management programme and thus rejecting the framed null hypothesis. So, it can be inferred that this model of waste management may be recommended and replicated throughout the country and abroad.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Gene Action for Grain Micronutrient Content, Yield and Yield Contributing Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Ashutosh Kumar, Avinash Kumar, N. K. Singh, Rajesh Kumar, . Nilanjaya, S. K. Singh, Mithilesh Kumar Singh, Aman Tigga, . Banshidhar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 56-63
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130822

Biofortification of food crops using conventional breeding or biotechnological approach is gaining momentum to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition.  Rice is a nice choice for biofortification of grain iron and zinc content as this is a cheap and chief staple food for millions of peoples world-wide particularly the poor. In present study, generation mean analysis was done to estimate the nature and magnitude of gene effects for grain iron and zinc content in rice cross Khusisoi-RI-Sareku × IR 91175-27-1-3-1-3.  Scaling test and Joint scaling test indicated the influence of epistasis on the expression of yield, its component traits and grain Fe and Zn content and inadequacy of additive-dominance model to explain the variation in different generations. Dominance [h] gene effect was of higher magnitude as compared to additive [d] gene effect for both grain iron and grain zinc content.  Additive × additive, additive × dominance and dominance × dominance component was significant for both grain Fe and Zn content, whereas dominance × dominance component was predominant for both grain Fe and Zn content. Dominance [h] gene effect and dominance × dominance interaction acted in opposite directions, indicating duplicate type of gene action controlling the expression of both grain Fe and grain Zn content which could be a bottleneck to exploit heterosis. Heterosis breeding and recombination breeding with postponement of selection till later generations, could be effective in improving both grain Fe and grain Zn content in rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Soil Nutrient Status According to Global Positioning System in Different Blocks of Birbhum District of West Bengal

Subrata Mandal, Mrinmoy Karmakar, F. H. Rahman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 64-70
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130824

A GPS based soil sampling and testing was done in 10 blocks of Birbhum district under monitoring of Rathindra Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Birbhum during 2018 and 2019. In this regard, some soil chemical properties were analysed through Mridaparikshak (soil testing kit). After statistical analysis, pooled data of different soil nutrients were compared based on GPS to prepare a data base for easy fertiliser recommendation of different crops without soil testing. It was found that soil pH (6.29 to 5.50), soil O.C (0.77 to 0.31%), available K (292.12 to 226.60 kg/ha), available B (0.81 to 0.17 mg/kg)  and available Fe (44.4 to 21.5 mg/kg) had been decreased with the increase in latitude from 23°04' 07.4500" to 24°11' 15.3400" and longitude. Recommendation of more liming, organic manure, K, B may be done accordingly. On the other hand, available N (184.0 to 296.95 kg/ha), available P (15.05 to 62.76 kg/ha), available S (11.43 to 44.52 kg/ha) and available Zn (0.20 to 1.04 mg/kg) showed sharp direct relation with the increase in Latitude as supported by higher CV value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production Potentials of Pearl Millet Based Crop Sequence as Influenced by INM, Dates of Sowing and Fertilizer Levels in Southern Telangana Zone

N. Nalini, K. P. Vani, K. B. Suneetha Devi, P. Surendra Babu, S. Narender Reddy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 92-103
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130827

The experiment was conducted on integrated nutrient management, dates of sowing and fertilizer levels in pearl millet based cropping sequence. The pearl millet crop was sown during kharif and Bengal gram, French bean crops were sown during rabi season as sequence crops to find out remunerative rabi crop for pearl millet based cropping sequence at College Farm, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. The data was analysed in strip-split plot design and results revealed that higher pearl millet equivalent yield (PEY), system productivity and production efficiency were obtained with the mean and pooled data of two years (2014-15 & 2015-16) reveals that residual effect of 100% RDF + press mud @ 2.5 t ha-1 (M3), significantly recorded higher pearl millet equivalent yield as compared to 100% RDF(M1) and 100% RDF + FYM @ 5 t ha-1 (M2), Among the four dates of sowing, D3 (after harvest of July 15th sown pearl millet) significantly recorded higher pearl millet equivalent yield, system productivity and production efficiency and it was on par with D2 (after harvest of June 30th sown pearl millet) followed by D1 (after harvest of June 15th sown pearl millet) and minimum equivalent, system productivity and production efficiency were found with D4 (after harvest of July 30th sown pearl millet). Among the different fertilizer levels, crop fertilized with 100% RDF to bengal gram (S1) and 100% RDF to French bean (S3) resulted in significantly maximum PEY, system productivity and production efficiency compared to 50% RDF in both the pearl millet based rabi crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acquisition and Retention of Knowledge about Animal Feed Technologies in Veterinary Medical Education

. Aparna, S. K. Kansal, Jaspal Hundal, H. K. Verma, Jaswinder Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 104-111
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130828

Aims: An awareness and knowledge retention study w.r.t animal feed technologies was conducted on 115 students of BVSc & AH.

Study Design: It was a pre, post and delayed post test study.

Place of Study: Guru Angad Dev Veterinary &Animal Sciences University Ludhiana India.

Methodology: Ten animal feed technologies were selected for evaluation viz: Mineral mixture (MM), Urea treatment of wheat straw (UTWS), Uromin lick (UL), Silage, Hay, Bypass fat (BF), Bypass protein (BP), Total mixed ration (TMR), Buffer and Probiotics. Students were evaluated for their awareness and knowledge through 50 multiple choice questions at three stages, Pre test: before beginning of Animal Nutrition courses Post test-I: immediately after completion of courses and Post test-II: 6 months after completion of courses.

Results: In Pre test, awareness for Mineral mixture was 19.1 per cent, UTWS 0.9 per cent Silage 19.1 per cent, Hay 20 per cent, Buffers 36.5 per cent and Probiotics 43.5 per cent. None of the students was aware about Uromin lick, BF, Bypass protein and TMR in Pre test. None of the students had knowledge about UTWS, UL, BF, BP and TMR in Pre test (score=0). Awareness and knowledge score raised in Post test-I and declined in Post test-II for all technologies. Mean knowledge score was 0.97/ 50 in Pre test, 38.60 in Post test I and 21.49 in Post test II (statistically significant P<0.01).

Conclusion: Students lost 44.32% knowledge at a gap of six months after its acquisition. At the time of Post test-II students were studying in fourth semester and were going to apply this knowledge after their graduation (3.5 years). By that time the loss of knowledge could be much higher hence retention of knowledge must be focused upon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio Economic Analysis of Broiler Farms in Perambalur District of Tamil Nadu State

M. Kandeeban, S. Praveena, Raj Shravanthi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 112-117
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130829

The study was conducted to identify the socioeconomic status, assess costs and returns of broiler farms in Perambalur District of Tamil Nadu state in India. The primary data were collected from 30 respondents through face to face interview during the period between November 2019 and January 2020. The results of the study revealed that most of the respondents were male belonging to old age category. Majority of the respondents were running broiler business as a main occupation and highly depended on institutional sources of finance. Major share of the respondents were spending higher amount to the input. The farmers were spending their amount for purchasing of lights, roof material, drinker, feeder etc. Government should initiate various schemes for the upliftment of poultry sector. Low cost vaccine and medicines may be provided by the government to the growers which will minimize the variable cost. If all the above suggestions are implemented by the concerned authorities, the broiler farming will move in the right direction and the farmers will get good income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Carbon Stock and Pools in Acid Sulphate Soils of Kerala

R. Gladis, K. R. Dhanya, Biju Joseph, B. Aparna, M. R. Rehana

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 135-147
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130833

A study was conducted to assess the soil carbon storage as different soil carbon pools in acid sulphate soils of Kuttanad, Kerala under different land uses and mapping of carbon stock using GIS. Surface soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected from three agricultural land use systems namely rice, coconut and rice-fish from six acid sulphate soil series viz. Ambalapuzha, Purakkad, Thakazhi, Thuravur, Thottapalli and Kallara and were analysed for soil carbon pools like  organic carbon, labile carbon, water soluble carbon, particulate organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and mineralizable carbon using standard procedures .The carbon stock in soil was also computed  and mapped using Arc GIS  software.  The highest organic carbon content of 9.38% was recorded in Kallara series under rice land use. The water soluble carbon ranged from 44.38 to 208.68 mg kg-1. Labile carbon in soil varied form 4.36 mg g-1 to 13.06 mg g-1. Particulate organic carbon was the highest in rice land use in Kallara series (7.23%). The mineralizable carbon ranged from 2.17 mg kg-1 to 2.91 mg g-1. The microbial biomass carbon varied between 71 mg kg-1 and 488 mg kg-1. The humic acid content varied from 0.20% to 6.09% and the fulvic acid content ranged from 0.09% to 20.10%. The active and passive carbon pools and their contribution to total soil carbon pool was the highest in Kallara series. Among the different land uses, coconut had the highest active pool, while rice land use recorded the highest passive pool of carbon. The soil organic carbon stock (115.96 Mg ha-1)   and carbon pool index (2.10) were the highest in Kallara series. The proportion of POC to SOC was the highest in Kallara series (0.62) under rice land use indicating it as a potential carbon sink. The carbon turnover rate was found to be the highest in Thottapalli series (1.15) under coconut land use indicating it as a potential carbon source.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maturation and Fecundity of Large Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii and Macrobrachium gangeticum in the Ganga River System in India

Suday Prasad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 148-155
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130834

The Ganga is the largest perennial river in India. The prawns’ fishery resources are declining in middle stretch of the river Ganga near Patna. The present paper deals with the maturation and fecundity of large size Macrobrachium species like Macrobrachium gangeticum (Bate) and Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Edwards) were estimated for the period of two years.  Maturity and fecundity of prawn were evaluated according to the size of prawn, ovary and breeding frequency. The initial stage developing ovaries of M. gangeticum were observed small & light yellowish green colour but at stage II to mature gonad of M.  gangeticum were found deep yellow green mass in the carapace, whereas in M. malcolmsonii the developing stage of ovaries was observed large yellowish in colour and matured female gonad were found comparatively in large and deep yellow in the carapace. The gravid females observed long setae at the base of genital aperture and 1- 4 pleopodes in both species. After mating, eggs were transferred by both the female prawn from ovary to brood pouch. Berried prawn M. gangeticum one week old fertilized eggs were looked as yellowish green finally brawn color. Whereas, in M. malcolmsonii, one week fertilized eggs were looked as yellowish-grey then finally changed deep gray. M. gangeticum and M. malcolmsonii female releases of eggs, her ovaries displayed either stage resting or zero characteristics. The species of M. gangeticum possess minimum of 8000 eggs with size 75 mm and the maximum 76,240 eggs with respective size 190 mm, whereas M. malcolmsonii the minimum fecundity observed 8100 eggs with size 75 mm and the maximum fecundity was 81,200 eggs of 190 mm size. The total weights of the eggs per female prawn as well as the mean number of eggs were improved with cumulative length and weight. The breeding frequency of both species were found four times and in first breeding the number of eggs was found slight, but it increased  comparatively in second and third breeding and got decreased  again in fourth breeding.

Open Access Review Article

Mode of Action of Anti-diabetic Phyto-Compounds Present in Traditional Indian Plants: A Review

Divya Jain, Kiran Bains, Neerja Singla

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 19-38
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130819

The traditionally used plants having therapeutically potent phyto-chemicals are known to have a great potential in the treatment of various ailments including the non-communicable ones like obesity, diabetes, hypertension, heart diseases etc. Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder affecting a large number of population worldwide.  Despite the great efforts made to understand and manage this disorder, its prevalence is increasing unabatedly which creates an upsurging demand for some other approach than conventional medicines. The use of many traditional plants with anti-diabetic potential is being considered as an alternate strategy, which is cost-effective and has less side effects. This paper reviews the accumulated literature mainly for five Indian herbs having anti-diabetic activity and their proposed action of mechanism which has been scientifically tested. Phyto-compounds present in medicinal plants like gurmur (Gymnema Sylvestre), cinnamon (Cinnamomum), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), mulberry leaves (Moraceae Plant) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) have shown significant hypoglycemic potential in treating type 2 diabetes through several possible mechanisms. Gymnemic acid in gurmur can inhibit the intestinal glucose absorption, whereas cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon and palmitoleic acid in Sea buckthorn enhances glucose uptake. The compound 1-deoxynojirimycin found in mulberry leaves inhibits the enzymatic activity of α-glucosidase and diosgenin in Fenugreek has a role in the regeneration of pancreatic β-cells, thus showing the mechanism of their anti-diabetic action. The inclusion of these medicinal plants in daily dietaries can be looked upon as an alternate strategy towards controlling and managing blood glucose levels among people with diabetes.

Open Access Review Article

Insights into the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2: Transmission, Genome Composition, Replication, Diagnostics and Therapeutics

Rubi Gupta, Ricky Raj Paswan, Richita Saikia, Basanta Kumar Borah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 71-91
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130825

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2, originated in Wuhan, China in late 2019 has created a massive pandemic; the disease manifested by the virus was named as COVID-19 by World Health Organization. It has appeared as an unprecedented threat against the global health scenario, as well as the world socio-economic-political structure. The infection of the plausibly animate-origin virus, per se, is not dangerous; but its extremely contagious and infectious nature is the major challenge it has posed. In human, the viral receptor is angiotensin converting enzyme-2, which is present in the cellular membranes of multiple vital organs. The virus has different longevity in different contaminated surfaces which are the principal modes of its transmission. No immunity has so far been reported against the virus; however, immuno-compromised individuals are more vulnerable. For its diagnosis, mainly reverse transcription-based diagnosis is presently being used; however, serological diagnosis is still not a regular practice due to several reasons. Multiple public as well as private sector organizations are working towards vaccine development; research for antiviral drugs and drug-repurposing is also in progress. Several candidate vaccines and drugs are now in various levels of clinical trials. Here, we summarize the scientific basis of the pandemic; its diagnosis, treatment and efforts towards therapeutic development. These efforts will prove useful against future emerging and re-emerging human and non-human epidemics as well as pandemics.